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F497.S9P4  r^„..        10-21-76 




No.    of  vols. 

24-24      (rev  4/72) 



i^'M'yVUE  history  of  Summit  County,  after  '.  onths  of  arduous  toil,  is  now  completed. 


(/^p.„  Every  important  field  of  research  has  been  minutely  scanned  by  those  engaged 
'^^''^^^  in  its  preparation;  no  subject  of  universal  public  value  has  been  omitted,  save 
where  protracted  effort  failed  to  secure  trustworthy  results.  The  necessarily  limited  natiu'e 
of  the  work,  the  impossibility  of  ingrafting  upon  its  pages,  the  vast  fund  of  the  county's 
historic  information,  and  the  proper  omission  of  many  valueless  details  and  events,  have 
compelled  the  publishers  to  be  brief  on  all  subjects  presented.  Fully  aware  of  om-  inabil- 
ity to  furnish  a  perfect  history  from  meager  public  documents,  inaccm-ate  private  corre- 
spondence and  numberless  conflicting  traditions,  we  make  no  pretension  of  having  prepared 
a  work  devoid  of  blemish.  Through  the  courtesy  and  the  generous  assistance  met  with 
everywhere,  we  have  been  enabled  to  rescue  fi'om  oblivion  the  greater  portion  of  important 
events  that  have  transpired  in  Summit  County  in  past  years.  We  feel  assured  that  all 
thoughtful  people  ir^  the  county,  at  present  and  in  future,  will  recognize  and  appreciate  the 
importance  of  the  undertaking,  and  the  gi^eat  public  benefit  that  has  been  accomplished. 

It  will  be  observed  that  a  dry  statement  of  fact  has  been  avoided;  and  that  the  rich 
romance  of  border  incident  has  been  woven  in  with  statistical  details,  thus  foiming  an 
attractive  and  graphic  narrative,  and  lending  beauty  to  the  mechanical  execution  of  the 
volume,  and  additional  value  to  it  as  a  work  for  perusal.  We  claim  superior  excellence  in 
our  manner  of  collecting  material;  in  the  division  of  the  subject  matter  into  distinct  and 
appropriate  chapters;  in  giving  a  separate  chapter  to  every  town,  township  and  important 
subject,  and  in  the  systematic  arrangement  of  the  individual  chapters.  ^Tiile  we  acknowl- 
edge the  existence  of  unavoidable  errors,  we  claim  to  have  prepared  a  work  fully  up  to  the 
standard  of  our  promises,  and  as  accui-ate  and  comprehensive  as  could  be  expected  under 

the  circumstances. 


May,  1881. 





PART    I. 


CHAPTER  I. — Introductory — Topography— Geology — Primitive 

Races — Antiquities — Indian  Tribes 11 

CHAPTER  II.— Explorations  in  the  West 19 

CHAPTER  III.— English    Explorations— Traders— French   and 

Indian  War  in  theWest — English  Possession 37 

CHAPTER  IV. — Pontlac's  Conspiracy — Its  Failure — Bouquet's 

Expedition— Occupation  by  the  English 48 

CHAPTER  V. — American  Exploration — Dunmore's  War — Cam- 
paign of  George  Rogers  Clarke — Land  Troubles — Spain  in 
the  Revolution — Murder  of  the  Moravian  Indians 52 

CHAPTER  VI. — American  Occupation — Indian  Claims — Early 
Land  Companies — Compact  of  1787 — Organization  of  the 
Territory — Early  American  Settlements  in  the  Ohio  Val- 
ley— First  Territorial  OflScers — Organization  of  Counties...  60 

CHAPTER  VII.— Indian  War  of  1795— Harmar's  Campaign— 
St.  Clair's  Campaign — Wayne's  Campaign — Close  of  the 
War 73 

CHAPTER  VIII.— Jay's  Treaty— The  Question  of  State  Rights 
and  National  Supremacy — Extension  of  Ohio  Settlements 
— Land  Claims — Spanish  Boundary  Question 79 

CHAPTER  IX. — First  Territorial  Representatives  in  Congress 
— Division  of  the  Territory — Formation  of  States — Mari- 
etta Settlement — Other  Settlements — Settlements  in  the 
Western  Reserve — Settlement  of  the  Central  Valleys — 
Further  Settlements  in  the  Reserve  and  Elsewhere 85 

CHAPTER  X.— Formation  of  the  State  Government— Ohio  a 
State — The  State  Capitals — Legislation — The  "  Sweeping" 
Resolutions 121 

CHAPTER  XI.— The  War  of  1812— Growth  of  the  State— Canal, 
Railroads  and  other  Improvements — Development  of  State 
Resources 127 

CHAPTER  XII.— Mexican  War— Continued  Growth  of  the  State 

—War  of  the  Rebellion— Ohio's  Part  in  the  Conflict 132 

CHAPTER  XIII.— Ohio  in  the  Centennial— Address  of  Edward 

D.  Mansfield,  L.L  D.,  Philadelphia,  August  9, 1876 138 

CHAPTER  XIV.— Education— Eariy  School  Laws— Notes— In- 
stitutions and  Educational  Journals — School  System — 
School  Funds — Colleges  and  Universities 148 

CHAPTER  XV.— Agriculture— Area  of  the  State— Early  Agri- 
culture in  the  West — Markets — Live  Stock — Nurseries, 
Fruits,  etc. — Cereals,  Root  and  Cucurbitaceous  Crops — 
Agricultural  Implements — Agricultural  Societies — Pomo- 

logical  and  Horticultural  Societies 151 

CHAPTER  XVL— Climatology— Outline— Variation  in  Ohio- 
Estimate  in  Degrees — Amount  of  Variability 163 

CHAPTER  XVII.— Public  Lands— Early  Contest  on  Bight  of 
Soil  and  Jurisdiction — The  Western  Reserve — Origin  and 
Organization— Social  and  Material  Growth 165 



CHAPTER  I.— Introductory— Physical  Features— Geological 
Structure— The  Different  Shales — Coal  Measures — Agri- 
culture and  Agricultural  Societies — Statistics,  etc 181 

CHAPTER  II— Prehistoric  Races— Traces  and  Relics  of  the 
Mound  Builders — The  Indian  Tribes — Their  Occupa- 
tion of  Summit  County — Sketches  of  Them — The  Bor- 
der Wars 207 

CHAPTER  III.— Settlement  and  Organization  of  the  County- 
Its  Civil  Divisions — The  Early  Judiciary — County  Build- 
ings— Their  Cost  and  Character — Officials,  etc 226 

CHAPTER  IV.— War  Record— Our  Struggle  for  Independence 
—1812— The  Mexican  War— Our  Late  Civil  War- 
Sketches  of  Regiments — Aid  Societies — Monuments,  etc..  249 

CHAPTER  v.— Religious— The  Gospel  on  the  Frontier— A 
Tax  for  its  Support — Educational — School  Statistics — The 
County  Press — Railroads,  Canals,  etc 271 

CHAPTER    VI.— The    Professions— Early    Lawyers— Summit 
County  Bar— The  Lawyers  of   the  Present — Medical —  ^ 
Pioneer  Doctors — Early  Practice — The    Modern    Physi--         Se 
cians 301 

CHAPTER  VII.— Portage  Township— Descriptive  and  Topo- 
graphical— Coming  of  the  Pioneers — Their  Primitive 
Life — Development  of  Resources — Schools,  Churches,  etc.  321 

CHAPTER  VIII.— City  of  Akron— Original  Plat— Ita  Growth 
as  a  Village — An  Incorporated  City — Municipal  Govern- 
ment— Statistics — Secret  and  Other  Societies .330 

CHAPTER  IX.— City  of  Akron— Its  Manufactuiing  Interests 
— Their  Growth  and  Development — The  Buckeye  Reaper 
— Potteries — Mills — Other  Establishments 344 

CHAPTER  X.— City  of  Akron— Religious  History— Early 
Christianity  and  Pioneer  Preachers — Advancement  of 
the  Gospel — Churches  of  the  Present  Day — Sabbath 
Schools,  etc 366 

CHAPTER  XL— City  of  Akron— Formation  of  the  Public 
Schools — Akron  School  Law — Present  Educational  Facili- 
ties—Sketch of  Buchtel  College 381 

CHAPTER  XII.— Town  of  Middlebury— Its  Settlement— Early 
Glory  and  Importance — Water  Power— Growth  of  Manu- 
facturing Industries— Present  Business 399 

CHAPTER  XIII.— Hudson  Township— Its  Early  History- 
Topograpy — The  Settlement  by  the  Whites — Pioneer  In- 
cidents— Growth  and  Development  of  Industries 409 

CHAPTERXIV.— Hudson  Township— Early  Society— Organiza- 
tion—Tlie  Village  of  Hudson  Laid  Out — Its  Business  and 
Growth — Religious  and  Educational 426 

CHAPTER  XV.— Hudson  Village — Educational  Institutions- 
Location  of  College — Questions  of  Difference — OflBcers  and 
Faculty — Libiary,  Preparatory  School,  etc 446 





CHAPTER  XVI.— Cuyahoga  Falls— Settlement  by  Whites- 
Early  History — Grottoes,  Caverns  and  Kavines — Organiza- 
tion as  a  Township — Its  Officers,  etc.,  etc 466 

CHAPTER  XVII.— Cuyahoga  Falls— Growth  and  Prosperity- 
Manufacturing  Interests — Incorporation — Schools  and 
Teachers — Religious — Sketches  of  the  Churches 478 

CHAPTER  XVIII.— Northampton  Township— Descriptive- 
Early  History  and  Settlement — Development  of  Re- 
sources— Early  Schools — Statistics — Religious — Dififerent 
Churches 497 

CH.APTER  XIX.— Stow  Township— Description  and  Topog- 
raphy— The  Whites — Improvement  and  Development — 
Villages — Religious — Educational,  etc 511 

CHAPTER  XX.— Coventry  Township — Topographical — Boun- 
daries— Lakes — The  Palefaces — Their  Life  in  the  Wilder- 
ness— Industries — Schools  and  Churches 521 

CHAPTER  XXI. — Boston  Township — Its  Ownership— General 
Description — Occupancy  of  the  Whites — Unlawful  Opera- 
tions— Towns — Educational,  etc 532 

CHAPTER  XXII.— Springfield  Township— General  Description 
— Wealth  and  Resources — Coal  Mines — The  Palefaces — 
Pioneer  Industries — Schools  and  Teachers — Religious 545 

CHAPTER  XXIII.— Tallmadge  Township— Physical  Features 
—Early  History — The  Whites — Pioneer  Vicissitudes — 
Growth  and  Prosperity — Schools,  Churches,  etc 552 

CHAPTER  XXIV.— Northfield  Township— Its  Physical  Geo- 
graphy— Settlement  by  the  Whites— Growth  and  Im- 
provement— Statistical — Religious — Villages 567 

CHAPTER  XXV.— Norton  Township— Descriptive  and  Topo- 
graphical— White'  Settlement — Pioneer  Industries — Ad- 
vancement in  Civilization — Schools  and  Teachers — 
Churches — The  Villages,  etc 578 

CHAPTER  XXVI.— Green  Township— Physical  Features- 
Original  Boundaries — Pioneer  Occupancy — The  Germans 
— Growth  and  Development — Villages — Churches  and 
Schools .593 

CHAPTER  XXVII.— Richfield  Township— General  Description 
— Coming  of  the  AVhites — Growth  and  Prosperity — Pion- 
neer  Industries — Schools  and  Teachers — Christianity, 
etc 608 

CHAPTER  XXVIII.— Bath  Township— Boundaries  and  Topog- 
raphy— White  Settlement — Wealth  and  Prosperity — 
Pioneer  Achievements — Churches  and  Preachers — 
Schools,  etc 617 

CHAPTER  XXIX.— Franklin  Township— Topographicdl— 
Early  History — Coming  of  the  Pioneers — Early  Improve- 
ments and  Industries — A'illages — Scliools,  Churches,  etc...  627 

CHAPTER  XXX.— Copley  Township- Descriptive  and  Topo- 
graphical— The  White  Settlement — Early  Industries — 
Their  Growth  and  Development— Educational  and  Re- 
ligious   639 

CHAPTER  XXXI.— Twinsburg  Township— Description  and 
Early  Features — The  Coming  of  the  Whites — Pioneer 
Improvements — Anecdotes — Educational  and  Religious....  649 



Akron,  City  of. 661 

Bath  Township 1014 

Boston  Township 891 

Copley  Township 1026 

Coventry  Township 876 

Cuyahoga  Falls  Township 841 

Franklin  Township '. 1026 

Green  Township 08u 

Hudson  Township K23 

Northampton  Township 853 

Northfield  Township. : 933 

Norton  Township 963 

Portage  Township - , 806 

Richfield  Township 997 

Springfield  Township 908 

Stow  Township 863 

Tallmadge  Township 920 

Twinsburg  Township 1039 




Ailing,  Ethan  (Biography  on  page  1039) 648 

Buchtel,  John 440 

I'osworth,  Delos  (Biography  on  page  1029) 616 

Burgess,  Joseph  (Biography  on  page  965) 632 

Brewster,  Alexander  (Biography  on  page  682) 504 

Brown,  C.  W.  (Biography  on  page  679) 488 

Crotzer,  William  F.  (Biography  on  page  910) £R8 

Cotter,  A.  L.  (Biography  on  page  687) 520 

Conger,  A.  L.  (Biography  on  page  695) 424 

Crouse,  G.  W.  (Biography  on  page  694) 472 

Emmitt,  William  (Biography  on  page  699) 544 

Hill,  John  (Biography  on  page  909) 584 

Hine,  Daniel  (Biography  on  page  024) 600 

Lane,  S.  A.  (Biography  on  page  728) 228 

Miller,  George  (Biography  on  page  815) 32i> 

Miller,  Lewis  (Biography  on  page  739) 5:^6 

Quigley,  Martin  (Biography  on  page  760) 408 

Sumner,  I.  (Biography  on  page  767)  260 

Sumner,  J.  A.  (Biography  on  page  767) 456 

Sumner,  Charles  (Biography  on  page  769) 292 

Stone,  N.  B.  (Biography  on  page  766) 376 

Schumacher,  Ferd.  (Biography  on  page  771) 344 

Taplin,  J.  B.  (Biography  on  page  784) 392 

Voris,  A.  C.  (Biography  on  page  786' 360 

Wright,  Amos  (Biograjihy  on  page  932) 552 

Summit  County  Court  House 180 



BY     A..    A..     GR-A-IiAJVt 

CHAPTER      I. 



THE  present  State  of  Ohio,  comprisins;  an 
extent  of  country  210  miles  north  and  south, 
220  miles  east  and  west,  in  length  and  breadth — 
25,576,969  acres— is  a  part  of  the  Old  Northwest 
Territory.  This  Territoiy  embraced  all  of  the 
present  States  of  Ohio,  Indiana,  Illinois,  Michigan, 
Wisconsin  and  so  much  of  Minnesota  as  lies  east 
of  the  Mississippi  River.  It  became  a  corporate 
existence  soon  after  the  formation  of  the  Virginia 
Colony,  and  when  that  colony  took  on  the  dignity 
of  State  government  it  became  a  county  thereof, 
whose  exact  outline  was  unknown.  The  county 
embraced  in  its  limits  more  territoiy  than  is  com- 
prised in  all  the  New  England  and  Middle  States, 
and  was  the  largest  county  ever  known  in  the 
United  States.  It  is  watered  by  the  finest  system 
of  rivers  on  the  globe ;  while  its  inland  seas  are 
without  a  parallel.  Its  entire  southern  boundary 
is  traversed  by  the  beautiful  Ohio,  its  western  by 
the  majestic  Mississippi,  and  its  northern  and  a 
part  of  its  eastern  are  bounded  by  the  fresh-water 
lakes,  whose  clear  waters  preserve  an  even  temper- 
ature over  its  entire  surface.  Into  these  reservoirs 
of  commerce  flow  innumerable  streams  of  limpid 
water,  which  come  from  glen  and  dale,  from 
mountain  and  valley,  from  forest  and  prairie — all 
avenues  of  health,  commerce  and  prosperity. 
Ohio  is  in  the  best  part  of  this  territory — south 
of  its  river  are  tropical  heats ;  north  of  Lake  Erie 
are  polar  snows  and  a  polar  climate. 

The  territory  comprised  in  Ohio  has  always  re- 
mained the  same.  Ohio's  history  differs  somewhat 
from  other  States,  in  that  it  was  never  under  Ter- 
ritorial government.  When  it  was  created,  it  was 
made  a  State,  and  did  not  pass  through  the  stage 
incident  to  the  most  of  other  States,  i.  e.,  exist  a.s 
a  Territory  before  being  advanced  to  the  powers  of 

a  State.  Such  was  not  the  case  with  the  other 
States  of  the  West ;  all  were  Territories,  with  Terri- 
torial forms  of  government,  ere  they  became  States. 

Ohio's  boundaries  are,  on  the  north,  Lake  Eria, 
and  Michigan ;  on  the  west,  Indiana ;  on  the  south, 
the  Ohio  River,  separating  it  from  Kentucky; 
and,  on  the  east,  Pennsylvania  and  West  Virginia. 
It  is  situated  between  38°  25'  and  42°  north 
latitude ;  and  80°  30'  and  84°  50'  west  longitude 
from  Greenwich,  or  3°  30'  and  7°  50'  west  from 
Washington.  Its  greatest  length,  from  north 
to  south,  is  210  miles;  the  extreme  width,  from 
east  to  west,  220  miles.  Were  this  an  exact  out- 
line, the  area  of  the  State  would  be  46,200  square 
miles,  or  29,568,000  acres ;  as  the  outlines  of  the 
State  are,  however,  rather  irregular,  the  area  is 
estimated  at  39,964  square  miles,  or  25,576,960 
acres.  In  the  last  census — 1870 — the  total  num- 
ber of  acres  in  Ohio  is  given  as  21,712,420,  of 
which  14,469,132  acres  are  improved,  and  6,883,- 
575  acres  are  woodland.  By  the  last  statistical 
report  of  the  State  Auditor,  20,965,371  f  acres  are 
reported  as  taxable  lands.  This  omits  many  acres 
untaxable  for  various  reasons,  which  would  make  the 
estimate,  25,576,960,  nearly  correct. 

The  face  of  the  country,  in  Ohio,  taken  as  a 
whole,  presents  the  appearance  of  an  extensive 
monotonous  plain.  It  is  moderately  undulating 
but  not  mouufainous,  and  is  excavated  in  places  by 
the  streams  coursing  over  its  surface,  whose  waters 
have  forced  a  way  for  themselves  through  cliffs  of 
sandstone  rock,  lca^^ng  abutments  of  this  material 
in  bold  outline.  There  are  no  mountain  ranges, 
geological  uplifts  or  peaks.  A  low  ridge  enters  the 
State,  near  the  northeast  corner,  and  crosses  it  in  a 
southwesterly  direction,  emerging  near  the  inter- 
section of  the  40th  decree  of  north  latitude  with 

the  western  boundary  of  the  State.  This  "  divide  " 
separates  the  lake  and  Ohio  River  v?aters,  and  main- 
tains an  elevation  of  a  little  more  than  thirteen 
hundred  feet  above  the  level  of  the  ocean.  The 
highest  part  is  in  Logan  County,  where  the  eleva- 
tion is  1,550  feet. 

North  of  this  ridge  the  surface  is  generally  level, 
with  a  gentle  inclination  toward  the  lake,  the  ine- 
qualities of  the  surface  being  caused  by  the  streams 
which  empty  into  the  lake.  The  central  part  of 
Ohio  is  almost,  in  general,  a  level  plain,  about  one 
thousand  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea,  slightly 
inclining  southward.  The  Southern  part  of  the 
State  is  rather  hilly,  the  valleys  growing  deeper  as 
they  incline  toward  the  great  valley  of  the  Ohio, 
which  is  several  hundred  feet  below  the  general 
level  of  the  State.  In  the  southern  counties,  the 
surfice  is  generally  diversified  by  the  inequalities 
produced  by  the  excavating  power  of  the  Ohio 
River  and  its  tributaries,  exercised  through  long 
periods  of  time.  There  are  a  few  prairies,  or  plains, 
in  the  central  and  northwestern  parts  of  the  State, 
but  over  its  greater  portion  originally  existed  im- 
mense growths  of  timber. 

The  "  divide,"  or  water-shed,  referred  to,  between 
the  waters  of  Lake  Erie  and  the  Ohio  River,  is 
less  elevated  in  Ohio  than  in  New  York  and  Penn- 
sylvania, though  the  difference  is  small.  To  a  per- 
son passing  over  the  State  in  a  balloon,  its  surface 
presents  an  unvarymg  plain,  while,  to  one  sailing 
down  the  Ohio  River,  it  appears  mountainous. 
On  this  river  are  bluffs  ranging  from  two  hundred 
and  fifty  to  six  hundred  feet  in  height.  As  one 
ascends  the  tributaries  of  the  river,  these  bluffs 
diminish  in  height  until  they  become  gentle  undu- 
lations, while  toward  the  sources  of  the  streams, 
in  the  central  part  of  the  State,  the  banks  often 
become  low  and  marshy. 

The  principal  rivers  are  the  Ohio,  Muskingum, 
Scioto  and  Miami,  on  the  southern  slope,  emptying 
into  the  Ohio ;  on  the  northern,  the  Maumee, 
Sandusky,  Huron  and  Cuyahoga,  emptying  into 
Lake  Erie,  and,  all  but  the  first  named,  entirely  in 

The  Ohio,  the  chief  river  of  the  State,  and  from 
which  it  derives  its  name,  with  its  tributaries,  drains 
a  country  whose  area  is  over  two  hundred  thousand 
sfpiare  miles  in  extent,  and  extending  from  the 
water-shed  to  Alabama.  The  river  was  first  dis- 
covered by  La  Salle  in  1669,  and  was  by  him  nav- 
igated as  far  as  the  Falls,  at  Louisville,  Ky.  It  is 
formed  by  the  junction  of  the  Alleghany  and 
Monongahela  rivers,  in  Pennsylvania,  whose  waters 

unite  at  Pittsburgh.  The  entire  length  of  the 
river,  from  its  source  to  its  mouth,  is  950  miles, 
though  by  a  straight  line  from  Pittsburgh  to  Cairo, 
it  is  only  615  miles.  Its  current  is  very  gentle, 
hardly  three  miles  per  hour,  the  descent  being  only 
five  inches  per  mile.  At  high  stages,  the  rate  of 
the  current  increases,  and  at  low  stages  decreases. 
Sometimes  it  is  barely  two  miles  per  hour.  The 
average  range  between  high  and  low  water  mark  is 
fifty  feet,  although  several  times  the  river  has  risen 
more  than  sixty  feet  above  low  water  mark.  At 
the  lowest  stage  of  the  river,  it  is  fordable  many 
places  between  Pittsburgh  and  Cincinnati.  The 
river  abounds  in  islands,  some  of  which  are  exceed- 
ingly fertile,  and  noted  in  the  history  of  the  West. 
Others,  known  as  "  tow-heads,"  are  simply  deposits 
of  sand. 

The  Scioto  is  one  of  the  largest  inland  streams 
in  the  State,  and  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  riv- 
ers. It  rises  in  Hardin  County,  flows  southeast- 
erly to  Columbus,  where  it  receives  its  largest 
affluent,  the  Olentangy  or  Whetstone,  after  which 
its  direction  is  southerly  until  it  enters  the  Ohio  at 
Portsmouth.  It  flows  through  one  of  the  rich- 
est valleys  in  the  State,  and  has  for  its  compan- 
ion the  Ohio  and  Erie  Canal,  for  a  distance  of 
ninety  miles.  Its  tributaries  are,  besides  the  Whet- 
stone, the  Darby,  Walnut  and  Paint  Creeks. 

The  Muskingum  River  is  formed  by  the  junc- 
tion of  the  Tuscarawas  and  Waldhoning  Rivers, 
which  rise  in  the  northern  part  of  the  State  and 
unite  at  Coshocton.  From  the  junction,  the  river 
flows  in  a  southeastern  course  about  one  hundred 
miles,  through  a  rich  and  populous  valley,  to  the 
Ohio,  at  Marietta,  the  oldest  settlement  in  the 
State.  At  its  outlet,  the  Muskingum  is  over  two 
hundred  yards  wide.  By  improvements,  it  has 
been  made  navigable  ninety-five  miles  above  Mari- 
etta, as  far  as  Dresden,  where  a  side  cut,  three 
miles  long,  unites  its  waters  with  those  of  the  Ohio 
Canal.  All  along  this  stream  exist,  in  abundant 
profusion,  the  remains  of  an  ancient  civiliza- 
tion, whose  history  is  lost  in  the  twilight  of  antiq- 
uity. Extensive  mounds,  earthworks  and  various 
fortifications,  are  everywhere  to  be  found,  inclosing 
a  mute  history  as  silent  as  the  race  that  dwelt  here 
and  left  these  traces  of  their  evistence.  The  same 
may  be  said  of  all  the  other  valleys  in  Ohio. 

The  Miami  River — the  scenes  of  many  exploits 
in  pioneer  days — rises  in  Hardin  County,  near  the 
headwaters  of  the  Scioto,  and  runs  southwesterly, 
to  the  Ohio,  passing  Troy,  Dayton  and  Hamilton. 
It  is  a  beautiful  and  ra])id  stream,  flowing  through 





a  highly  productive  and  populous  valley,  in  which 
limestone  and  hard  timb'jr  are  abundant.  Its  total 
length  is  about  one  hunared  and  fifty  miles. 

The  Maumee  is  the  largest  river  in  the  northern 
part  of  Ohio.  It  rises  in  Indiana  and  flows  north- 
easterly, into  Lake  Ene.  About  eighty  miles  of 
its  course  are  in  Ohio.  It  is  navigable  as  far  as 
Perrysburg,  eighteen  miles  from  its  mouth.  The 
other  rivers  north  of  the  divide  are  all  small, 
rapid-running  streams,  affording  a  large  amount  of 
good  water-power,  much  utilized  by  mills  and  man- 

A  remarkable  feature  of  the  topography  of 
Ohio  is  its  almost  total  absence  of  natural  lakes  or 
ponds.  A  few  very  small  ones  are  found  near  the 
water-shed,  but  all  too  small  to  be  of  any  practical 
value  save  as  watering-places  for  stock. 

Lake  Erie,  which  forms  nearly  all  the  northern 
boundary  of  the  State,  is  next  to  the  last  or  lowest 
of  America's  "  inland  seas."  It  is  290  miles  long, 
and  57  miles  wide  at  its  greatest  part.  There  are 
no  islands,  except  in  the  shallow  water  at  the  W'est 
end,  and  very  few  bays.  The  greatest  depth  of 
the  lake  is  off  Long  Point,  where  the  water  is  312 
feet  deep.  The  shores  are  principally  drift-clay  or 
hard-pan,  upon  which  the  waves  are  continually 
encroaching.  At  Cleveland,  from  the  first  sur- 
vey, in  1796,  to  1842,  the  encroachment  was  218 
feet  along  the  entire  city  front.  The  entire  coast 
is  low,  seldom  rising  above  fifty  feet  at  the  water's 

Lake  Erie,  like  the  others,  has  a  variable  sur- 
face, rising  and  falling  with  the  seasons,  like  great 
rivers,  called  the  "  annual  fluctuation,"  and  a  gen- 
eral one,  embracing  a  series  of  years,  due  to  mete- 
orological causes,  known  as  the  "  secular  fluctua- 
tion." Its  lowest  known  level  was  in  February, 
1819,  rising  more  or  less  each  year,  until  June, 
1838,  in  the  extreme,  to  six  feet  eight  inches. 

Lake  Erie  has  several  excellent  harbors  in  Ohio, 
among  which  are  Cleveland,  Toledo,  Sandusky, 
Port  Clinton  and  Ashtabula.  Valuable  improve- 
ments have  been  made  in  some  of  these,  at  the 
expense  of  the  General  Grovernment.  In  1818, 
the  first  steamboat  was  launched  on  the  lake. 
Owing  to  the  Falls  of  Niagara,  it  could  go  no 
farther  east  than  the  outlet  of  Niagara  Eiver. 
Since  then,  however,  the  opening  of  the  Welland 
Canal,  in  Canada,  allows  vessels  drawing  not  more 
than  ten  feet  of  water  to  pass  from  one  lake  to 
the  other,  gi-eatly  facilitating  navigation. 

As  early  as  1836,  Dr.  S.>.  Hiidreth,  Dr.  John 
Locke,  Prof.  J.  H.  Riddle  and  Mr.  I.  A.  Lapham, 

were  appointed  a  committee  by  the  Legislature  of 
Ohio  to  report  the  "  best  method  of  obtaining  a 
complete  geological  survey  of  the  State,  and  an 
estimate  of  the  probable  cost  of  the  same."  In  the 
preparation  of  their  report,  Dr.  Hiidreth  examined 
the  coal-measures  in  the  southeastern  part  of  the 
State,  Prof  Riddle  and  Mr.  Lapham  made  exam- 
inations in  the  western  and  northern  counties, 
while  Dr.  Locke  devoted  his  attention  to  chemical 
analyses.  These  investigations  resulted  in  the 
presentation  of  much  valuable  infonuation  con- 
cerning the  mineral  resources  of  the  State  and  in 
a  plan  for  a  geological  survey.  In  accordance 
with  the  recommendation  of  this  Committee,  the 
Legislature,  in  1837,  passed  a  bill  appropriating 
$12,000  for  the  prosecution  of  the  work  during 
the  next  year.  The  Geological  Corps  appointed 
consisted  of  W.  W.  Mather,  State  Geologist,  with 
Dr.  Hiidreth,  Dr.  Locke,  Prof  J.  P.  Kirtland,  J. 
W.  Foster,  Charles  Whittlesey  and  Charles  Briggs, 
Jr.,  Assistants.  The  results  of  the  first  year's 
work  appeared  in  1838,  in  an  octavo  volume  of  134 
pages,  with  contributions  fi-om  Mather,  Hiidreth, 
Briggs,  Kirtland  and  Whittlesey.  In  1838,  the 
Legislature  ordered  the  continuance  of  the  work, 
and,  at  the  close  of  the  year,  a  second  report,  of 
286  pages,  octavo,  was  issued,  containing  contribu- 
tions from  all  the  members  of  the  survey. 

Succeeding  Legislatures  failed  to  provide  for  a 
continuance  of  the  work,  and,  save  that  done  by 
private  means,  nothing  was  accomplished  till 
1869,  when  the  Legislature  again  took  up  the 
work.  In  the  interim,  individual  enterprise  had 
done  much.  In  1841,  Prof.  James  Hall  passed 
through  the  State,  and,  by  his  indentification  of 
several  of  the  formations  with  those  of  New  York, 
for  the  first  time  fixed  their  geological  age.  The 
next  year,  he  issued  the  first  map  of  the  geology 
of  the  State,  in  common  with  the  geological  maps 
of  all  the  region  between  the  Alleghanies  and  the 
Mississippi.  Similar  maps  were  published  by  Sir 
Charles  Lyell,  in  1845 ;  Prof  Edward  Hitchcock, 
in  1853,  and  by  J.  Mareon,  in  1856.  The  first 
individual  map  of  the  geology  of  Ohio  was  a  very 
small  one,  published  by  Col.  Whittlesey,  in  1848, 
in  Howe's  History.  In  1856,  he  published  a 
larger  map,  and,  in  1865,  another  was  issued  by 
Prof  Nelson  Sayler.  In  1867,  Dr.  J.  S.  Newberry 
published  a  geological  map  and  sketch  of  Ohio  in 
the  Atlas  of  the  State  issued  by  H.  S.  Stebbins. 
LTp  to  this  time,  the  geological  knowledge  was  very 
general  in  its  character,  and,  consequently,  errone- 
ous in  many  of  its  details.     Other  States  had  been 




accurately  surveyed,  yet  Ohio  remained  a  kind  of 
terra  incognita,  of  •which  the  geology  was  less 
known  than  any  part  of  the  surrounding  area. 

In  18G9,  the  Legislature  appropriated,  for  a  new 
survey,  $13,900  for  its  support  during  one  year, 
and  appointed  Dr.  Newberry  Chief  Geologist ;  E. 
B.  Andrews,  Edward  Orton  and  J.  H.  Klippart 
were  appointed  Assistants,  and  T.  G.  Wormley, 
Chemist.  The  result  of  the  first  year's  work 
was  a  volume  of  164  pages,  octavo,  published  in 

This  report,  accompanied  by  maps  and  charts, 
for  the  first  time  accurately  defined  the  geological 
formations  as  to  age  and  area.  Evidence  was  given 
which  set  at  rest  questions  of  nearly  thirty  years' 
standing,  and  established  the  fiict  that  Ohio  in- 
cludes nearly  double  the  number  of  formations  be- 
fore supposed  to  exist.  Since  that  date,  the  sur- 
veys have  been  regularly  made.  Each  county  is 
being  surveyed  by  itself,  and  its  formation  ac- 
curately determined.  Elsewhere  in  these  pages, 
these  results  are  given,  and  to  them  the  reader  is 
refeiTed  for  the  specific  geology  of  the  county. 
Only  general  results  can  be  noted  here. 

On  the  general  geological  map  of  the  State,  are 
two  sections  of  the  State,  taken  at  each  northern 
and  southern  extremity.  These  show,  with  the 
map,  the  general  outline  of  the  geological  features 
of  Ohio,  and  are  all  that  can  be  given  here.  Both 
sections  show  the  general  arrangements  of  the 
formation,  and  prove  that  they  lie  in  sheets  resting 
one  upon  another,  but  not  horizontally,  a.s  a  great 
arch  traverses  the  State  from  Cincinnati  to  the 
lake  shore,  between  Toledo  and  Sandusky.  Along 
this  line,  which  extends  southward  to  Nashville, 
Tenn.,  all  the  rocks  are  raised  in  a  ridge  or  fold, 
once  a  low  mountain  chain.  In  the  lapse  of 
ages,  it  has,  however,  been  extensively  worn 
away,  and  now,  along  a  large  part  of  its  course, 
the  strata  which  once  arched  over  it  are  re- 
moved from  its  summit,  and  are  found  resting  in 
regular  order  on  either  side,  dipping  away  from  its 
axis.  Where  the  ridge  was  highest,  the  erosion 
has  been  greatest,  that  being  the  reason  why  the 
oldest  rocks  are  exposed  in  the  region  about  Cin- 
cinnati. By  following  the  line  of  this  great  arch 
from  Cincinnati  northward,  it  will  be  seen  that  the 
Helderberg  limestone  (No.  4),  midway  of  the  State, 
is  still  unbroken,  and  stretches  from  side  to  side  ; 
while  the  Oriskany,  the  Corniferous,  the  Hamilton 
and  the  Huron  formations,  though  generally  re- 
moved from  the  crown  of  the  arch,  still  remain 
over  a  limited  area  near  Bellefontaine,  where  they 

form  an  island,  which  proves  the  former  continuity 
of  the  strata  which  compose  it. 

On  the  east  side  of  the  great  anticlinal  axis,  the 
rocks  dip  down  into  a  basin,  which,  for  several 
hundred  miles  north  and  south,  occupies  the  inter- 
val between  the  Nashville  and  Cincinnati  ridge  and 
the  first  fold  of  the  Alleghany  Mountains.  In 
this  basin,  all  the  strata  form  trough-like  layers, 
their  edges  outcropping  eastward  on  the  flanks 
of  the  Alleghanies,  and  westward  along  the  anti- 
clinal axis.  As  they  dip  from  this  margin  east- 
ward toward  the  center  of  the  trough,  near  its 
middle,  on  the  eastern  border  of  the  State,  the 
older  rocks  are  deeply  buried,  and  the  surface  is 
here  underlaid  by  the  highest  and  most  recent  of 
our  rock  formations,  the  coal  measures.  In  the 
northwestern  corner  of  the  State,  the  strata  dip 
northwest  from  the  anticlinal  and  pass  under  the 
Michigan  coal  basin,  precisely  as  the  same  forma- 
tions east  of  the  anticlinal  dip  beneath  the  Alle- 
ghany coal-field,  of  which  Ohio's  coal  area  forms  a 

The  rocks  underlying  the  State  all  belong  to 
three  of  the  great  groups  which  geologists  liave 
termed  "  systems,"  namely,  the  Silurian,  Devonian 
and  Carboniferous.  Each  of  these  are  again  sub- 
divided, for  convenience,  and  numbered.  Thus 
the  Silurian  system  includes  the  Cincinnati  group, 
the  Medina  and  Clinton  groups,  the  Niagara 
group,  and  the  Salina  and  Water-Line  groups. 
The  Devonian  system  includes  the  Oriskany  sand- 
stone, the  Carboniferous  limestone,  the  Hamilton 
group,  the  Huron  shale  and  the  Erie  shales.  The 
Carboniferous  system  includes  the  Waverly  group, 
the  Carboniferous  Conglomerate,  the  Coal  Meas- 
ures and  the  Drift.  This  last  includes  the  surface, 
and  has  been  divided  into  six  parts,  numbering 
from  the  lowest,  viz.:  A  glacialed  surface,  the  Gla- 
cial Drift,  the  Erie  Clays,  the  Forest  Bed,  the  Ice- 
berg Drift  and  the  Terraces  or  Beaches,  which 
mark  intervals  of  stability  in  the  gradual  recession 
of  the  water  surface  to  its  present  level. 

"  The  history  we  may  learn  fi-om  these  forma- 
tions," says  the  geologist,  "  is  something  as  fol- 

"  First.  Subsequent  to  the  Tertiary  was  a  period 
of  continual  elevation,  during  which  the  topog- 
raphy of  the  country  was  much  the  same  as  now, 
the  draining  streams  following  the  lines  they  now 
do,  but  cutting  down  their  beds  until  they  flowed 
sometimes  two  hundred  feet  lower  than  they  do  at 
present.  In  the  latter  part  of  this  period  of  ele- 
vation,   glaciers,    descending   from   the    Canadian 

'^  (5" 




islands,  excavated  and  occupied  the  valleys  of  the 
great  lakes,  and  covered  the  lowlands  down  nearly 
to  the  Ohio. 

'^Second.  By  a  depression  of  the  land  and  ele- 
vation of  temperature,  the  glaciers  retreated  north- 
ward, leaving,  in  the  interior  of  the  continent,  a 
great  basin  of  fresh  water,  in  which  the  Erie  clays 
were  deposited. 

"  Third.  This  water  was  drained  away  until  a 
broad  land  surface  was  exposed  within  the  drift 
area.  Upon  this  surface  grew  forests,  largely  of 
red  and  white  cedar,  inhabited  by  the  elephant, 
mastodon,  giant  beaver  and  other  large,  now  ex- 
tinct, animals. 

"Fourth.  The  submergence  of  this  ancient  land 
and  the  spreading  over  it,  by  iceberg  agency,  of 
gravel,  sand  and  bowlders,  distributed  just  as  ice- 
bergs now  spread  their  loads  broadcast  over  the 
sea  bottom  on  the  banks  of  Newfoundland. 

"Fifth.  The  gradual  draining-off  of  the  waters, 
leaving  the  land  now  as  we  find  it,  smoothly  cov- 
ered with  all  the  layers  of  the  drift,  and  well  pre- 
pared for  human  occupation." 

"  In  six  days,  the  Lord  made  the  heavens  and 
the  earth,  and  rested  the  seventh  day,"  records  the 
Scriptures,  and,  when  all  was  done,  He  looked 
upon  the  work  of  His  own  hands  and  pronounced 
it  "good."  Surely  none  but  a  divine,  omnipotent 
hand  could  have  done  all  this,  and  none  can  study 
the  "work  of  His  hands"  and  not  marvel  at  its 

The  ancient  dwellers  of  the  Mississippi  Valley 
will  always  be  a  subject  of  great  interest  to  the 
antiquarian.  Who  they  were,  and  whence  they 
came,  are  still  unanswered  questions,  and  may 
remain  so  for  ages.  All  over  this  valley,  and, 
in  fact,  in  all  parts  of  the  New  World,  evidences 
of  an  ancient  civilization  exist,  whose  remains  are 
now  a  wonder  to  all.  The  aboriginal  races  could 
throw  no  light  on  these  questions.  They  had 
always  seen  the  remains,  and  knew  not  whence 
they  came.  Explorations  aid  but  little  in  the  solu- 
tion of  the  problem,  and  only  conjecture  can  be 
entertained.  The  remains  found  in  Ohio  equal 
any  in  the  Valley.  Indeed,  some  of  them  are  vast 
in  extent,  and  consist  of  forts,  fortifications,  moats, 
ditches,  elevations  and  mounds,  embracing  many 
acres  in  extent. 

"It  is  not  yet  determined,"  says  Col.  Charles 
Whittlesey,  "whether  we  have  discovered  the  first 
or  the  original  people  who  occupied  the  soil  of 
Ohio.  Modern  investigations  are  bringing  to  light 
evidences  of  earlier  races.     Since  the  presence  of 

man  has  been  established  in  Europe  as  a  cotempor- 
ary  of  the  fossil  elephant,  mastodon,  rhinoceros 
and  the  horse,  of  the  later  drift  or  glacial  period, 
we  may  reasonably  anticipate  the  presence  of  man 
in  America  in  that  era.  Such  proofs  are  already 
known,  but  they  are  not  of  that  conclusive  charac- 
ter which  amounts  to  a  demonstration.  It  is,  how- 
ever, known  that  an  ancient  people  inhabited  Ohio 
in  advance  of  the  red  men  who  were  found  here, 
three  centuries  since,  by  the  Spanish  and  French 

"  Five  and  six  hundred  years  before  the  an-ival 
of  Columbus,"  says  Col.  Charles  Whittlesey,  "the 
Northmen  sailed  from  Norway,  Iceland  and  Green- 
land along  the  Atlantic  coast  as  far  as  Long  Island. 
They  found  Indian  tribes,  in  what  is  now  New  En- 
gland, closely  resembling  those  who  lived  upon  the 
coast  and  the  St.  Lawrence  when  the  French  and 
English  came  to  possess  these  regions. 

"  These  red  Indians  had  no  traditions  of  a  prior 
people ;  but  over  a  large  part  of  the  lake  country 
and  the  valley  of  the  Mississippi,  earth-works, 
mounds,  pyramids,  ditches  and  forts  were  discov- 
ered— the  work  of  a  more  ancient  race,  and  a  peo- 
ple far  in  advance  of  the  Indian.  If  they  were 
not  civilized,  they  were  not  barbarians.  They 
wei'e  not  mere  hunters,  but  had  fixed  habitations, 
cultivated  the  soil  and  were  possessed  of  consider- 
able mechanical  skill.  We  know  them  as  the 
Mound  Builders ^  because  they  erected  over  the 
mortal  remains  of  their  principal  men  and  women 
memorial  mounds  of  earth  or  unhewn  stone — of 
which  hundreds  remain  to  our  own  day,  so  large 
and  high  that  they  give  rise  to  an  impression  of 
the  numbers  and  energy  of  their  builders,  such  as 
we  receive  from  the  pyramids  of  Egypt." 

Might  they  not  have  been  of  the  same  race  and 
the  same  civiUzation  ?  Many  competent  authori- 
ties conjecture  they  are  the  work  of  the  lost  tribes 
of  Israel ;  but  the  best  they  or  any  one  can  do  is 
only  conjecture. 

"  In  the  burial-mounds,"  continues  Col.  Whit- 
tlesey, "  there  are  always  portions  of  one  or  more 
human  skeletons,  generally  partly  consumed  by 
fire,  with  ornaments  of  stone,  bone,  shells,  mica 
and  copper.  The  largest  mound  in  Ohio  is  near 
Miamisburg,  Montgomery  County.  It  is  the 
second  largest  in  the  West,  being  nearly  seventy 
feet  high,  originally,  and  about  eight  hundred  feet 
in  circumference.  This  would  give  a  superficial 
area  of  nearly  four  acres.  In  1864,  the  citizens 
of  Miamisburg  sunk  a  shaft  from  the  summit  to 
the    natural    surface,    without   finding  the   bones 




or  ashes  of  the  great  man  for  whom  it  was 
intended.  The  exploration  has  considerably 
lowered  the  mound,  it  being  now  about  sixty  feet 
in  height. 

"  Fort  Ancient,  on  the  Little  Miami,  is  a  good 
specimen  of  the  military  defenses  of  the  Mound- 
Builders.  It  is  well  located  on  a  long,  high,  nar- 
row, precipitous  ridge.  The  parapets  are  now 
from  ten  to  eighteen  feet  high,  and  its  perimeter 
is  sufficient  to  hold  twenty  thousand  fighting  men. 
Another  prominent  example  of  their  works  exists 
near  Newark,  Licking  County.  This  collection 
presents  a  great  variety  of  figures,  circles,  rectan- 
gles, octagons  and  parallel  banks,  or  highways, 
covering  more  than  a  thousand  acres.  The  county 
fiiir-ground  is  permanently  located  within  an 
ancient  circle,  a  quarter  of  a  mile  in  diameter, 
with  an  embankment  and  interior  ditch.  Its  high- 
est place  was  over  twenty  feet  from  the  top  of  the 
moat  to  the  bottom  of  the  ditch." 

One  of  the  most  curious-sliaped  works  in  this 
county  is  known  as  the  "Alligator,"  from  its  sup- 
posed resemblance  to  that  creature.  When  meas- 
ured, several  years  ago,  while  in  a  good  state  of 
preservation,  its  dimensions  were  two  hundred 
and  ten  feet  in  length,  average  width  over  sixty 
feet,  and  height,  at  the  highest  point,  seven  feet. 
It  appears  to  be  mainly  composed  of  clay,  and  is 
overgrown  with  grass. 

Speaking  of  the  writing  of  these  people,  Col. 
Whittlesey  says  :  "  There  is  no  evidence  that  they 
had  alphabetical  characters,  picture-writing  or 
hieroglyphics,  though  they  must  have  had  some 
mode  of  recording  events.  Neither  is  there  any  proof 
that  they  used  domestic  animals  for  tilling  the  soil, 
or  for  the  purpose  of  erecting  the  imposing  earth- 
Avorks  they  have  left.  A  very  coarse  cloth  of 
hemp,  flax  or  nettles  has  been  found  on  their 
burial-hearths  and  around  skeletons  not  consumed 
by  fire. 

"  The  most  extensive  earthworks  occupy  many 
of  the  sites  of  modern  towns,  and  are  always  in 
the  vicinity  of  excellent  lajid.  Those  about  the 
lakes  are  generally  irregular  earth  forts,  while 
those  about  the  rivers  in  the  southern  part  of  the 
State  are  generally  altars,  pyramids,  circles,  cones 
and  rectangles  of  earth,  among  which  fortresses  or 
strongholds  are  exceptions. 

'•'  Those  on  the  north  may  not  have  been  cotem- 
porary  or  have  been  built  by  the  same  people. 
They  are  far  less  prominent  or  extensive,  which 
indicates  a  people  less  in  numbers  as  well  as  indus- 
try, and  whose  principal  occupation  was  war  among 

themselves  or  against  their  neighbors.  This  style 
of  works  extends  eastward  along  the  south  shore 
of  Lake  Ontario,  through  New  York.  In  Ohio, 
there  is  a  space  along  the  water-shed,  between  the 
lake  and  the  Ohio,  where  there  are  few,  if  any, 
ancient  earthworks.  It  appears  to  have  been  a 
vacant  or  neutral  ground  between  different  nations. 

"The  Indians  of  the.  North,  dres.sed  in  skins, 
cultivated  the  soil  very  sparingly,  and  manufactured 
no  woven  cloth.  ()n  Lake  Sujierior,  there  are 
ancient  copper  mines  wrought  by  the  Mound- 
Builders  over  fifteen  hundred  years  ago."  Copper 
tools  are  occasionally  found  tempered  sufficiently 
hard  to  cut  the  hardest  rucks.  No  knowledge  of 
such  tempering  exists  now.  The  Indians  can  give 
no  more  knowledge  of  the  ancient  mines  than  they 
can  of  the  mounds  on  the  river  bottoms. 

"  The  Indians  did  not  occupy  the  ancient  earth- 
works, nor  did  they  construct  such.  They  were 
found  as  they  are  now — a  hunter  race,  wholly 
averse  to  labor.  Their  abodes  were  in  rock  shel- 
ters, in  caves,  or  in  temporary  sheds  of  bark  and 
boughs,  or  skins,  easily  moved  from  place  to  place. 
Like  most  savage  races,  their  habits  are  unchange- 
able ;  at  least,  the  example  of  white  men,  and 
their  efforts  during  three  centuries,  have  made 
little,  if  any,  impression." 

A\nien  white  men  came  to  the  territory  now  em- 
braced in  the  State  of  Ohio,  they  found  dwelling 
here  the  Iroquois,  Delawares,  Shawanees,  Miamis, 
Wyandots  and  Ottawas.  Each  nation  was  com- 
posed of  several  tribes  or  clans,  and  each  was 
often  at  war  with  the  others.  The  first  mentioned 
of  these  occupied  that  part  of  the  State  whose 
northern  boundary  was  Lake  Erie,  as  far  west  as 
the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga  Eiver,  where  the  city 
of  Cleveland  now  is  ;  thence  the  boundary  turned 
southward  in  an  irregular  line,  until  it  touched  the 
Ohio  River,  up  which  stream  it  continued  to  the 
Pennsylvania  State  line,  and  thence  northward  to 
the  lake.  This  nation  were  the  implacable  foes  of 
the  French,  owing  to  the  flict  that  Champlain,  in 
1G09,  made  war  against  them.  They  occupied  a 
large  part  of  New  York  and  Pennsylvania,  and 
were  the  most  insatiate  conquerors  among  the 
aborigines.  When  the  French  first  came  to  the 
lakes,  these  monsters  of  the  wilderness  were  engaged 
in  a  war  against  their  neighbors,  a  war  that  ended 
in  their  conquering  them,  p  )ssessing  their  terri- 
tory, and  absorbing  the  remnants  of  the  tribes  into 
their  own  nation.  At  the  date  of  Champlain's 
visit,  the  southern  shore  of  Lake  Erie  was  occupied 
by  the  Eries,  or,  as  the  orthography  of  the  word  is 




sometimes  given,  Erigos,  or  Errienous.*  About 
forty  years  afterward,  the  Iroquois  ( Five  Nations) 
fell  upon  them  with  such  fury  and  in  such  force 
that  the  nation  was  annihilated.  Those  who 
escaped  the  slaughter  were  absorbed  among  their 
C(in((uerors,  but  allowed  to  live  on  their  own  lands, 
paying  a  sort  of  tribute  to  the  Iroquois.  This  was 
the  policy  of  that  nation  in  all  its  conquests.  A 
few  years  after  the  conquest  of  the  Eries,  the 
Iroquois  again  took  to  the  war-path,  and  swept 
through  Ohio,  Indiana  and  Illinois,  even  attacking 
the  Mississippi  tribes.  But  for  the  intervention 
and  aid  of  the  French,  these  tribes  would  have 
shared  the  fate  of  the  Hurons  and  Eries.  Until 
the  year  1700,  the  Iroquois  held  the  south  shore 
of  Lake  Erie  so  finnly  that  the  French  dared  not 
trade  or  travel  along  that  side  of  the  lake.  Their 
missionaries  and  traders  penetrated  this  part  of 
Ohio  as  early  as  1650,  but  generally  suffered 
death  for  their  zeal. 

Having  completed  the  conquest  of  the  Hurons 
or  Wyandots,  about  Lake  Huron,  and  murdered 
the  Jesuit  missionaries  by  modes  of  torture  which 
only  they  could  devise,  they  permitted  the  residue 
of  the  Hurons  to  settle  around  the  west  end  of 
Lake  Erie.  Here,  with  the  Ottawas,  they  resided 
when  the  whites  came  to  the  State.  Their  country 
was  bounded  on  the  south  by  a  line  running 
through  the  central  part  of  Wayne,  Ashland, 
Richland,  Crawford  and  Wyandot  Counties.  At 
the  western  boundary  of  this  county,  the  line  di- 
verged northwesterly,  leaving  the  State  near  the 
northwest  corner  of  Fulton  County.  Their  north- 
ern boundary  was  the  lake ;  the  eastern,  the  Iro- 

The  Delawares,  or  "  Lenni  Lenapes,"  whom  the 
Iroquois  had  subjugated  on  the  Susquehanna,  were 
assigned  by  their  conquerors  hunting-grounds  on 
the  Muskingum.  Their  eastern  boundary  was  the 
country  of  the  Iroquois  (before  defined),  and  their 
northern,  that  of  the  Hurons.     On  the  west,  they 

♦  Father  Loui8  Hennepin,  in  his  work  published  in  1684,  thus 
alludes  to  the  Erii-s:  ■'These  good  fathers,"  referring  to  the 
priests,  "  were  great  friends  of  the  Hurons,  who  told  them  that  the 
Iroquois  went  to  war  beyond  Viririnia,  or  New  Sweden,  near  a  lake 
which  they  called  ^ Eriqe,^  or  'Erie,'  which  signifies  'the  cat,'  or 
'  nalion  of  the  cat,'  and  because  these  savages  brought  captives  from 
this  nation  in  returning  to  their  cantons  along  this  lake,  the 
Hurons  named  it,  in  their  language,  '  Erige,'  or  '  Erike,'  'the  lake  of 
th"  cat.'  and  which  our  Canadians,  in  softening  the  word,  have 
called  '  Lake  Erie.'  "  . 

Charlevoix,  writing  in  1721,  says:  "The  name  it  bears  is  that 
of  an  Indian  nation  of  the  Huron  (Wyandot)  language,  which  was 
formerly  seated  on  it^  banks,  and  who  have  been  entirely  destroyed 
by  the  Iroquois.  Erie,  in  that  language,  signifies  'cat,'  and,  in 
some  acounts,  this  nation  is  called  the  '  cat  nation.'  This  name, 
probably,  comes  from  the  large  numbers  of  that  animal  found  in 
this  region." 

extended  as  far  as  a  line  drawn  from  the  central 
part  of  Richland  County,  in  a  semi-circular  direc- 
tion, south  to  the  mouth  of  Leading  Creek.  Their 
southern  boundary  was  the  Ohio  River. 

West  of  the  Delawares,  dwelt  the  Shawanees,  a 
troublesome  people  as  neighbors,  whether  to  whites 
or  Indians.  Their  country  was  bounded  on  the 
north  by  the  Hurons,  on  the  east,  by  the  Dela- 
wares ;  on  the  south,  by  the  Ohio  River.  On  the 
west,  their  boundary  was  determined  by  a  line 
drawn  southwesterly,  and  again  southeasterly — 
semi-circular — from  a  point  on  the  southern 
boundary  of  the  Hurons,  near  the  southwest  corner 
of  Wyandot  County,  till  it  intersected  the  Ohio 

All  the  remainder  of  the  State — all  its  western 
part  from  the  Ohio  River  to  the  Michigan  line — 
was  occupied  by  the  Miamis,  Mineamis,  Twigtwees, 
or  Tawixtawes,  a  powerful  nation,  whom  the  Iro- 
quois were  never  fully  able  to  subdue. 

These  nations  occupied  the  State,  partly  by  per- 
mit of  the  Five  Nations,  and  partly  by  inheritance, 
and,  though  composed  of  many  tribes,  were  about 
all  the  savages  to  be  found  in  this  part  of  the 

No  sooner  had  the  Americans  obtained  control 
of  this  country,  than  they  began,  by  treaty  and 
purchase,  to  acquire  the  lands  of  the  natives. 
They  could  not  stem  the  tide  of  emigration  ;  peo- 
ple, then  as  now,  would  go  West,  and  hence  the 
necessity  of  peacefully  and  rightfully  acquiring  the 
land.  "  The  true  basis  of  title  to  Indian  territory 
is  the  right  of  civilized  men  to  the  soil  for  pur- 
poses of  cultivation."  The  same  maxim  may  be 
applied  to  all  uncivilized  nations.  When  acquired 
by  such  a  right,  either  by  treaty,  purchase  or  con- 
quest, the  right  to  hold  the  same  rests  with  the 
power  and  development  of  the  nation  thus  possess- 
ing the  land. 

The  English  derived  title  to  the  territory 
between  the  Alleghanies  and  the  Mississippi  partly 
by  the  claim  that,  in  discovering  the  Atlantic  coast, 
they  had  possession  of  the  land  from  "ocean  to 
ocean,"  and  partly  by  the  treaty  of  Paris,  in  Feb- 
ruary, 1763.  Long  before  this  treaty  took  place, 
however,  she  had  granted,  to  individuals  and  colo- 
nies, extensive  tracts  of  land  in  that  part  of  Amer- 
ica, based  on  the  right  of  di.scovcry.  The  French 
had  done  better,  and  had  acquired  title  to  the  land 
by  discovering  the  land  itself  and  by  consent  of 
the  Indians  dwelling  thereon.  The  right  to  pos- 
sess this  country  led  to  the  French  and  Indian 
war,  ending  in  the  supremacy  of  the  English. 



The  Five  Nations  claimed  the  territory  in  ques- 
tion by  right  of  conquest,  and,  though  professing 
friendship  to  the  EngUsh,  watched  them  with  jeal- 
ous eyes.  In  1684,  and  again  in  1726,  that  con- 
federacy made  cessions  of  lands  to  the  English, 
and  these  treaties  and  cessions  of  lands  were  re- 
garded as  sufficient  title  by  the  English,  and  were 
insisted  on  in  all  subsequent  treaties  with  the 
Western  Nations.  The  following  statements  were 
collected  by  Col.  Charles  Whittlesey,  which 
show  the  principal  treaties  made  with  the  red  men 
wherein  land  in  Ohio  was  ceded  by  them  to  the 
whites : 

In  September,  1726,  the  Iroquois,  or  Six  Na- 
tions, at  Albany,  ceded  all  their  claims  west  of 
Lake  Erie  and  sixty  miles  in  width  along  the 
south  shore  of  Lakes  Erie  and  Ontario,  from  the 
Cuyahoga  to  the  Oswego  River. 

In  1744,  this  same  nation  made  a  treaty  at 
Lancaster,  Penn.,  and  ceded  to  the  English  all 
their  lands  "that  may  be  within  the  colony  of 

In  1752,  this  nation  and  other  Western  tribes 
made  a  treaty  at  Logstown,  Penn.,  wherein  they 
confirmed  the  Lancaster  treaty  and  consented  to 
the  settlements  south  of  the  Ohio  River. 

February  13,  1763,  a  treaty  was  made  at  Paris, 
France,  between  the  French  and  English,  when 
Canada  and  the  eastern  half  of  the  Mississippi 
Valley  were  ceded  to  the  English. 

In  1783,  all  the  territory  south  of  the  Lakes, 
and  east  of  the  Mississippi,  was  ceded  by  England 
to  America — the  latter  country  then  obtaining  its 
independence — by  which  means  the  country  was 
gained  by  America. 

October  24,  1784,  the  Six  Nations  made  a 
treaty,  at  Fort  Stanwix,  N.  Y.,  with  the  Ameri- 
cans, and  ceded  to  them  all  the  country  claimed 
by  the  tribe,  west  of  Pennsylvania. 

In  1785,  the  Chippewas,  Delawares,  Ottawas, 
and  Wyandots  ceded  to  the  United  States,  at 
Fort  Mcintosh,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Big  Beaver, 
all  their  claims  east  and  south  of  the  "  Cayahaga," 
the  Portage  Path,  and  the  Tuscarawas,  to  Fort 
Laurens  (Bolivar),  thence  to  Loramie's  Fort  (in 
Shelby  County) ;  thence  along  the  Portage  Path  to 
the  St.  Mary's  River  and  down  it  to  the  "Omee," 
or  Maumee,  and  along  the  lake  shore  to  the 
"  Cayahaga." 

January  3,  1786,  the  Shawanees,  at  Fort  Fin- 
ney, near  the  mouth  of  the  Great  Miami  (not 
owning  the  land  on  the  Scioto  occupied  by  them), 
were  allotted  a  tract   at    the   heads  of  the  two 

Miamis  and  the  Wabash,  west  of  the  Chippewas, 
Delawares  and  Wyandots. 

February  9,  1789,  the  Iroquois  made  a  treaty 
at  Fort  Harmar,  wherein  they  confirmed  the  Fort 
Stanwix  treaty.  At  the  same  time,  the  Chippewas, 
Ottawas,  Delawares,  and  Wyandots — to  which  the 
Sauks  and  Pottawatomies  assented — confirmed  the 
treaty  made  at  Fort  Mcintosh. 

Period  of  war  now  existed  till  1795. 

August  3,  1795,  Gen.  Anthony  Wayne,  on 
behalf  of  the  United  States,  made  a  treaty  with 
twelve  tribes,  confirming  the  boundaries  estab- 
lished by  the  Fort  Harmar  and  Fort  Mcintosh 
treaties,  and  extended  the  boundary  to  Fort  Re- 
covery and  the  mouth  of  the  Kentucky  River. 

In  June,  1796,  the  Senecas,  represented  by 
Brant,  ceded  to  the  Connecticut  Land  Company 
their  rights  east  of  the  Cuyahoga. 

In  1805,  at  Fort  Industry,  on  the  Maumee,  the 
Wyandots,  Delawares,  Ottawas,  Chippewas,  Shawa- 
nees, Menses,  and  Pottawatomies  relinquished  all 
their  lands  west  of  the  Cuyahoga,  as  far  west  as 
the  western  line  of  the  Reserve,  and  south  of  the 
line  from  Fort  Laurens  to  Loramie's  Fort. 

July  4,  1807,  the  Ottawas,  Chippewas,  Wyan- 
dots, and  Pottawatomies,  at  Detroit,  ceded  all  that 
part  of  Ohio  north  of  the  Maumee  River,  with 
part  of  Michigan. 

November  25,  1808,  the  same  tribes  with  the 
Shawanees,  at  Brownstown,  Mich.,  granted  the 
Government  a  tract  of  land  two  miles  wide,  from 
the  west  line  of  the  Reserve  to  the  rapids  of  the 
Maumee,  for  the  purpose  of  a  road  through  the 
Black  Swamp. 

September  18,  1815,  at  Springwells,  near  De- 
troit, the  Chippewas,  Ottawas,  Pottawatomies,  Wy- 
andots, Delawares,  Senecas  and  Miamis,  having 
been  engaged  in  the  war  of  1812  on  the  British 
side,  were  confined  in  the  grants  made  at  Fort 
Mcintosh  and  Greenville  in  1785  and  1795. 

September  29,  1817,  at  the  rapids  of  the 
Maumee,  the  Wyandots  ceded  their  lands  west  of 
the  line  of  1805,  as  far  as  Loramie's  and  the  St. 
Mary's  River  and  north  of  the  Maumee.  The 
Pottawatomies,  Chippewas,  and  Ottawas  ceded  the 
territory  west  of  the  Detroit  line  of  1807,  and 
north  of  the  Maumee. 

October  6,  1818,  the  Miamis,  at  St.  Mary's, 
m'ade  a  treaty  in  which  they  surrendered  the  re- 
maining Indian  territory  in  Ohio,  north  of  the 
Greenville  treaty  line  and  west  of  St.  Mary's  River. 

The  numerous  treaties  of  peace  with  the  West- 
ern Indians  for  the  delivery  of  prisoners  were — 




one  by  Gen.  Forbes,  at  Fort  Du  Quesne  (Pitts- 
burgh), in  1758  ;  one  by  Col.  Bradstreet,  at  Erie, 
in  August,  1764 ;  one  by  Col.  Boquet,  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Walhouding,  in  November,  1764; 
in  May,  1765,  at  Johnson's,  on  the  Mohawk,  and 
at  Philadelphia,  the  same  year;  in  1774,  by  Lord 
Dunmore,  at  Camp  Charlotte,  Pickaway  County. 
By  the  treaty  at  the  Maumee  Bapids,  in  1817, 
reservations  were  conveyed  by  the  United  States 
to  all  the  tribes,  with  a  view  to  induce  them  to 
cultivate  the  soil  and  cease  to  be  hunters.  These 
were,  from  time  to  time,  as  the  impracticability  of 
the  plan  became  manifest,  purchased  by  the  Gov- 
ernment, the  last  of  these  being  the  Wyandot 
Beserve,  of  twelve  miles  square,  around  Upper 
Sandusky,  in  1842,  closing  out  all  claims  and  com- 
posing all  the  Indian  difficulties  in  Ohio.  The 
open  war  had  ceased  in  1815,  with  the  treaty  of 

"  It  is  estimated  that,  from  the  Freijch  war  of 
1754  to  the  battle  of  the  Maumee  Ilapids,  in 
1794,  a  period  of  forty  years,  there  had  been  at 
least  5,000  people  killed  or  captured  west  of  the 

Alleghany  Mountains.  Eleven  organized  military 
expeditions  had  been  carried  on  against  the  West- 
ern Indians  prior  to  the  war  of  1812,  seven  regu- 
lar engagements  fought  and  about  twelve  hundred 
men  killed.  Mure  whites  were  slain  in  battle  than 
there  were  Indian  braves  killed  in  military  expedi- 
tions, and  by  private  raids  and  murders ;  yet,  in 
1811,  all  the  Ohio  tribes  combined  could  not  mus- 
ter 2,000  warriors." 

Attempts  to  determine  the  number  of  persons 
comprising  the  Indian  tribes  in  Ohio,  and  their 
location,  have  resulted  in  nothing  better  than 
estimates.  It  is  supposed  that,  at  the  commence- 
ment of  the  Bevolution,  there  were  about  six 
thousand  Indians  in  the  present  confines  of  the 
State,  but  their  villages  were  little  more  than 
movable  camps.  Savage  men,  like  savage  beasts, 
are  engaged  in  continual  migrations.  Now,  none 
are  left.  The  white  man  occupies  the  home  of 
the  red  man.     Now 

"The  verdant  hills 
Are  covered  o'er  with  growing  grain, 
And  white  men  till  the  soil, 
Where  once  the  red  man  used  to  reign." 



WHEN  war,  when  ambition,  when  avarice 
fail,  religion  pushes  onward  and  succeeds. 
In  the  discovery  of  the  New  World,  wherever 
man's  aggrandizement  was  the  paramount  aim, 
failure  was  sure  to  follow.  When  this  gave  way, 
the  followers  of  the  Cross,  whether  Catholic  or 
Protestant,  came  on  the  field,  and  the  result  before 
attempted  soon  appeared,  though  in  a  different  way 
and  through  different  means  than  those  supposed. 
The  first  permanent  efforts  of  the  white  race  to 
penetrate  the  Western  wilds  of  the  New  World 
preceded  any  permanent  English  settlement  north 
of  the  Potomac.  Years  before  the  Pilgrims 
anchored  their  bark  on  the  cheerless  shores  of  Cape 
Cod,  "the  Boman  Catholic  Church  had  been  plann- 
ed by  missionaries  from  France  in  the  Eastern 
moiety  of  Maine;  and  LeCaron,  an  ambitious 
Franciscan,  the  companion  of  Champlain,had  passed 
into  the  hunting-grounds  of  the  Wyandots,  and, 
bound  by  the  vows  of  his  life,  had,  on  foot  or  pad- 
dling a  bark  canoe,  gone  onward,  taking  alms  of  the 
savages   until    he   reached  the    rivers    of    Lake 

Huron."  This  was  in  1615  or  1616,  and  only 
eight  years  afler  Champlain  had  sailed  up  the  wa- 
ters of  the  St.  Lawrence,  and  on  the  foot  of  a  bold 
cliff  laid  the  foundation  of  the  present  City  of 
Quebec.  From  this  place,  founded  to  hold  the 
country,  and  to  perpetuate  the  religion  of  his  King, 
went  forth  those  emissaries  of  the  Cross,  whose  zeal 
has  been  the  admiration  of  the  world.  The  French 
Colony  in  Canada  was  suppressed  soon  after  its  es- 
tablishment, and  for  five  years,  until  1622,  its  im- 
munities were  enjoyed  by  the  colonists.  A  grant 
of  New  France,  as  the  country  was  then  known,  was 
made  by  Louis  XIII  to  Biehelieu,  Champlain, 
Bazilly  and  others,  who,  immediately  after  the  res- 
toration of  Quebec  by  its  English  conquerors,  entered 
upon  the  control  and  government  of  their  province. 
Its  limits  embraced  the  whole  ba.sin  of  the  St. 
Lawrence  and  of  such  other  rivers  in  New  France 
as  flowed  directly  into  the  sea.  AVhile  away  to 
the  south  on  the  Gulf  coast,  was  also  included  a 
country  rich  in  foliage  and  claimed  in  virtue  of 
the  unsuccessful  efibrts  of  Coligny. 



Religious  zeal  as  much  as  commercial  prosperity 
had  influenced  France  to  obtain  and  retain  the  de- 
pendency of  Canada.  The  commercial  monopoly 
of  a  privileged  company  could  not  foster  a 
colony ;  the  climate  was  too  vigorous  for  agricult- 
ure, and,  at  first  there  was  little  else  except  relig- 
ious enthusiasm  to  give  vitality  to  the  province. 
Champlain  had  been  touched  by  the  simplicity  of 
the  Order  of  St.  Francis,  and  had  selected  its  priests 
to  aid  him  in  his  work.  But  another  order,  more 
in  favor  at  the  Court,  was  interested,  and  succeed- 
ed in  excluding  the  mendicant  order  from  the  New 
World,  established  themselves  in  the  new  domain 
and,  by  thus  enlarging  the  borders  of  the  French 
King,  it  became  entrusted  to  the  Jesuits. 

This  "Society  of  Jesus,"  founded  by  Loyola 
when  Calvin's  Institutes  first  saw  the  light,  saw  an 
unequaled  opportunity  in  the  conversion  of  the 
heathen  in  the  Western  wilds;  and,  as  its  mem- 
bers, pledged  to  obtain  power  only  by  influence  of 
mind  over  mind,  sought  the  honors  of  opening  the 
way,  there  was  no  lack  of  men  ready  for  the  work. 
Through  them,  the  motive  power  in  opening  the 
wilds  of  the  Northwest  was  relio-ion.  "  Reliiiious 
enthusiasm,"  says  Bancroft,  "colonized  New  Eng- 
land, and  religious  enthusiasm  founded  Montreal, 
made  a  concjuest  of  the  wilderness  about  the  upper 
lakes,  and  explored  the  Mississippi."   . 

Thi'ough  these  priests — ^  increased  in  a  few  years 
to  fifteen — a  way  was  made  across  the  West  from 
Quebec,  above  the  regions  of  the  lakes,  below 
which  they  dared  not  go  for  the  relentless  Mohawks. 
To  the  northwest  of  Toronto,  near  the  Lake  Iro- 
quois, a  bay  of  Lake  Huron,  in  September,  1634, 
they  raised  the  first  humble  house  of  the  Society  of 
Jesus  among  the  Hurons.  Through  them  they 
learned  of  the  great  lakes  beyond,  and  resolved 
one  day  to  explore  them  and  carry  the  Gospel  of 
peace  to  the  heathen  on  their  shores.  Before  this 
could  be  done,  many  of  them  were  called  upon  to 
give  up  their  lives  at  the  martyr's  stake  and  re- 
ceive a  martyr's  crown.  But  one  by  one  they 
went  on  in  their  good  work.  If  one  fell  by  hun- 
ger, cold,  cruelty,  or  a  terrible  death,  others  stood 
ready,  and  carrying  their  lives  in  their  hands, 
established  other  missions  about  the  eastern  shores 
of  Lake  Huron  and  its  adjacent  waters.  The 
Five  Nations  were  for  many  years  hostile  toward 
the  French  and  murdered  them  and  their  red 
allies  whenever  opportunity  presented.  For  a 
quarter  of  century,  they  retarded  the  advance  of 
the  missionaries,  and  then  only  after  wearied  with 
a  long  struggle,  in  which  they  began  to  see  their 

power  declining,  did  they  relinquish  their  warlike 
propensities,  and  allow  the  Jesuits  entrance  to  their 
country.  While  this  was  going  on,  the  traders 
and  Jesuits  had  penetrated  farther  and  farther 
westward,  until,  when  peace  was  declared,  they 
had  seen  the  southwestern  shores  of  Lake  Superior 
and  the  northern  shores  of  Lake  Michigan,  called 
by  them  Lake  Illinois.*  In  August,  1654,  two 
young  adventurers  penetrated  the  wilds  bordering 
on  these  western  lakes  in  company  with  a  band  of 
Ottawas.  Returning,  they  tell  of  the  wonderful 
country  they  have  seen,  of  its  vast  forests,  its 
abundance  of  game,  its  mines  of  copper,  and  ex- 
cite in  their  comrades  a  desire  to  see  and  explore 
such  a  country.  They  tell  of  a  vast  expanse  of 
land  before  them,  of  the  powerful  Indian  tribes 
dwelling  there,  and  of  their  anxiety  to  become  an- 
nexed to  the  Frenchman,  of  whom  they  have 
heard.  The  request  is  at  once  granted.  Two 
missionaries,  Gabriel  Dreuillettes  and  Leonard 
Gareau,  w«re  selected  as  envoys,  but  on  their  way 
the  fleet,  propelled  by  tawny  rowers,  is  met  by  a 
wandering  band  of  Mohawks  and  by  them  is  dis- 
persed. Not  daunted,  others  stood  ready  to  go. 
The  lot  fell  to  Rene  Mesnard.  He  is  charged  to 
visit  the  wilderness,  select  a  suitable  place  for  a 
dwelling,  and  found  a  mission.  With  only  a  short 
warning  he  is  ready,  "trusting,"  he  says,  "in  the 
Providence  which  feeds  the  little  birds  of  the 
desert  and  clothes  the  wild  flowers  of  the  forest." 
In  October,  1660,  he  reached  a  bay,  which  he 
called  St.  Theresa,  on  the  south  shore  of  Lak  > 
Superior.  After  a  residence  of  eight  months,  he 
yielded  to  the  invitation  of  the  Hurons  who  had 
taken  refuge  on  the  Island  of  St.  IMichael,  and 
bidding  adieu  to  his  neophytes  and  the  French,  he 
departed.  While  on  the  way  to  the  Bay  of  Che- 
goi-me-gon,  probably  at  a  portage,  he  became 
separated  from  his  companion  and  was  never  after- 
ward heard  of  Long  after,  his  cassock  and  his 
breviary  were  kept  as  amulets  among  the  Sioux. 
Difficulties  now  arose  in  the  management  of  the 
colony,  and  for  awhile  it  was  on  the  verge  of  dis- 
solution. The  King  sent  a  regiment  under  com- 
mand of  the  aged  Tracy,  as  a  safeguard  against 
the  Iroquois,  now  proving  themselves  enemies  to 

*  Mr.  C.  W.  Bntterfield,  author  of  Cran- ford's  Campaign,  and 
good  authority,  says:  "John  Nicholet,  a  Frenchman,  lelt  Quebec 
and  Three  Rivers  in  the  summer  of  1034,  and  visitel  the  Hurons  on 
Georgian  Bay,  the  Cliippewas  «t  the  Sault  Ste.  Marie,  and  the  Win- 
nebagoes  in  Wisronsin,  returning  to  Quebec  in  the  summer  of  U35. 
This  was  the  first  white  man  to  see  any  part  of  the  Northwest 
Territory.  In  1641,  two  Jesuit  priests  were  at  the  Sault  Ste.  Marie 
for  a  brief  time.  Tlien  two  Frencli  traders  reached  Lalie  Superior, 
and  after  them  came  that  tide  of  emigration  ou  which  the  French 
based  their  claim  to  the  country." 




the  French.  Accompanying  him  were  Courcelles, 
as  Governor,  and  M.  Talon,  who  subsequently  fig- 
ures in  Northwestern  history.  By  1(31)5,  affairs 
were  settled  and  new  attemjits  to  found  a  mission 
iimong  the  lake  tribes  were  projected. 

"  With  better  hopes  —  undismayed  by  the  sad 
fate  of  their  predecessors"  in  August,  Claude 
Allouez  embarked  on  a  mission  by  way  of  Ottawa 
to  the  Far  West.  Early  in  September  he  reached 
the  rapids  "through  which  rush  the  waters  of  the 
lakes  to  Huron.  Sailing  by  lofty  sculptured  rocks 
and  over  waters  of  crystal  purity,  he  reached  the 
Chippewa  village  just  as  the  young  warriors  were 
bent  on  organizing  a  war  expedition  against  the 
Sioux.  Commanding  peace  in  the  name  of  his 
King,  he  called  a  council  and  offered  the  commerce 
and  protection  of  his  nation.  He  was  obeyed,  and 
soon  a  chapel  arose  on  the  shore  of  the  bay,  to 
which  admiring  crowds  from  the  south  and  west 
gathered  to  listen  to  the  story  of  the  Cross. 

The  scattered  Hurons  and  Ottawas  north  of 
Lake  Superior ;  the  Pottawatomies  from  Lake  Mich- 
igan; the  Sacs  and  Foxes  from  the  Far  West;  the 
Illinois  from  the  prairies,  all  came  to  hear  him,  and 
all  besought  him  to  go  with  them.  To  the  last 
nation  Allouez  desired  to  go.  They  told  him  of  a 
"  great  river  that  flowed  to  the  .sea,  "and  of  "their 
vast  prairies,  where  herds  of  buffalo,  deer  and 
other  animals  grazed  on  the  tall  grass."  "Their 
country,"  said  the  missionary,  "is  the  best  field 
for  the  Grospel.  Had  I  had  leisure,  I  would  have 
gone  to  their  dwellings  to  see  with  my  own  eyes 
all  the  good  that  was  told  me  of  them." 

He  remained  two  years,  teaching  the  natives, 
studying  their  language  and  habits,  and  then 
returned  to  Quebec.  Such  was  the  account  that 
he  gave,  that  in  two  days  he  was  joined  by 
Louis  Nicholas  and  was  on  his  way  back  to  his 

Peace  being  now  established,  more  missionaries 
came  from  France.  Among  them  were  Claude 
Dablon  and  Jacques  Marquette,  both  of  whom 
went  on  to  the  mission  among  the  Chippewas  at  the 
Sault.  They  reached  there  in  1668  and  found 
Allouez  busy.  The  mission  was  now  a  reality  and 
given  the  name  of  St.  Mary.  It  is  often  written 
"  Sault  Ste.  Marie,"  afler  the  French  method,  and 
is  the  oldest  settlement  by  white  men  in  the  bounds 
of  the  Northwest  Territory.  It  has  been  founded 
over  two  hundred  years.  Here  on  the  inhospitable 
northern  shores,  hundreds  of  miles  away  from 
friends,  did  this  triumvirate  employ  themselves  in 
extending;  their  religion  and  the  influence  of  their 

King.  Traversing  the  shores  of  the  great  lakes 
near  them,  they  pass  down  the  western  bank  of 
Lake  Michigan  as  far  as  Green  Bay,  along  the 
southern  shore  of  Lake  Superior  to  its  western  ex- 
tremity, everywhere  preaching  the  story  of  Jesus. 
"  Though  suffering  be  their  lot  and  martyrdom 
their  crown,"  they  went  on,  only  conscious  that 
they  were  laboring  for  their  Master  and  would,  in 
the  end,  win  the  crown. 

The  great  river  away  to  the  West  of  which  they 
heard  so  much  was  yet  unknown  to  them.  To  ex- 
plore it,  to  visit  the  tribes  on  its  banks  and  preach 
to  them  the  Gospel  and  secure  their  trade,  became 
the  aim  of  Marquette,  who  originated  the  idea  of 
its  discovery.  While  engaged  at  the  mission  at  the 
Sault,  he  resolved  to  attempt  it  in  the  autumn  of 
1669.  Delay,  however,  intervened  —  for  Allouez 
had  exchanged  the  mission  at  Che-goi-me-gon  for 
one  at  Green  Bay,  whither  Marquette  was  sent. 
AV^hile  here  he  employed  a  young  Illinois  Indian 
to  teach  him  the  language  of  that  nation,  and  there- 
by prepare  himself  for  the  enterprise. 

Continued  commerce  with  the  Western  Indians 
gave  protection  and  confirmed  their  attachment. 
Talon,  the  intendant  of  the  colony  of  New  France, 
to  further  spread  its  power  and  to  learn  more  of  the 
country  and  its  inhabitants,  convened  a  congress 
of  the  Indians  at  the  Falls  of  St.  Mary,  to  which 
he  sent  St.  Lusson  on  his  behalf  Nicholas  Perrot 
sent  invitations  in  every  direction  for  more  than  a 
hundred  leagues  round  about,  and  fourteen  nations, 
among  them  Sacs,  Foxes  and  Miamis,  agreed  to  be 
present  by  their  embassadors. 

The  congress  met  on  the  fourth  day  of  June, 
1671.  St.  Lusson,  through  Allouez,  his  interpre- 
ter, announced  to  the  assembled  natives  that  they, 
and  through  them  their  nations,  were  placed  under 
the  protection  of  the  French  King,  and  to  him 
were  their  furs  and  peltries  to  be  traded.  A  cross 
of  cedar  was  raised,  and  amidst  the  groves  of  ma- 
ple and  of  pine,  of  elm  and  hemlock  that  are  so 
strangely  intermingled  on  the  banks  of  the  St. 
Mary,  the  whole  company  of  the  French,  bowing 
before  the  emblem  of  man's  redemption,  chanted  to 
its  glory  a  hymn  of  the  seventh  century  : 

"The  banners  of  heaven's  King  advance; 
The  mysteries  of  the  Cross  shines  forth."* 

A  cedar  column  was  planted  by  the  cross  and 
marked  with  the  lilies  of  the  Bourbons.  Tlie 
power  of  France,  thus  uplifted  in  the  West  of 
which  Ohio  is  now  a  part,  was,  however,  not  destined 

■  Bancroft. 




to  endure,  and  the  ambition  of  its  monurchs  was 
to  have  only  a  partial  fulfillment. 

The  same  year  that  the  congress  was  held,  Mar- 
quette had  founded  a  mission  among  the  Hurons 
at  Point  St.  Ignace,  on  the  continent  north  of  the 
peninsula  of  Michigan.  Although  the  climate 
was  severe,  and  vegetation  scarce,  yet  fish  abounded, 
and  at  this  establishment,  long  maintained  as  a 
key  to  further  explorations,  prayer  and  praise  were 
heard  daily  for  many  years.  Here,  also,  Marquette 
gained  a  footing  among  the  founders  of  Michigan. 
While  he  was  doing  this,  Allouez  and  Dablon  were 
exploring  countries  south  and  west,  going  as  far  as 
the  Mascoutins  and  Kickapoos  on  the  Milwaukee, 
and  the  Miamis  at'  the  head  of  Lake  Michigan. 
Allduez  continued  even  as  far  as  the  Sacs  and  Foxes 
on  the  river  which  bears  their  name. 

The  discovery  of  the  Mississippi,  heightened  by 
these  explorations,  was  now  at  hand.  The  enter- 
prise, projected  by  Marquette,  was  received  with 
fiivor  by  M.  Talon,  who  desired  thus  to  perpetuate 
his  rule  in  New  France,  now  drawing  to  a  close. 
He  was  joined  by  Joliet,  of  Quebec,  an  emissary 
of  his  King,  commissioned  by  royal  magnate  to 
take  possession  of  the  country  in  the  name  of  the 
French.  Of  him  but  little  else  is  known.  This 
one  excursion,  however,  gives  him  immortality, 
and  as  long  as  time  shall  last  his  name  and  that  of 
Marquette  will  endure.  When  Marquette  made 
known  his  intention  to  the  Pottawatomies,  they 
were  filled  with  wonder,  and  endeavored  to  dis- 
suade him  from  his  purpose.  "Those  distant  na- 
tions," said  they,  "  never  spare  the  strangers;  the 
Great  River  abounds  in  monsters,  ready  to  swal- 
low both  men  and  canoes;  there  are  great  cataracts 
and  rapids,  over  which  you  will  be  dashed  to 
pii-ees;  the  excessive  heats  will  cause  your  death." 
"  I  shall  gladly  lay  down  my  life  for  the  salvation 
of  souls,"  replied  the  good  man;  and  the  docile 
nation  joined  him. 

On  the  9th  day  of  June,  1673,  they  reached 
the  village  on  Fox  River,  where  were  Kickapoos, 
Mascoutins  and  Miamis  dwelling  together  on  an 
expanse  of  lovely  prairie,  dotted  here  and  thereby 
groves  of  magnificent  trees,  and  where  was  a 
cross  gai-landed  by  wild  flowers,  and  bows  and  ar- 
rows, and  skins  and  belts,  oiferings  to  the  Great 
Manitou.  Allouez  had  been  here  in  one  of  his 
wanderings,  and,  as  was  his  wont,  had  left  this 
emblem  of  his  faith. 

Assembling  the  natives,  Marquette  said,  "  My 
companion  is  an  envoy  of  France  to  discover  new 
countries ;  and  I  am  an  embassador  from   God   to 

enlighten  them  with  the  Gospel."  Offering  pres- 
ents, he  begged  two  guides  for  the  morrow.  The 
Indians  answered  courteously,  and  gave  in 
return  a  mat  to  serve  as  a  couch  during  the  long 

Early  in  the  morning  of  the  next  day,  the  10th 
of  June,  with  all  nature  in  her  brightest  robes, 
these  two  men,  with  five  Frenchmen  and  two  Al- 
gonquin guides,  set  out  on  their  journey.  Lifting 
two  canoes  to  their  shoulders,  they  quickly  cross 
the  narrow  portage  dividing  the  Fox  from  the 
Wisconsin  River,  and  prepare  to  embark  on  its 
clear  waters.  "Uttering  a  special  prayer  to  the 
Immaculate  Virgin,  they  leave  the  stream,  that, 
flowing  onward,  could  have  borne  their  greetings 
to  the  castle  of  Quebec.  'The  guides  returned,' 
says  the  gentle  Marquette,  'leaving  us  alone  in 
this  unknown  land,  in  the  hand  of  Providence.' 
France  and  Christianity  stood  alone  in  the  valley 
of  the  Mississippi.  Embarking  on  the  broad 
Wiscon.sin,  the  discoverers,  as  they  sailed  west, 
went  solitarily  down  the  stream  between  alternate 
prairies  and  hillsides,  beholding  neither  man  nor 
the  wonted  beasts  of  the  forests;  no  sound  broke 
the  silence  but  the  ripple  of  the  canoe  and  the 
lowing  of  the  buffalo.  In  seven  days,  '  they  en- 
tered happily  the  Great  River,  with  a  joy  that 
could  not  be  expressed;'  and  the  two  birchbark 
canoes,  raising  their  happy  sails  under  new  skies 
and  to  unknown  breezes,  floated  down  the  calm 
magnificence  of  the  ocean  stream,  over  the  broad, 
clear  sand-bars,  the  resort  of  innumerable  water- 
fowl-^—gliding  past  islets  that  swelled  from  the 
bosom  of  the  stream,  with  their  tufts  of  massive 
thickets,  and  between  the  wild  plains  of  Illinois 
and  Iowa,  all  garlanded  with  majestic  forests,  or 
checkered  by  island  groves  and  the  open  vastness 
of  the  prairie."* 

Continuing  on  down  the  mighty  stream,  they 
saw  no  signs  of  human  life  until  the  25th  of 
June,  when  they  discovered  a  small  foot-path  on  the 
west  bank  of  the  river,  leading  away  into  the 
prairie.  Leaving  their  companions  in  the  canoes, 
Marquette  and  Joliet  followed  the  path,  resolved 
to  brave  a  meeting  alone  with  the  savages.  After 
a  walk  of  six  miles  they  came  in  sight  of  a  village 
on  the  banks  of  a  river,  while  not  fiir  away  they 
discovered  two  others.  The  river  was  the  "  I\Iou- 
in-gou-e-na,"  or  Moingona,  now  corrupted  into 
Des  Moines.  These  two  men,  the  first  of  their 
race  who  ever  trod  the  soil  west  of    the   Great 


HISTORY    or    OHIO. 


River,  commended  themselves  to  God,  and,  uttering 
a  loud  cry,  advanced  to  the  nearest  village. 
The  Indians  hear,  and  thinking  their  visitors 
celestial  beings,  four  old  men  advance  with  rever- 
ential mien,  and  oifer  the  pipe  of  peace.  "  We 
are  Illinois,"  said  they,  and  they  offered  the  calu- 
met. They  had  heard  of  the  Frenchmen,  and 
welcomed  them  to  their  wigwams,  followed  by  the 
devouring  gaze  of  an  astonished  crowd.  At  a 
great  council  held  soon  after,  Marquette  published 
to  them  the  true  God,  their  Author.  He  also 
spoke  of  his  nation  and  of  his  King,  who  had 
chastised  the  Five  Nations  and  commanded  peace. 
He  questioned  them  concerning  the  Great  River 
and  its  tributaries,  and  the  tribes  dwelling  on  its 
banks.  A  magnificent  feast  was  spread  before 
them,  and  the  conference  continued  several  days. 
At  the  close  of  the  sixth  day,  the  chieftains  of  the 
tribes,  with  numerous  trains  of  waiTiors,  attended 
the  visitors  to  their  canoes,  and  selecting  a  peace- 
pipe,  gayly  caparisoned,  they  hung  the  sacred 
calumet,  emblem  of  peace  to  all  and  a  safeguard 
:iin;ing  the  nations,  about  the  good  Father's  neck, 
and  bid  the  strangers  good  speed.  "I  did  not 
fear  death,"  writes  Marquette;  "I  should  have 
esteemed  it  the  greatest  happiness  to  have  died 
for  the  glory  of  God."  On  their  journey,  they 
passed  the  perpendicular  rocks,  whose  sculptured 
sides  showed  them  the  monsters  they  should  meet. 
Farther  down,  they  pass  the  turgid  flood  of  the 
Missouri,  known  to  them  by  its  Algonquin  name, 
Pekitanoni.  Resolving  in  his  heart  to  one  day 
explore  its  flood,  Marquette  rejoiced  in  the,  new 
world  it  evidently  could  open  to  him.  A  little 
farther  down,  they  pass  the  bluffs  where  now  is  a 
mighty  emporium,  then  silent  as  when  created.  In 
a  little  less  than  forty  leagues,  they  pass  the  clear 
waters  of  the  beautiful  Ohio,  then,  and  long  after- 
ward, known  as  the  Wabash.  Its  banks  were  in- 
habited by  numerous  villages  of  the  peaceful 
Shawanees,  who  then  quailed  under  the  incursions 
of  the  dreadful  Iroquois.  As  they  go  on  down  the 
mighty  stream,  the  canes  become  thicker,  the  insects 
more  fierce,  the  heat  more  intolerable.  The  prairies 
and  their  cool  breezes  vanish,  and  forests  of  white- 
wood,  admirable  for  their  vastness  and  height,  crowd 
close  upon  the  pebbly  shore.  It  is  observed  that  the 
Chickasaws  have  guns,  and  have  learned  how  to 
use  them.  Near  the  latitude  of  33  degrees,  they 
encounter  a  great  village,  whose  inhabitants  pre- 
sent an  inhospitable  and  warlike  front.  The  pipe 
of  peace  is  held  aloft,  and  instantly  the  savage  foe 
drops    his  arms  and  extends  a  friendly  greeting. 

Remaining  here  till  the  next  day,  they  are  escorted 
for  eight  or  ten  leagues  to  the  village  of  Akansea. 
They  are  now  at  the  limit  of  their  voyage.  The 
Indians  speak  a  dialect  unknown  to  them.  The 
natives  show  furs  and  axes  of  steel,  the  latter  prov- 
ing they  have  traded  with  Europeans.  The  two 
travelers  now  learn  that  the  Father  of  Wa- 
ters went  neither  to  the  Western  sea  nor  to  the 
Florida  coast,  but  straight  south,  and  conclude  not 
to  encounter  the  burning  heats  of  a  tropical  clime, 
but  return  and  find  the  outlet  again.  They 
had  done  enough  now,  and  must  report  their  dis- 

On  the  17th  day  of  July,  1673,  one  hundred 
and  thirty-two  years  after  the  disastrous  journey 
of  De  Soto,  which  led  to  no  permanent  results, 
jNIarquette  and  Joliet  left  the  village  of  Akansea 
on  their  way  back.  At  the  38th  degree,  they  en- 
counter the  waters  of  the  Illinois  which  they  had 
before  noticed,  and  which  the  natives  told  them 
afforded  a  much  shorter  route  to  the  lakes.  Pad- 
dling up  its  limpid  waters,  they  see  a  country  un- 
surpassed in  beauty.  Broad  prairies,  beautiful  up- 
lands, luxuriant  groves,  all  mingled  in  excellent 
harmony  as  they  ascend  the  river.  Near  the  head 
of  the  river,  they  pause  at  a  great  village  of  the 
Illinois,  and  across  the  river  behold  a  rocky  prom- 
ontory .standing  boldly  out  against  the  landscape. 
The  Indians  entreat  the  gentle  missionary  to  re- 
main among  them,  and  teach  them  the  way  of  life. 
He  cannot  do  this,  but  promises  to  return  when  he 
can  and  instruct  them.  The  town  was  on  a  plain 
near  the  present  village  of  Utica,  in  La  Salle 
County,  111.,  and  the  rock  was  Starved  Rock, 
afterward  noted  in  the  annals  of  the  Northwest. 
One  of  the  chiefs  and  some  young  men  conduct 
the  party  to  the  Chicago  River,  where  the  present 
mighty  city  is,  from  where,  continuing  their  iour- 
ney  along  the  western  shores  of  the  lake,  they 
reach  Green  Bay  early  in  September. 

The  great  valley  of  the  West  was  now  open. 
The  "Messippi"  rolled  its  mighty  flood  to  a  south- 
ern sea,  and  must  be  sully  explored.  INIarquette's 
health  had  keenly  suffered  by  the  voyage  and  he 
concluded  to  remain  here  and  rest.  Joliet  hasten- 
ed on  to  Quebec  to  report  his  discoveries.  During 
the  journey,  each  had  preserved  a  description  of 
the  route  they  had  passed  over,  as  well  as  the 
country  and  its  inhabitants.  While  on  the  way 
to  Quebec,  at  the  foot  of  the  rapids  near  Montreal, 
by  some  means  one  of  Joliet's  canoes  became  cap- 
sized, and  by  it  he  lost  his  box  of  papers  and  two 
of    his   men.     A    greater    calamity    could   have 



liarcUy  happened  him.  lu  a  letter  to  Gov, 
Froutenac,  Joliet  says : 

"  I  had  escaped  every  peril  from  the  Indians  ;  I 
had  passed  forty-two  rapids,  and  was  on  the  point 
of  disembarking,  full  of  joy  at  the  success  of  so 
Ling  and  difficult  an  enterprise,  when  my  canoe 
capsized  after  all  the  danger  seemed  over.  I  lost 
my  two  men  and  box  of  papers  within  sight  of  the 
French  settlements,  which  I  had  left  almost  two 
years  before.  Nothing  remains  now  to  me  but 
my  life,  and  the  ardent  desire  to  employ  it  in  any 
service  you  may  please  to  direct." 

When  Joliet  made  known  his  discoveries,  a 
Te  Dcum  was  chanted  in  the  Cathedral  at  Quebec, 
and  all  Canada  was  filled  with  joy.  The  news 
crossed  the  ocean,  and  the  French  saw  in  the  vista 
of  coming  years  a  vast  dependency  arise  in  the  val- 
ley, partially  explored,  which  was  to  extend  her 
domain  and  enrich  her  treasury.  Fearing  En- 
gland might  profit  by  the  discovery  and  claim  the 
country,  she  attempted  as  far  as  possible  to  prevent 
the  news  from  becoming  general.  Joliet  was  re- 
warded by  the  gift  of  the  Island  of  Anticosti,  in 
the  St.  Lawrence,  while  Marquette,  conscious  of 
his  service  to  his  Master,  was  content  with  the 
salvation  of  souls. 

jSIarquette,  left  at  Green  Bay,  suffered  long  with 
his  malady,  and  was  not  permitted,  until  the  au- 
tumn of  the  following  year  (1674),  to  return  and 
teach  the  Illinois  Indians.  With  this  purpose  in 
view,  he  left  Green  Bay  on  the  25th  of  October 
with  two  Frenchmen  and  a  number  of  Illinois  and 
Pottawatomie  Indians  for  the  villages  on  the 
Chicago  and  Illinois  Rivers.  Entering  Lake 
Michigan,  they  encountered  adverse  winds  and 
waves  and  were  more  than  a  month  on  the  way. 
Going  some  distance  up  the  Chicago  River,  they 
found  Marquette  too  weak  to  proceed  farther,  his 
malady  having  assumed  a  violent  form,  and  land- 
ing, they  erected  two  hut.s  and  prepared  to  pass 
the  winter.  The  good  missionary  taught  the  na- 
tives here  daily,  in  spite  of  his  afflictions,  while 
his  companions  supplied  him  and  themselves  with 
food  by  fishing  and  hunting.  Thus  the  winter 
wore  away,  and  Marquette,  renewing  his  vows,  pre- 
pared to  go  on  to  the  village  at  the  foot  of  the 
rocky  citadel,  where  he  had  been  two  years  before. 
On  the  13th  of  March,  1675,  they  left  their  huts 
and,  rowing  on  up  the  Chicago  to  the  portage  be- 
tween that  and  the  Desplaines,  embarked  on  their 
way.  Amid  the  incessant  rains  of  spring,  they 
were  rapidly  borne  down  that  stream  to  the  Illi- 
nois, on  whose  rushing   flood  they  floated  to  the 

object  of  their  destination.  At  the  great  town  the 
missionary  was  received  as  a  heavenly  messenger, 
and  as  he  preached  to  them  of  heaven  and  hell, 
of  angels  and  demons,  of  good  and  bad  deeds, 
they  regarded  him  as  divine  and  besought  him  to 
remain  among  them.  The  town  then  contained  an 
immense  concourse  of  natives,  drawn  hither  by  the 
reports  they  heard,  and  assembling  them  before  him 
on  the  plain  near  their  village,  where  now  are  pros- 
perous farms,  he  held  before  their  astonished  gaze 
four  large  pictures  of  the  Holy  Virgin,  and  daily 
harangued  them  on  the  duties  of  Christianity  and 
the  necessity  of  conforming  their  conduct  to  the 
words  they  heard.  His  strength  was  fast  declining 
and  warned  him  he  could  not  long  remain.  Find- 
ing he  must  go,  the  Indians  furnished  him  an 
escort  as  far  as  the  lake,  on  whose  turbulent  waters 
he  embarked  with  his  two  faithful  attendants. 
They  turned  their  canoes  for  the  Mackinaw  Mis- 
sion, which  the  afllicted  missionary  hoped  to  reach 
before  death  came.  As  they  coasted  along  the 
eastern  shores  of  the  lake,  the  vernal  hue  of  May 
began  to  cover  the  hillsides  with  robes  of  green, 
now  dimmed  to  the  eye  of  the  departing  Father,  who 
became  too  weak  to  view  them.  By  the  19th  of 
the  month,  he  could  go  no  farther,  and  requested 
his  men  to  land  and  build  him  a  hut  in  which  he 
might  pass  away.  That  done,  he  gave,  with  great 
composure,  directions  concerning  his  burial,  and 
thanked  God  that  he  was  permitted  to  die  in  the 
wilderness  in  the  midst  of  his  work,  an  unshaken 
believer  in  the  faith  he  had  so  earnestly  preached. 
As  twilight  came  on,  he  told  his  weary  attendants 
to  rest,  promising  that  when  death  should  come  he 
would  call  them.  At  an  early  hour,  on  the  morn- 
ing of  the  20th  of  May,  1675,  they  heard  a  feeble 
voice,  and  hastening  to  his  side  found  that  the  gen- 
tle spirit  of  the  good  missionary  had  gone  to  heav- 
en. His  hand  grasped  the  crucifix,  and  his  lips 
bore  as  their  last  sound  the  name  of  the  Virgin. 
They  dug  a  grave  near  the  banks  of  the  stream 
and  buried  him  as  he  had  requested.  There  in  a 
lonely  wilderness  the  peaceful  soul  of  Marquette 
had  at  last  found  a  rest,  and  his  weary  labors  closed. 
His  companions  went  on  to  the  mission,  where 
the  news  of  his  death  caused  great  sorrow,  for  he 
was  one  beloved  by  all. 

Three  years  after  his  burial,  the  Ottawas,  hunting 
in  the  vicinity  of  his  grave,  determined  to  carry 
his  bones  to  the  mission  at  their  home,  in  accor- 
dance with  an  ancient  custom  of  their  tribe.  Hav- 
ing opened  the  grave,  at  whose  head  a  cross  had 
been  planted,  they  carefully  removed  the  bones  and 






cleaning  them,  a  funeral  of  thirty  canoes 
bore  them  to  the  Mackiuaw  Mission,  singing  the 
songs  he  had  taught  them.  At  the  shores  of  the 
mission  the  bones  were  received  by  the  priests,  and, 
with  great  ceremony,  buried  under  the  floor  of  the 
rude  chapel. 

While  Marquette  and  Joliet  were  exploring  the 
head-waters  of  the  "Great  River,"  another  man, 
fearless  in  purpose,  pious  in  heart,  and  loyal  to 
his  country,  was  living  in  Canada  and  watching 
the  operations  of  his  fellow  countrymen  with 
keen  eyes.  When  the  French  first  saw  the  in- 
hospitable shores  of  the  St.  Lawrence,  in  1535, 
under  the  lead  of  Jacques  Cartier,  and  had  opened 
a  new  country  to  their  crown,  men  were  not 
lacking  to  further  extend  the  discovery.  In  1608, 
Champlain  came,  and  at  the  foot  of  a  cliff"  on  that 
river  founded  Quebec.  Seven  years  after,  he 
brought  four  RecoUet  monks ;  and  through  them 
and  the  Jesuits  the  discoveries  already  narrated 
occurred.  Champlain  died  in  1G35,  one  hundred 
years  after  Cartier's  first  visit,  but  not  until  he 
had  explored  the  northern  lakes  as  fiir  as  Lake 
Huron,  on  whose  rocky  shores  he,  as  the  progenitor 
of  a  mighty  race  to  follow,  set  his  feet.  He,  with 
others,  held  to  the  idea  that  somewhere  across  the 
country,  a  river  highway  extended  to  the  Western 
ocean.  The  reports  from  the  missions  whose 
history  has  been  given  aided  this  belief;  and  not 
until  Marquette  and  Joliet  returned  was  the  delu- 
sion in  any  way  dispelled.  Before  this  was  done, 
however,  the  man  to  whom  reference  has  been 
made,  Robert  Cavalier,  better  known  as  La  Salle, 
had  endeavored  to  solve  the  mystery,  and,  while 
living  on  his  grant  of  land  eight  miles  above 
Montreal,  had  indeed  eff'ected  important  discoveries. 

La  Salle,  the  next  actor  in  the  field  of  explor- 
ation after  Champlain,  was  born  in  1643.  His 
father's  family  was  among  the  old  and  wealthy 
burghers  of  Rouen,  France,  and  its  members 
were  frequently  entrusted  with  important  govern- 
mental positions.  He  early  exhibited  such  traits 
of  character  as  to  mark  him  among  his  associates. 
Coming  from  a  wealthy  family,  he  enjoyed  all  the 
advantages  of  his  day,  and  received,  for  the  times, 
an  excellent  education.  He  was  a  Catholic, 
though  liis  subsequent  life  does  not  prove  him 
to  have  been  a  religious  enthusiast.  From  some 
cause,  he  joined  the  Order  of  Loyola,  but  the  cir- 
cumscribed sphere  of  action  set  for  him  in  the 
order  illy  concurred  with  his  independent  dis- 
position, and  led  to  his  separaticm  from  it.  This 
was  eff'ected,  however,  in  a  good   spirit,  as  they 

considered  him  fit  for  a  different  field  of  action 
than  any  presented  by  the  order.  Having  a 
brother  in  Canada,  a  member  of  the  order  of  St. 
Sulpice,  he  determined  to  join  him.  By  his 
connection  with  the  Jesuits  he  had  lost  his  share 
of  his  lather's  estate,  but,  by  some  means,  on  his 
death,  which  occurred  about  this  time,  he  was 
given  a  small  share;  and  with  this,  in  1666, 
he  arrived  in  Montreal.  All  Canada  was  alive 
with  the  news  of  the  explorations;  and  La 
Salle's  mind,  actively  grasping  the  ideas  he 
afterward  carried  out,  began  to  mature  plans  for 
their  perfection.  At  Montreal  he  found  a  semi- 
nary of  priests  of  the  St.  Sulpice  Order  who  were 
encouraging  settlers  by  grants  of  land  on  easy 
terms,  hoping  to  establish  a  barrier  of  settlements 
between  themselves  and  the  Indians,  made  ene- 
mies to  the  French  by  Champlain's  actions  when 
founding  Quebec.  The  Superior  of  the  seminary, 
learning  of  La  Salle's  arrival,  gratuitously  off"ered 
him  a  grant  of  land  on  the  St.  Lawrence,  eight 
miles  above  Montreal.  The  grant,  though  danger- 
ously near  the  hostile  Indians,  was  accepted,  and 
La  Salle  soon  enjoyed  an  excellent  trade  in  furs. 
While  employed  in  developing  his  claim,  he  learned 
of  the  great  unknown  route,  and  burned  with  a 
desire  to  solve  its  existence.  He  applied  himself 
closely  to  the  study  of  Indian  dialects,  and  in 
three  years  is  said  to  have  made  great  progress 
in  their  language.  While,  on  his  farm  his 
thoughts  often  turned  to  the  unknown  land  away 
to  the  west,  and,  like  all  men  of  his  day,  he 
desired  to  explore  the  route  to  the  Western  sea, 
and  thence  obtain  an  trade  with  China  and 
Japan.  The  "  Great  River,  which  flowed  to  the 
sea,"  must,  thought  they,  find  an  outlet  in  the 
Gulf  of  California.  While  musing  on  these 
things,  Marquette  and  Joliet  were  preparing  to 
descend  the  Wisconsin;  and  LaSalle  himself 
learned  from  a  wandering  band  of  Senecas  that  a 
river,  called  the  Ohio,  arose  in  their  country  and 
flowed  to  the  sea,  but  at  such  a  di.stance  that  it 
would  require  eight  months  to  reach  its  mouth. 
This  must  be  the  Great  River,  or  a  part  of  it : 
for  all  geographers  of  the  day  considered  the 
Mississippi  and  its  tributary  as  one  stream.  Plac- 
ing great  confidence  on  this  hy])othesis.  La  Salic 
repaired  to  Quebec  to  obtain  the  sanction 
of  Gov.  Courcelles.  His  plausible  statements 
soon  won  him  the  Governor  and  M.  Talon,  and 
letters  patent  were  issued  granting  the  exploration. 
No  pecuniary  aid  was  offered,  and  La  Salle,  hav- 
ing  expended   all   his   means   in   improving    his 



estate,  was  obliged  to  sell  it  to  procure  the 
necessary  outfit.  The  Superior  of  the  seminary 
being  favorably  disposed  toward  him,  purchased 
the  greater  part  of  his  improvement,  and  realiz- 
ing 2,800  livres,  he  purchased  four  canoes  and  the 
necessary  supplies  for  the  expedition.  The  semi- 
nary was,  at  the  same  time,  preparing  for  a  similar 
exploration.  The  priests  of  this  order,  emulating 
the  Jesuits,  had  established  missions  on  the  north- 
ern shore  of  Lake  Ontario.  Hearing  of  populous 
tribes  still  further  west,  they  resolved  to  attempt 
their  conversion,  and  deputized  two  of  their  number 
for  the  purpose.  On  going  to  Quebec  to  procure 
the  necessary  supplies,  they  were  advised  of  La 
Salle's  expedition  down  the  Ohio,  and  resolved  to 
unite  themselves  with  it.  La  Salle  did  not  alto- 
gether fiivor  their  attempt,  as  he  believed  the 
Jesuits  already  had  the  field,  and  would  not  care 
to  have  any  aid  from  a  rival  order.  His  dispo- 
sition also  would  not  well  brook  the  part  they 
assumed,  of  asking  him  to  be  a  co-laborer  rather 
than  a  leader.  However,  the  expeditions,  merged 
into  one  body,  left  the  mission  on  the  St.  Law- 
rence on  the  6th  of  July,  16G9,  in  seven  canoes. 
The  party  numbered  twenty-four  persons,  who 
were  accompanied  by  two  canoes  filled  with 
Indians  who  had  visited  La  Salle,  and  who  now 
acted  as  guides.  Their  guides  led  them  up  the 
St.  Lawrence,  over  the  expanse  of  Lake  Ontario, 
to  their  village  on  the  banks  of  the  Genesee, 
where  they  expected  to  find  guides  to  lead  them 
on  to  the  Ohio.  As  La  Salle  only  partially  under- 
stood their  language,  he  was  compelled  to  confer 
with  them  by  means  of  a  Jesuit  stationed  at  the 
village.  The  Indians  refused  to  furnish  him  the 
expected  aid,  and  even  burned  before  his  eyes  a 
prisoner,  the  only  one  who  could  give  him  any 
knowledge  he  desired.  He  surmised  the  Jesuits 
were  at  the  bottom  of  the  matter,  fearful  lest  the 
disciples  of  St.  Sulpice  should  gain  a  foothold  in 
the  west.  He  lingered  here  a  month,  with  the 
hope  of  accomplishing  his  object,  when,  by  chance, 
there  came  by  an  Iroquois  Indian,  who  assured 
them  that  at  his  colony,  near  the  head  of  the  lake, 
they  could  find  guides ;  and  off"ered  to  conduct 
them  thither.  Coming  along  the  southern  shore 
of  the  lake,  they  passed,  at  its  western  extremity, 
the  mouth  of  the  Niagara  River,  where  they  heard 
for  the  first  time  the  thunder  of  the  mighty  cata- 
ract between  the  two  lakes.  At  the  village  of  the 
Iroquois  they  met  a  friendly  reception,  and  were 
informed  by  a  Shawanese  prisoner  that  they  could 
reach  the  Ohio  in  six  weeks'  time,  and  that  he 

would  guide  them  there.  While  preparing  to 
commence  the  journey,  they  heard  of  the  missions 
to  the  northwest,  and  the  priests  resolved  to  go 
there  and  convert  the  natives,  and  find  the  river 
by  that  route.  It  appears  that  Louis  Joliet  met 
them  here,  on  his  return  from  visiting  the  copper 
mines  of  Lake  Superior,  under  command  of  M. 
Talon.  He  gave  the  priests  a  map  of  the  country, 
and  informed  them  that  the  Indians  of  those 
regions  were  in  great  need  of  spiritual  advisers. 
This  strengthened  their  intention,  though  warned 
by  La  Salle,  that  the  Jesuits  were  undoubtedly 
there.  The  authority  for  Joliet's  visit  to  them 
here  is  not  clearly  given,  and  may  not  be  true, 
but  the  same  letter  which  gives  the  account  of 
the  discovery  of  the  Ohio  at  this  time  by  La  Salle, 
states  it  as  a  fact,  and  it  is  hence  inserted.  The 
missionaries  and  La  Salle  separated,  the  former  to 
find,  as  he  had  predicted,  the  followers  of  Loyola 
already  in  the  field,  and  not  wanting  their  aid. 
Hence  they  return  from  a  fruitless  tour. 

La  Salle,  now  left  to  himself  and  just  recovering 
from  a  violent  fever,  went  on  his  journey.  From 
the  paper  from  which  these  statements  are  taken, 
it  appears  he  went  on  to  Onondaga,  where  he  pro- 
cured guides  to  a  tributary  of  the  Ohio,  down 
which  he  proceeded  to  the  principal  stream,  on 
whose  bosom  he  continued  his  way  till  he  came  to 
the  falls  at  the  present  city  of  Louisville,  Ky.  It 
has  been  asserted  that  he  went  on  down  to  its 
mouth,  but  that  is  not  well  authenticated  and  is 
hardly  true.  The  statement  that  he  went  as  far  as 
the  falls  is,  doubtless,  correct.  He  states,  in  a  letter 
to  Count  Frontenac  in  1677,  that  he  discovered 
the  Ohio,  and  that  he  descended  it  to  the  falls. 
Moreover,  Joliet,  in  a  measure  his  rival,  for  he  was 
now  preparing  to  go  to  the  northern  lakes  and 
from  them  search  the  river,  made  two  maps  repre- 
senting the  lakes  and  the  Mississippi,  on  both  of 
which  he  states  that  La  Salle  had  discovered  the 
Ohio.  Of  its  course  beyond  the  falls,  La  Salle 
does  not  seem  to  have  learned  anything  definite, 
hence  his  discovery  did  not  in  any  way  settle  the 
great  question,  and  elicited  but  little  comment. 
Still,  it  stimulated  La  Salle  to  more  efi"ort,  and 
while  musing  on  his  plans,  Joliet  and  Marquette 
push  on  from  Grrecn  Bay,  and  discover  the  river 
and  ascertain  the  general  course  of  its  outlet.  On 
Joliet's  return  in  1673,  he  seems  to  drop  from 
further  notice.  Other  and  more  venturesome  souls 
were  ready  to  finish  the  work  begun  by  himself 
and  the  zealous  JMarquette,  who,  left  among  the 
for-away  nations,  laid  down  his  life.     The  spirit  of 




La  Salle  was  equal  to  the  enterprise,  and  as  lie  now 
had  returned  from  one  voyage  of  discovery,  he 
stood  ready  to  solve  the  mystery,  and  gain  the 
country  for  his  King.  Before  this  could  be  ac- 
complished, however,  he  saw  other  things  must  be 
done,  and  made  pi'eparations  on  a  scale,  for  the 
time,  truly  marvelous. 

Count  Frontenac,  the  new  Governor,  had  no 
sooner  established  himself  in  power  than  he  gave  a 
searching  glance  over  the  new  realm  to  see  if  any 
undeveloped  resources  lay  yet  unnoticed,  and  what 
country  yet  remained  open.  He  learned  from  the 
exploits  of  La  Salle  on  the  Ohio,  and  from  Joliet, 
now  returned  from  the  West,  of  that  immense 
country,  and  resolving  in  his  mind  on  some  plan 
whereby  it  could  be  formally  taken,  entered 
heartily  into  the  plans  of  La  Salle,  who,  anxious  to 
solve  the  mystery  concerning  the  outlet  of  the 
Great  River,  gave  him  the  outline  of  a  plan,  saga- 
cious in  its  conception  and  grand  in  its  compre- 
hension. La  Salle  had  also  informed  him  of  the 
endeavors  of  the  English  on  the  Atlantic  coast  to 
divert  the  trade  with  the  Indians,  and  partly  to 
counteract  this,  were  the  plans  of  La  Salle  adopted. 
They  were,  briefly,  to  build  a  chain  of  forts  from 
Canada,  or  New  France,  along  the  lakes  to  the 
Mississippi,  and  on  down  that  river,  thereby  hold- 
ing the  country  by  power  as  well  as  by  discovery. 
A  fort  was  to  be  built  on  the  Ohio  as  soon  as  the 
means  could  be  obtained,  and  thereby  hold  that 
country  by  the  same  policy.  Thus  to  La  Salle 
alone  may  be  ascribed  the  bold  plan  of  gaining  the 
whole  West,  a  plan  only  thwarted  by  the  force  of 
arms.  Through  the  aid  of  Frontenac,  he  was 
given  a  proprietary  and  the  rank  of  nobility,  and 
on  his  proprietary  was  erected  a  fort,  which  he,  in 
honor  of  his  Governor,  called  Fort  Frontenac.  It 
stood  on  the  site  of  the  present  city  of  Kingston, 
Canada.  Through  it  he  obtained  the  trade  of  the 
Five  Nations,  and  his  fortune  was  so  far  assured. 
He  next  repaired  to  France,  to  perfect  his  arrange- 
ments, secure  his  title  and  obtain  means. 

On  his  return  he  built  the  fort  alluded  to,  and 
prepared  to  go  on  in  the  prosecution  of  his  plan. 
A  civil  discord  arose,  however,  which  for  three 
years  prevailed,  and  seriously  threatened  his 
projects.  As  soon  as  he  could  extricate  himself, 
he  again  repaired  to  France,  receiving  additional 
encouragement  in  money,  grants,  and  the  exclusive 
privilege  of  a  trade  in  buffalo  skins,  then  consid- 
ered a  source  of  great  Avealth.  On  his  return,  he 
was  accompanied  by  Henry  Tonti,  son  of  an  illus- 
trious Italian  nobleman,  who  had  fled  from  his 

own  country  during  one  of  its  political  revolutions. 
Coming  to  France,  he  made  himself  famous  as  the 
founder  of  Tontine  Life  Insurance.  Henry  Tonti 
possessed  an  indomitable  will,  and  though  he  had 
suffered  the  loss  of  one  of  his  hands  by  the  ex- 
plosion of  a  grenade  in  one  of  the  Sicilian  wars, 
his  courage  was  undtniuied,  and  his  ardor  un- 
dimmed.  La  Salle  also  brought  recruits,  mechanics, 
sailors,  cordage  and  sails  tor  rigging  a  ship,  and 
merchandise  for  traffic  with  the  natives.  At 
Montreal,  he  secured  the  services  of  M.  LaMotte,  a 
person  of  much  energy  and  integrity  of  character. 
He  also  secured  several  missionaries  before  he 
reached  Fort  Frontenac.  Among  them  were 
Louis  Hennepin,  Gabriel  Ribourde  and  Zenabe 
Membre.  All  these  were  Flemings,  all  Recollets. 
Hennepin,  of  all  of  them,  proved  the  best  assist- 
ant. They  arrived  at  the  fort  early  in  the  autumn 
of  1678,  and  preparations  were  at  once  made  to 
erect  a  vessel  in  which  to  navigate  the  lakes,  and 
a  fort  at  the  mouth  of  the  Niagara  River.  The 
Senecas  were  rather  adverse  to  the  latter  proposals 
when  La  Motte  and  Hennepin  came,  but  by 
the  eloquence  of  the  latter,  they  were  pacified 
and  rendered  friendly.  After  a  number  of  vexa- 
tious delays,  the  vessel,  the  Griffin,  the  first  on  the 
lakes,  was  built,  and  on  the  7th  of  August,  a  year 
after  La  Salle  came  here,  it  was  launched,  passed 
over  the  waters  of  the  northern  lakes,  and,  after  a 
tempestuous  voyage,  landed  at  Green  Bay.  It  was 
soon  after  stored  with  furs  and  sent  back,  while 
La  Salle  and  his  men  awaited  its  return.  It  was 
never  afterward  heard  of.  La  Salle,  becoming 
impatient,  erected  a  fort,  pushed  on  with  a 
part  of  his  men,  leaving  part  at  the  fort, 
and  passed  over  the  St.  Joseph  and  Kankakee 
Rivers,  and  thence  to  the  IlHnois,  down  whose 
flood  they  proceeded  to  Peoria  Lake,  where 
he  was  obliged  to  halt,  and  return  to  Canada 
for  more  men  and  supplies.  He  left  Tonti 
and  several  men  to  complete  a  fort,  called 
Fort "  Crevecoeur  " — broken-hearted.  The  Indians 
drove  the  French  away,  the  men  mutinied,  and 
Tonti  was  obliged  to  flee.  When  La  Salle  returned, 
he  found  no  one  there,  and  going  down  as  far  as 
the  mouth  of  the  Illinois,  he  retraced  his  steps,  to 
find  some  trace  of  his  garrison.  Tonti  was  found 
safe  among  the  Pottawatomies  at  Green  Bay,  and 
Hennepin  and  his  two  followers,  sent  to  explore 
the  head-waters  of  the  IMississippi,  were  again 
home,  after  a  captivity  among  the  Sioux. 

La  Salle  renewed  his  force  of  men,  and  the  third 
time  set  out  for  the  outlet  of  the  Great  River. 




He  left  Canada  early  in  December,  1G81,  and  by 
February  Ci,  1682,  reached  the  majestic  flood  of 
the  mighty  stream.  On  the  24th,  they  ascended 
the  Chickasaw  Bluffs,  and,  while  waiting  to  find 
a  sailor  who  had  strayed  away,  erected  Fort  Prud- 
homme.  They  passed  several  Indian  villages  fur- 
ther down  the  river,  in  some  of  which  they  met 
with  no  little  opposition.  Proceeding  onward,  ere- 
long they  encountered  the  tide  of  the  sea,  and 
April  0,  they  emerged  on  the  broad  bosom  of  the 
Gulf,  "to.ssing  its  restless  billows,  limitless,  voice- 
less and  lonely  as  when  born  of  chaos,  without  a 
sign  of  life." 

Coasting  about  a  short  time  on  the  shores  of 
the  Gulf,  the  party  returned  until  a  sufficiently 
dry  place  was  reached  to  effect  a  landing.  Here 
another  cross  was  raised,  also  a  column,  on  which 
was  inscribed  these  words : 

"  Louis  le  Grand,  Roi  de  France  et  de  Navarre, 
Regne;   Le  Neuvieme,  Avril,  1682."  * 

"  The  whole  party,"  says  a  "  proces  verbal,"  in 
the  archives  of  France,  "  chanted  the  Te  Deuni, 
the  Exaudiat  and  the  Domiiiesalvum  fac  Regem^ 
and  then  after  a  salute  of  fire-arras  and  cries  of 
Vive  le  Hoi,  La  Salle,  standing  near  the  column, 
said  in  a  loud  voice  in  French  : 

"In  the  name  of  the  most  high,  mighty,  invin- 
cible and  victorious  Prince,  Louis  the  Great,  by 
the  grace  of  God,  King  of  France  and  of  Navarre, 
Fourteenth  of  that  name,  this  ninth  day  of  April, 
one  thousand  six  hundred  and  eighty  two,  I,  in 
virtue  of  the  commission  of  His  Majesty,  which  I 
hold  in  my  hand,  and  which  may  be  seen  by  all 
whom  it  may  concern,  have  taken,  and  do  now 
take,  in  the  name  of  His  Majesty  and  of  his  suc- 
cessors to  the  crown,  possession  of  this  country  of 
Louisiana,  the  seas,  harbor,  ports,  bays,  adjacent 
straights,  and  all  the  nations,  people,  provinces,  cities, 
towns,  villages,  mines,  minerals,  fisheiies,  streams 
and  rivers,  comprised  in  the  extent  of  said  Louisiana, 
from  the  north  of  the  great  river  St.  Louis,  other- 
wise called  the  Ohio,  Alighin,  Sipore  or  Chukago- 
na,  and  this  with  the  consent  of  the  Chavunons, 
Chickachaws,  and  other  people  dwelling  therein, 
with  whom  we  have  made  alliance;  as  also  along 
the  river  Colbert  or  Mississippi,  and  rivers  which 
discharge  themselves  therein  from  its  source  beyond 
the  Kious  or  Nadouessious,  and  this  with  their 
consent,  and  with  the  consent  of  the  Illinois,  Mes- 
igameas,  Natchez,  Koroas,  which  are  the  most  con- 
siderable nations  dwelling  therein,  with  whom  also 

*  Lmiis  the  Groat,  King  of  France  and  of  Navarre,  reigning  the 
ninth  day  of  April,  10b2. 

we  have  made  alliance,  either  by  ourselves  or  others 
in  our  behalf,  as  far  as  its  mouth  at  the  sea  or 
Gulf  of  Mexico,  about  the  twenty-seventh  degree 
of  its  elevation  of  the  North  Pole,  and  also  to  the 
mouth  of  the  River  of  Palms;  upon  the  assurance 
which  we  have  received  from  all  these  nations  that 
we  are  the  first  Europeans  who  have  descended  or 
ascended  the  river  Colbert,  hereby  protesting 
against  all  those  who  may  in  future  undertake  to 
invade  any  or  all  of  these  countries,  peoples  or 
lands,  to  the  prejudice  of  the  right  of  His  Majesty, 
acquired  by  the  consent  of  the  nations  herein 

The  whole  assembly  responded  with  shouts  and 
the  salutes  of  fire-arms.  The  Sieur  de  La  Salle 
caused  to  be  planted  at  the  foot  of  the  column  a 
plate  of  lead,  on  one  side  of  which  was  inscribed 
the  arms  of  France  and  the  following  Latin  inscrip- 

Robertvs  Cavellier,  cvm  Domino  de  Tonly,  Legato, 
R.  P.  Zenobi  Membro,  RecoUecto,  et,  Viginti  Gallis 
Primos  Hoc  Flvmen  inde  ab  ilineorvm  Pago,  enavigavil, 
ejvsqve  ostivm  fecit  Pervivvm,  nono  Aprilis  cio  ioc 

The  whole  proceedings  were  acknowledged  be- 
fi)re  La  ]\Ietaire,  a  notary,  and  the  conquest  was 
considered  complete. 

Thus  was  the  foundation  of  France  laid  in  the 
new  republic,  and  thus  did  she  lay  claim  to  the 
Northwest,  which  now  includes  Ohio,  and  the 
county,  whose   history   this   book  perpetuates. 

La  Salle  and  his  party  returned  to  Canada  soon 
after,  and  again  that  country,  and  France  itself, 
rang  with  anthems  of  exultation.  He  went  on  to 
France,  where  he  received  the  highest  honors. 
He  was  given  a  fleet,  and  sailors  as  well  as  colon- 
ists to  return  to  the  New  World  by  way  of  a  south- 
ern voyage,  expecting  to  find  the  mouth  of  the 
Mississippi  by  an  ocean  course.  Sailing  past  the 
outlets,  he  was  wrecked  on  the  coast  of  Texas,  and 
in  his  vain  endeavors  to  find  the  river  or  return  to 
Canada,  he  became  lost  on  the  plains  of  Arkansas, 
where  he,  in  1087,  was  basely  murdered  by  one  of 
his  followers.  "  You  are  down  now,  Grand  BashaAV," 
exclaimed  his  slayer,  and  despoiling  his  remains,  they 
left  them  to  be  devoured  by  wild  beasts.  To  such 
an  ignominious  end  came  this  daring,  bold  adven- 
turer. Alone  in  the  wilderness,  he  was  left,  with 
no  monument  but  the  vast  realm  he  had  discov- 
ered, on  whose  bosom  he  was  left  without  cover- 
ing and  without  protection. 

"  For  force  of  will  and  vast  conception ;  for  va- 
rious knowledge,  and  quick  adaptation  of  his  genius 




to  untried  circumstances;  for  a  sublime  magnani- 
mity, that  resigned  itself  to  the  will  of  Heaven, 
and  yet  triumphed  over  affliction  by  energy  of 
purpose  and  unfaltering  hope — he  had  no  superior 
among  his  countrymen.  He  had  won  the  affec- 
tions of  the  governor  of  Canada,  the  esteem  of 
Colbert,  the  confidence  of  Seignelay,  the  favor  of 
Louis  XIV.  After  the  beginning  of  the  coloniza- 
tion of  Upper  Canada,  he  perfected  the  discovery 
of  the  Mississippi  from  the  Falls  of  St.  Anthony 
to  its  mouth ;  and  he  will  be  remembered  through 
all  time  as  the  father  of  colonization  in  the  great 
central  valley  of  the  West."* 

Avarice,  passion  and  jealousy  were  not  calmed  by 
the  blood  of  La  Salle.  All  of  his  conspirators  per- 
ished by  ignoble  deaths,  while  only  seven  of  the  six- 
teen succeeded  in  continuing  the  journey  until 
they  reached  Canada,  and  thence  found  their  way 
to  France. 

Tonti,  who  had  been  left  at  Fort  St.  Louis,  on 
"  Starved  Rock"  on  the  Illinois,  went  down  in 
search  of  his  beloved  commander.  Failing  to  find 
him,  he  returned  and  remained  here  until  1700, 
thousands  of  miles  away  from  friends.  Then  he 
went  down  the  Mississippi  to  join  D'Iberville,  who 
had  made  the  discovery  of  the  mouth  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi by  an  ocean  voyage.  Two  years  later,  he 
went  on  a  mission  to  the  Chickasaws,  but  of  his 
subsequent  history  nothing  is  known. 

The  West  was  now  in  possession  of  the  French. 
La  Salle's  plans  were  yet  feasible.  The  period  of 
exploration  was  now  over.  The  great  river  and 
its  outlet  was  known,  and  it  only  remained  for  that 
nation  to  enter  in  and  occupy  what  to  many  a 
Frenchman  was  the  "Promised  Land."  Only 
eighteen  years  had  elapsed  since  Marquette  and 
Joliet  had  descended  the  river  and  shown  the 
course  of  its  outlet.  A  spirit,  less  bold  than  La 
Salle's  would  never  in  so  short  a  time  have  pene- 
trated for  more  than  a  thousand  miles  an  unknown 
wilderness,  and  solved  the  mystery  of  the  world. 

When  Joutel  and  his  companions  reached  France 
in  1688,  all  Europe  was  on  the  eve  of  war.  Other 
nations  than  the  French  wanted  part  of  the  New 
World,  and  when  they  saw  that  nation  greedily 
and  rapidly  accumulating  territory  there,  they  en- 
deavored to  stay  its  progress.  The  league  of  Augs- 
burg was  formed  in  1 687  by  the  princes  of  the  Em- 
pire to  restrain  the  ambition  of  Louis  XIV,  and 
in  1688,  he  began  hostilities  by  the  capture  of 
Philipsburg.     The  next  year,  England,  under  the 

lead  of  William  III,  joined  the  alliance,  and  Louis 
found  himself  compelled,  with  only  the  aid  of  the 
Turks,  to  contend  against  the  united  forces  of  the 
Empires  of  England,  Spain,  Holland,  Denmark, 
Sweden  and  Norway.  Yet  the  tide  of  battle  wa- 
vered. In  1689,  the  French  were  defeated  at 
Walcourt,  and  the  Turks  at  Widin;  but  in  1690, 
the  French  were  victorious  at  Charleroy,  and  the 
Turks  at  Belgrade.  The  next  year,  and  also  the 
next,  victory  inclined  to  the  French,  but  in  1693, 
Louvois  and  Luxemberg  were  dead  and  Namur 
surrendered  to  the  allies.  The  war  extended  to  the 
New  World,  where  it  was  maintained  with  more 
than  equal  success  by  the  French,  though  the  En- 
glish population  exceeded  it  more  than  twenty  to  one. 
In  1688,  the  French  were  estimated  at  about 
twelve  thousand  souls  in  North  America,  while  the 
English  were  more  than  two  hundred  thousand. 
At  first  the  war  was  prosecuted  vigorously.  In 
1689,  De.  Ste.  Helene  and  D'Iberville,  two  of  the 
sons  of  Charles  le  Morne,  crossed  the  wilderness 
and  reduced  the  English  forts  on  Hudson's  Bay. 
But  in  August  of  the  same  year,  the  Iroquois,  the 
hereditary  foes  of  the  French,  captured  and  burned 
Montreal.  Frontenac,  who  had  gone  on  an  ex- 
pedition against  New  York  by  sea,  was  recalled. 
Fort  Frontenac  was  abandoned,  and  no  French 
posts  left  in  the  West  between  Trois  Rivieres  and 
Mackinaw,  and  were  it  not  for  the  Jesuits  the  en- 
tire West  would  now  have  been  abandoned.  To 
recover  their  influence,  the  French  planned  three 
expeditions.  One  resulted  in  the  destruction  of 
Schenectady,  another,  Salmon  Falls,  and  the  third, 
Casco  Bay.  On  the  other  hand.  Nova  Scotia  was 
reduced  by  the  colonies,  and  an  expedition  against 
Montreal  went  as  far  as  to  Lake  Champlain,  where 
it  failed,  owing  to  the  dissensions  of  the  leaders. 
Another  expedition,  consisting  of  twenty-four  ves- 
sels, arrived  before  Quebec,  which  also  failed 
through  the  incompetency  of  Sir  William  Phipps. 
During  the  succeeding  years,  various  border  con- 
flicts occurred,  in  all  of  which  border  scenes  of 
savage  cruelty  and  savage  ferocity  were  enacted. 
The  peace  of  Ryswick,  in  1697,  closed  the  war. 
France  retained  Hudson's  Bay,  and  all  the  places 
of  which  she  was  in  possession  in  1688;  but  the 
boundaries  of  the  English  and  French  claims  in 
the  New  World  were  still  unsettled. 

The  conclusion  of  the  conflict  left  the  French 
at  liberty  to  pursue  their  scheme  of  colonization 
in  the  Mississippi  Valley.  In  1698,  D'Iberville 
was  sent  to  the  lower  province,  which,  erelong, 
was  made  a  separate  independency,  called  Louisiana. 



Forts  were  erected  on  Mobile  Bay,  and  the  division 
of  the  territory  between  the  French  and  the 
Spaniards  was  settled.  Trouble  existed  between 
the  French  and  the  Chickasaws,  ending  in  the 
cruel  deaths  of  many  of  the  leaders,  in  the 
fruitless  endeavors  of  the  Canadian  and  Louisi- 
anian  forces  combining  against  the  Chickasaws. 
For  many  years  the  conflict  raged,  with  unequal 
successes,  until  the  Indian  power  gave  way  before 
superior  military  tactics.  In  the  end,  New  Orleans 
was  founded,  in  1718,  and  the  French  power 

Before  this  was  consummated,  however,  France 
became  entangled  in  another  war  against  the 
allied  powers,  ending  in  her  defeat  and  the  loss 
of  Nova  Scotia,  Hudson's  Bay  and  Newfound- 
land. The  peace  of  Utrecht  closed  the  war 
in  1713. 

The  French,  weary  with  prolonged  strife, 
adopted  the  plan,  more  peaceful  in  its  nature,  of 
giving  out  to  distinguished  men  the  monopoly  of 
certain  districts  in  the  fur  trade,  the  most  pros- 
perous of  any  avocation  then.  Crozat  and 
Cadillac — the  latter  the  founder  of  Detroit,  in 
1701 — were  the  chief  ones  concerned  in  this. 
The  founding  of  the  villages  of  Kaskaskia,  Ca- 
hokia,  Vincennes,  and  others  in  the  Mississippi 
and  Wabash  Valleys,  led  to  the  rapid  develop- 
ment, according  to  the  French  custom  of  all 
these  parts  of  the  West,  while  along  all  the  chief 
water-courses,  other  trading  posts  and  forts  were 
established,  rapidly  fulfilling  the  hopes  of  La 
Salle,  broached  so  many  years  before. 

The  French  had,  at  the  beginning  of  the 
eighteenth  century,  four  principal  routes  to  their 
western  towns,  two  of  which  passed  over  the  soil 
of  Ohio.  The  first  of  these  was  the  one  followed 
by  Marquette  and  Joliet,  by  way  of  the  Lakes  to 
Green  Bay,  in  Wisconsin ;  thence  across  a  portage 
to  the  Wisconsin  River,  down  which  they  floated 
to  the  Mississippi.  On  their  return  they  came 
up  the  Illinois  River,  to  the  site  of  Chicago, 
whence  Joliet  returned  to  Quebec  by  the  Lakes. 
La  Salle's  route  was  first  by  the  Lakes  to  the  St. 
Joseph's  River,  which  he  followed  to  the  portage 
to  the  Kankakee,  and  thence  downward  to  the 
Mississippi.  On  his  second  and  third  attempt, 
he  crossed  the  lower  peninsula  of  Michigan  to 
the  Kankakee,  and  again  traversed  its  waters  to 
the  Illinois.  The  third  route  was  established 
about  1716.  It  followed  the  southern  shores  of 
Lake  Erie  to  the  mouth  of  the  Maumee  River; 
following  this  stream,  the  voyagers  went  on  to  the 

junction  between  it  and  the  St.  Mary's,  which 
they  followed  to  the  "  Oubache  " — — and 
then  to  the  French  villages  in  Vigo  and  Knox 
Counties,  in  Indiana.  Vincennes  was  the  oldest 
and  most  important  one  here.  It  had  been 
founded  in  1702  by  a  French  trader,  and  was,  at 
the  date  of  the  establishment  of  the  third  route, 
in  a  prosperous  condition.  For  many  years,  the 
traders  crossed  the  plains  of  Southern  Illinois  to 
the  French  towns  on  the  bottoms  opposite  St. 
Louis.  They  were  afraid  to  go  on  down  the 
"Waba"  to  the  Ohio,  as  the  Indians  had  fright- 
ened them  with  accounts  of  the  great  monsters 
below.  Finally,  some  adventurous  spirit  went 
down  the  river,  found  it  emptied  into  the  Ohio, 
and  solved  the  problem  of  the  true  outlet  of  the 
Ohio,  heretofore  supposed  to  be  a  tributary  of  the 

The  fourth  route  was  from  the  southern  shore 
of  Lake  Erie,  at  Presqueville,  over  a  portage  of 
fifteen  miles  to  the  head  of  French  Creek,  at 
Waterford,  Penn.;  thence  down  that  stream  to  the 
Ohio,  and  on  to  the  Mississippi.  Along  all  these 
routes,  ports  and  posts  were  carefully  maintained. 
Many  were  on  the  soil  of  Ohio,  and  were  the  first 
attempts  of  the  white  race  to  possess  its  domain. 
Many  of  the  ruins  of  these  posts  are  yet  found  on 
the  southern  shore  of  Lake  Erie,  and  at  the 
outlets  of  streams  flowing  into  the  lake  and  the  Ohio 
River.  The  principal  forts  were  at  Mackinaw,  at 
Presqueville,  at  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Joseph's,  on 
Starved  Rock,  and  along  the  Father  of  Waters. 
Yet  another  power  was  encroaching  on  them :  a 
sturdy  race,  clinging  to  the  inhospitable  Atlantic 
shores,  were  coming  over  the  mountains.  The 
murmurs  of  a  conflict  were  already  heard — a  con- 
flict that  would  change  the  fate  of  a  nation. 

The  French  were  extending  their  explorations 
beyond  the  Mississippi;  they  were  also  forming  a 
political  organization,  and  increasing  their  influence 
over  the  natives.  Of  a  passive  nature,  however, 
their  power  and  their  influence  could  not  with- 
stand a  more  aggressive  nature,  and  they  were 
obliged,  finally,  to  give  way.  They  had  the 
fruitful  valleys  of  the  West  more  than  a  century; 
yet  they  developed  no  resources,  opened  no  mines 
of  wealth,  and  left  the  country  as  passive  as  they 
found  it. 

Of  the  growth  of  the  West  under  French  rule, 
but  little  else  remains  to  be  said.  The  sturdy 
Anglo-Saxon  race  on  the  Atlantic  coast,  and  their 
progenitors  in  England,  began,  now,  to  turn  their 
attention  to  this  vast  country.     The  voluptuousness 




of  the  French  court,  their  neglect  of  the  true 
basis  of  wealth,  agriculture,  and  the  repressive 
tendencies  laid  on  the  colonists,  led  the  latter  to 
adopt  a  hunter's  life,  and  leave  the  country  unde- 
veloped and  ready  for  the  people  who  claimed  the 
country  from  "sea  to  sea."  Their  explorers  were 
now  at  work.     The  change  was  at  hand. 

Occasional  mention  has  been  made  in  the  his- 
tory of  the  State,  in  preceding  pages,  of  settle- 
ments and  trading-posts  of  the  French  traders, 
explorers  and  missionaries,  within  the  limits  of 
Ohio.  The  French  were  the  first  white  men  to 
occupy  the  northwestern  part  of  the  New  World, 
and  though  their  stay  was  brief,  yet  it  opened  the 
way  to  a  sinewy  race,  living  on  the  shores  of  the 
Atlantic,  who  in  time  came,  saw,  and  conquered 
that  part  of  America,  making  it  what  the  people 
of  to-day  enjoy. 

As  early  as  1669,  four  years  before  the  discov- 
ery of  the  Mississippi  by  Joliet  and  Marquette, 
La  Salle,  the  fixmous  explorer,  discovered  the  Ohio 
lliver,  and  paddled  down  its  gentle  current  as  far 
as  the  ftills  at  the  present  city  of  Louisville,  but  he, 
like  others  of  the  day,  made  no  settlement  on  its 
banks,  only  claiming  the  country  for  his  King  by 
virtue  of  this  discovery. 

Early  in  the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  cent- 
ury, French  traders  and  voyagers  passed  along  the 
southern  shores  of  Lake  Erie,  to  the  mouth  of  the 
Maumee,  up  whose  waters  they  rowed  their  bark 
canoes,  on  their  way  to  their  outposts  in  the  Wa- 
bash and  Illinois  Valleys,  established  between 
1675  and  1700.  As  soon  as  they  could,  without 
danger  from  their  inveterate  enemies,  the  Iroquois, 
masters  of  all  the  lower  lake  country,  erect  a 
trading-post  at  the  mouth  of  this  river,  they  did 
so.  It  was  made  a  depot  of  considerable  note, 
and  was,  probably,  the  first  permanent  habitation 
of  white  men  in  Ohio.  It  remained  until  after 
the  peace  of  1763,  the  termination  of  the  French 
and  Indian  war,  and  the  occupancy  of  this  country 
by  the  English.  On  the  site  of  the  French  trading- 
post,  the  British,  in  1794,  erected  Fort  Miami, 
which  they  garrisoned  until  the  country  came 
under  the  control  of  Americans.  Now,  Maumee 
City  covers  the  ground. 

The  French  had  a  trading-post  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Huron  lliver,  in  what  is  now  Erie  County. 
When  it  was  built  is  not  now  known.  It  was,  how- 
ever, probably  one  of  their  early  outposts,  and 
may  have  been  built  before  1750.  They  had  an- 
other on  the  shore  of  the  bay,  on  or  near  the  site 
of  Sandusky  City.     Both  this  and  the  one  at  the 

mouth  of  the  Huron  lliver  were  abandoned  before 
the  war  of  the  Revolution.  On  Lewis  Evan's  map 
of  the  British  Middle  Colonies,  published  in  1755, 
a  French  fort,  called  "  Fort  Junandat,  built  in 
175-4,"  is  marked  on  the  east  bank  of  the  San- 
dusky lliver,  several  miles  below  its  mouth.  Fort 
Sandusky,  on  the  western  bank,  is  also  noted. 
Several  Wyandot  towns  are  likewise  marked.  But 
very  little  is  known  concerning  any  of  these 
trading-posts.  They  were,  evidently,  only  tempo- 
rary, and  were  abandoned  when  the  English  came 
into  possession  of  the  country. 

The  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga  River  was  another 
important  place.  On  Evan's  map  there  is  marked 
on  the  west  bank  of  the  Cuyahoga,  some  distance 
from  its  mouth,  the  words  '■'■French  House^'''  doubt- 
less, the  station  of  a  French  trader.  The  ruins 
of  a  house,  found  about  five  miles  from  the  mouth 
of  the  river,  on  the  west  bank,  are  supposed  to 
be  those  of  the  trader's  station. 

In  1786,  the  Moravian  missionary,  Zeisberger, 
with  his  Indian  converts,  left  Detroit  in  a  vessel 
called  the  Mackinaw,  and  sailed  to  the  mouth  of 
the  Cuyahoga.  From  there  they  went  up  the 
river  about  ten  miles,  and  settled  in  an  abandoned 
Ottawa  village,  where  Independence  now  is,  which 
place  they  called  "  Saint's  Rest."  Their  stay  was 
brief,  for  the  following  April,  they  left  for  the 
Huron  River,  and  settled  near  the  site  of  IMilan, 
Erie  County,  at  a  locality  they  called  New  Salem. 

There  are  but  few  records  of  settlements  made 
by  the  French  until  after  1750.  Even  these  can 
hardly  be  called  settlements,  as  they  were  simply 
trading-posts.  The  French  easily  afiiliated  with 
the  Indians,  and  had  little  energy  beyond  trading. 
They  never  cultivated  fields,  laid  low  forests,  and 
subjugated  the  country.  They  were  a  half-Indian 
race,  so  to  speak,  and  hence  did  little  if  anything 
in  developing  the  West. 

About  1749,  some  English  traders  came  to  a 
place  in  what  is  now  Shelby  County,  on  the 
banks  of  a  creek  since  known  as  Loramic's 
Creek,  and  established  a  trading-station  with  the 
Indians.  This  was  the  first  English  trading-place 
or  attempt  at  settlement  in  the  State.  It  was  here 
but  a  short  time,  however,  when  the  French,  hear- 
ing of  its  existence,  sent  a  party  of  soldiers  to  the 
Twigtwees,  among  whom  it  was  founded,  and  de- 
manded the  traders  as  intruders  upon  French  ter- 
ritory. The  Twigtwees  refusing  to  deliver  up 
their  friends,  the  French,  assisted  by  a  large  party 
of  Ottawas  and  Chippewas,  attacked  the  trading- 
house,  probably  a  block-house,  and,  after  a  severe 




battle,  captured  it.  The  traders  were  taken  to 
Canada.  This  fort  was  called  by  the  English 
"  Pickawillauy,"  from  which  "Piqua"  is  probably 
derived.  About  the  time  that  Kentucky  was  sot- 
tied,  a  Canadian  Frenchman,  named  Loramio, 
established  a  store  on  the  site  of  the  old  fort.  He 
was  a  bitter  enemy  of  the  Americans,  and  for  a 
long  time  Loramie's  store  was  the  headquarters  of 
mischief  toward  the  settlers. 

The  French  had  the  faculty  of  endearing  them- 
selves to  the  Indians  by  their  easy  assimilation  of 
their  habits;  and,  no  doubt,  Loramie  was  equal  to 
any  in  this  respect,  and  hence  gained  great  influ- 
ence over  them.  Col.  Johnston,  many  years  an 
Indian  Agent  from  the  United  States  among  the 
Western  tribes,  stated  that  he  had  often  seen  the 
"  Indians  burst  into  tears  when  speaking  of  the 
times  when  their  French  father  had  dominion 
over  them ;  and  their  attachment  always  remained 

So  much  influence  had  Loramie  with  the  In- 
dians, that,  when  Gen.  Clarke,  from  Kentucky, 
invaded  the  Miami  Valley  in  1782,  his  attention 
was  attracted  to  the  spot.  He  came  on  and  burnt 
the  Indian  settlement  here,  and  destroyed  the  store 
of  the  Frenchman,  selling  his  goods  among  the 
men  at  auction.  Loramie  fled  to  the  Shawanees, 
and,  with  a  colony  of  that  nation,  emigrated  west 
of  the  Mississippi,  to  the  Spanish  possessions, 
where  he  again  began  his  life  of  a  trader. 

In  1794,  during  the  Indian  war,  a  fort  was 
built  on  the  site  of  the  store  by  Wayne,  and 
named  Fort  Loramie.  The  last  ofiicer  who  had 
command  here  was  Capt.  Butler,  a  nephew  of 
Col.  Ilichard  Butler,  who  fell  at  St.  Clair's  defeat. 
While  here  with  his  family,  he  lost  an  interesting 
boy,  about  eight  years  of  age.  About  his  grave, 
the  sorrowing  father  and  mother  built  a  substantial 
picket-fence,  planted  honeysuckles  over  it,  which, 
long  after,  remained  to  mark  the  grave  of  the 
soldier's  boy. 

The  site  of  Fort  Loramie  was  always  an  im- 
portant point,  and  was  one  of  the  places  defined 
on  the  boundary  line  at  the  Greenville  treaty. 
Now  a  barn  covers  the  spot. 

At  the  junction  of  the  Auglaize  and  Maumee 
Rivers,  on  the  site  of  Fort  Defiance,  built  by  Gen. 
Wayne  in  1794,  was  a  settlement  of  traders, 
established  some  time  before  the  Indian  war 
began.  "On  the  high  ground  extending  from  the 
Maumee  a  quarter  of  a  mile  up  the  Auglaize, 
about  two  hundred  yards  in  Avidth,  was  an  open 
S])ace,  on  the  west  and  south  of  which  were  oak 

woods,  with  hazel  undergrowth.  Within  this 
opening,  a  few  hundred  yards  above  the  point,  on 
the  steep  bank  of  the  Auglaize,  were  five  or  six 
cabins  and  log  houses,  inhabited  principally  by 
Indian  traders.  The  most  northerly,  a  large 
hewed-log  house,  divided  below  into  three  apart- 
ments, was  occupied  as  a  warehouse,  store  and 
dwelling,  by  George  Ironside,  the  most  wealthy 
and  influential  of  the  traders  on  the  point.  Next 
to  his  were  the  houses  of  Pirault  (Pero)  a  French 
baker,  and  McKenzie,  a  Scot,  who,  in  addition  to 
merchandising,  followed  the  occupation  of  a  silver- 
smith, exchanging  with  the  Indians  his  brooches, 
ear-drops  and  other  silver  ornaments,  at  an 
enormous  profit,  for  skins  and  furs. 

Still  further  up  were  several  other  fami- 
lies of  French  and  English;  and  two  Ameri- 
can prisoners,  Henry  Ball,  a  soldier  taken  in  St. 
Clair's  defeat,  and  his  wife,  Polly  JMeadows, 
captured  at  the  same  time,  were  allowed  to  live 
here  and  pay  their  masters  the  price  of  their 
ransom — he,  by  boating  to  the  rapids  of  the  ]\Iau- 
mee,  and  she  by  washing  and  sewing.  Fronting 
the  house  of  Ironside,  and  about  fifty  yards  from 
the  bank,  was  a  small  stockade,  inclosing  two 
hewed-log  houses,  one  of  which  was  occupied  by 
James  Girty  (a  brother  of  Simon),  the  other, 
occasionally,  by  Elliott  and  McKee,  British 
Indian  Agents  living  at  Detroit."* 

The  post,  cabins  and  all  they  contained  fell 
under  the  control  of  the  Americans,  when  the 
British  evacuated  the  shores  of  the  lakes. 
While  they  existed,  they  were  an  undoubted 
source  of  Indian  discontent,  and  had  much  to  do 
in  prolonging  the  Indian  war.  The  country 
hereabouts  did  not  settle  until  some  time  after 
the  creation  of  the  State  government. 

As  soon  as  the  French  learned  the  true  source 
of  the  Ohio  and  Wabash  Rivers,  both  were  made 
a  highway  to  convey  the  products  of  their  hunt- 
ers. In  coursing  down  the  Ohio,  they  made 
trading-places,  or  depots,  where  they  could  obtain 
furs  of  the  Indians,  at  accessible  points,  generally 
at  the  mouths  of  the  rivers  emptying  into  the 
Ohio.  One  of  these  old  forts  or  trading-places 
stood  about  a  mile  and  a  half  south  of  the  outlet 
of  the  Scioto.  It  was  here  in  1740;  but  when 
it  was  erected  no  one  could  tell.  The  locality 
must  have  been  pretty  well  known  to  the  whites, 
however;  for,  in  1785,  three  years  before  the 
settlement   of  IMarietta   was  made,  four  families 

♦Narrative  of  0.  M.  Spencer. 




made  an  ineffectual  attempt  to  settle  near  the  same 
place.  They  were  from  Kentucky,  but  were 
driven  away  by  the  Indians  a  short  time  after 
they  arrived,  not  being  allowed  to  build  cabins, 
and  had  only  made  preparations  to  plant  corn 
and  other  necessaries  of  life.  While  the  men 
were  encamped  near  the  vicinity  of  Piketown, 
in  Pike  County,  when  on  a  hunting  expedition, 
they  were  surprised  by  the  Indians,  and  two  of 
them  slain.  The  others  hastened  back  to  the 
encampment  at  the  mouth  of  the  Scioto,  and 
hurriedly  gathering  the  families  together,  fortu- 
nately got  them  on  a  flat-boat,  at  that  hour  on  its 
way  down  the  river.  By  the  aid  of  the  boat, 
they  were  enabled  to  reach  Maysville,  and  gave 
up  the  attempt  to  settle  north  of  the  Ohio. 

The  famous  "old  Scioto  Salt  Works,"  in  Jack- 
son County,  on  the  banks  of  Salt  Creek,  a  tributary 
of  the  Scioto,  were  long  known  to  the  whites  before 
any  attempt  was  made  to  settle  in  Ohio.  They 
were  indicated  on  the  maps  published  in  1755. 
They  were  the  resort,  for  generations,  of  the  In- 
dians in  all  parts  of  the  West,  who  annually  came 
here  to  make  salt.  They  often  brought  white 
prisoners  with  them,  and  thus  the  salt  works  be- 
came known.  There  were  no  attempts  made  to 
settle  here,  however,  until  after  the  Indian  war, 
which  closed  in  1795.  As  soon  as  peace  was  as- 
sured, the  whites  came  here  for  salt,  and  soon  after 
made  a  settlement.  Another  early  salt  spring 
was  in  what  is  now  Trumbull  County.  It  is  also 
noted  on  Evan's  map  of  1755.  They  were  occu- 
pied by  the  Indians,  French,  and  by  the  Americans 
as  early  as  1780,  and  perhaps  earlier. 

As  early  as  1761  Moravian  missionaries  came 
among  the  Ohio  Indians  and  began  their  labors. 
In  a  few  years,  under  the  lead  of  Revs.  Fredrick 
Post  and  John  Heckewelder,  permanent  stations 
were  established  in  several  parts  of  the  State,  chief- 
ly on  the  Tuscarawas  River  in  Tuscarawas  County. 
Here  were  the  three  Indian  villages — Shocnburn, 
Gnadcnhutten  and  Salem.  The  site  of  the  first  is 
about  two  miles  south  of  New  Philadelphia;  Gna- 
dcnhutten was  seven  miles  further  south,  and  about 
five  miles  still  on  was  Salem,  a  short  distance  from 
the  present  village  of  Port  Washington.  The  first 
and  last  named  of  these  villages  were  on  the  west 
side  of  the  Tuscarawas  River,  near  the  margin  of 
the  Ohio  Canal.  Gnadcnhutten  was  on  the  east 
side  of  the  river.  It  was  here  that  the  brutal 
massacre  of  these  Christian  Indians,  by  the  rangers 
under  Col.  Williamson,  occurred  March  8,  1782. 
The  account  of  the  massacre   and  of  these  tribes 

appears  in  these  pages,  and  it  only  remains  to 
notice  what  became  of  them. 

The  hospitable  and  friendly  character  of  these 
Indians  had  extended  beyond  their  white  breth- 
ren on  the  Ohio.  The  American  people  at  large 
looked  on  the  act  of  Williamson  and  his  men  as  an 
outrage  on  humanity.  Congress  felt  its  influence, 
and  gave  them  a  tract  of  twelve  thousand  acres, 
embracing  their  former  homes,  and  induced  them 
to  return  from  the  northern  towns  whither  they  had 
fled.  As  the  whites  came  into  the  country,  their 
manners  degenerated  until  it  became  necessary  to 
remove  them.  Through  Gen.  Cass,  of  Michigan, 
an  agreement  was  made  with  them,  whereby  Con- 
gress paid  them  over  $G,000,  an  annuity  of  $400, 
and  24,000  acres  in  some  territory  to  be  designated 
by  the  United  States.  This  treaty,  by  some  means, 
was  never  effectually  carried  out,  and  the  princi- 
pal part  of  them  took  up  their  residence  near  a 
Moravian  missionary  station  on  the  River  Thames, 
in  Canada.  Their  old  churchyard  still  exists  on 
the  Tuscarawas  River,  and  here  rest  the  bones  of 
several  of  their  devoted  teachers.  It  is  proper 
to  remark  here,  that  Mary  Heckewelder,  daughter 
of  the  missionary,  is  generally  believed  to  have 
been  the  first  white  child  born  in  Ohio.  How- 
ever, this  is  largely  conjecture.  Captive  women 
among  the  Indians,  before  the  birth  of  Mary 
Heckewelder,  are  known  to  have  borne  children, 
which  afterward,  with  their  mothers,  were  restored 
to  their  friends.  The  assertion  that  Mary 
Heckewelder  was  the  first  child  born  in  Ohio,  is 
therefore  incorrect.  She  is  the  first  of  whom  any 
definite  record  is  made. 

These  outposts  are  about  all  that  are  known 
to  have  existed  prior  to  the  settlement  at  Mari- 
etta. About  one-half  mile  below  Bolivar,  on 
the  western  line  of  Tuscarawas  County,  are  the 
remains  of  Fort  Laurens,  erected  in  1778,  by 
a  detachment  of  1,000  men  under  Gen.  Mc- 
intosh, from  Fort  Pitt.  It  was,  however,  occu- 
pied but  a  short  time,  vacated  in  Aug-ust,  1770.  as 
it  was  deemed  untenable  at  such  a  distance  from 
the  frontier. 

During  the  existence  of  the  six  years'  Indian 
war,  a  settlement  of  French  emigrants  was  made 
on  the  Ohio  River,  that  deserves  notice.  It  illus- 
trates very  clearly  the  extreme  ignorance  and 
credulity  prevalent  at  that  day.  In  IMay  or  June 
of  1788,  Joel  Barlow  left  this  country  for  Europe, 
"  authorized  to  dispose  of  a  very  large  body  of 
land  in  the  West.  "  In  1790,  he  distributed  pro- 
posals in   Paris  for  the  disposal  of  lands  at  five 





shillings  per  acre,  which,  says  Volney,  "  promised 
a  climate  healthy  and  delightful ;  scarcely  such  a 
thing  as  a  frost  in  the  winter ;  a  river,  called  by 
way  of  eminence  '  The  Beautiful, '  abounding  in 
fish  of  an  enormous  size ;  magnificent  forests  of  a 
tree  from  which  sugar  flows,  and  a  shrub  which 
yields  candles  ;  venison  in  abundance  ;  no  military 
enrollments,  and  no  quarters  to  find  for  soldiers." 
Purchasers  became  numerous,  individuals  and 
whole  families  sold  their  property,  and  in  the 
course  of  1791  many  embarked  at  the  various 
French  sea-ports,  each  with  his  title  in  his  pocket. 
Five  hundred  settlers,  among  whom  were  many 
wood  carvers  and  guilders  to  His  Majesty,  King  of 
France,  coachmakers,  friseurs  and  peruke  makers, 
and  other  artisans  and  artistes,  equally  well  fitted 
for  a  frontier  Hfe,  arrived  in  the  United  States  in 
1791-92,  and  acting  without  concert,  traveling 
without  knowledge  of  the  language,  customs  and 
roads,  at  last  managed  to  reach  the  spot  designated 
for  their  residence.  There  they  learned  they  had 
been  cruelly  deceived,  and  that  the  titles  they  held 
were  worthless.  Without  food,  shelterless,  and 
danger  closing  around  them,  they  were  in  a  position 
that  none  but  a  Frenchman  could  be  in  without 
despair.  Who  brought  them  thither,  and  who  was 
to  blame,  is  yet  a  disputed  point.  Some  affirm 
that  those  to  whom  large  grants  of  land  were  made 
when  the  Ohio  Company  procured  its  charter,  were 
the  real  instigators  of  the  movement.  They  failed 
to  pay  for  their  lands,  and  hence  the  title  reverted 
to  the  Government.  This,  coming  to  the  ears  of 
the  poor  Frenchmen,  rendered  their  situation  more 
distressing.  They  never  paid  for  their  lands^  and 
only  through  the  clemency  of  Congress,  who  after- 
ward gave  them  a  grant  of  land,  and  confirmed 
them  in  its  title,  were  they  enabled  to  secure  a  foot- 
hold.    Whatever  doubt  there  may  be  as  to  the 

causes  of  these  people  being  so  grossly  deceived, 
there  can  be  none  regarding  their  sufierings.  They 
had  followed  a  jack-o-lantern  into  the  howling 
wilderness,  and  must  work  or  starve.  The  land 
upon  which  they  had  been  located  was  covered 
with  immense  forest  trees,  to  level  which  the  coach- 
makers  were  at  a  loss.  At  last,  hoping  to  conquer 
by  a  coup  de  main,  they  tied  ropes  to  the  branches, 
and  while  a  dozen  pulled  at  them  as  many  fell  at 
the  trunk  with  all  sorts  of  edged  tools,  and  thus 
soon  brought  the  monster  to  the  earth.  Yet  he 
was  a  burden.  He  was  down,  to  be  sure,  but  as 
much  in  the  way  as  ever.  Several  lopped  off  the 
branches,  others  dug  an  immense  trench  at  his  side, 
into  which,  with  might  and  main,  all  rolled  the 
large  log,  and  then  buried  him  from  sight.  They 
erected  their  cabins  in  a  cluster,  as  they  had  seen 
them  in  their  own  native  land,  thus  afibrding  some 
protection  from  marauding  bands  of  Indians. 
Though  isolated  here  in  the  lonely  wilderness,  and 
nearly  out  of  funds  with  which  to  purchase  pro- 
visions from  descending  boats,  yet  once  a  week 
they  met  and  drowned  care  in  a  merry  dance, 
greatly  to  the  wonderment  of  the  scout  or  lone 
Indian  who  chanced  to  witness  their  revelry. 
Though  their  vivacity  could  work  wonders,  it  would 
not  pay  for  lands  nor  buy  provisions.  Some  of  those 
at  Gallipolis  (for  such  they  called  their  settlement, 
from  Gallia,  in  France)  went  to  Detroit,  some  to 
Kaskaskia,  and  some  bought  land  of  the  Ohio 
Company,  who  treated  them  liberally.  Congress, 
too,  in  1795,  being  informed  of  their  sufFering^, 
and  how  they  had  been  deceived,  granted  them 
24,000  acres  opposite  Little  Sandy  River,  to  which 
grant,  in  1798,  12,000  acres  more  were  added. 
The  tract  has  since  been  known  as  French  Grant. 
The  settlement  is  a  curious  episode  in  early  West- 
ern history,  and  deserves  a  place  in  its  annals. 









AS  has  been  noted,  the  French  title  rested  on 
the  discoveries  of  their  missionaries  and 
traders,  upon  the  occupation  of  the  country,  and 
upon  the  construction  of  the  treaties  of  Ryswick, 
Utrecht  and  Aix  la  Chapelle.  The  English 
claims  to  the  same  region  were  based  on  the  fact 
of  a  prior  occupation  of  the  corresponding  coast, 
on  an  opposite  construction  of  the  same  treaties, 
and  an  alleged  cession  of  the  rights  of  the 
Indians.  The  rights  acquired  by  discovery  were 
conventional,  and  in  equity  were  good  only 
between  European  powers,  and  could  not  affect  the 
rights  of  the  natives,  but  this  distinction  was  dis- 
regarded by  all  European  powers.  The  inquiry  of 
an  Indian  chief  embodies  the  whole  controversy: 
"  Where  are  the  Indian  lands,  since  the  French 
claim  all  on  the  north  side  of  the  Ohio  and  the 
English  all  on  the  south  side  of  it?" 

The  English  charters  expressly  granted  to  all 
the  original  colonies  the  country  westward  to  the 
South  Sea,  and  the  claims  thus  set  up  in  the  West, 
though  held  in  abeyance,  were  never  relinquished. 
The  primary  distinction  between  the  two  nations 
governed  their  actions  in  the  New  World,  and  led 
finally  to  the  supremacy  of  the  English.  They 
were  fixed  agricultural  communities.  The  French 
were  mere  trading-posts.  Though  the  French 
were  the  prime  movers  in  the  exploration  of  the 
West,  the  English  made  discoveries  during  their 
occupation,  however,  mainly  by  their  traders,  who 
penetrated  the  Western  wilderness  by  way  of  the 
Ohio  River,  entering  it  from  the  two  streams  which 
uniting  form  that  river.  Daniel  Coxie,  in  1722, 
published,  in  London,  "A  description  of  the 
English  province  of  Carolina,  by  the  Spaniards 
called  Florida,  and  by  the  French  called  La  Louis- 
iane,  as  also  the  great  and  famous  river  Mescha- 
cebe,  or  Mississippi,  the  five  vast  navigable  lakes 
of  fresh  water,  and  the  parts  adjacent,  together 
with  an  account  of  the  commodities  of  the  growth 
and  production  of  the  said  province."  The  title 
of  this  work  exhibits  very  clearly  the  opinions  of 
the  English  people  respecting  the  West.  As  early 
as  1 G30,  Charles  I  granted  to  Sir  Robert  Heath 
"All  that  part  of  America  lying  between  thirty- 

one  and  thirty-six  degrees  north  latitude,  from  sea 
to  sea,"  out  of  which  the  limits  of  Carolina  were 
afterward  taken.  This  immense  grant  was  con- 
veyed in  1638,  to  the  Earl  of  Arundel,  and  after- 
ward came  into  the  possession  of  Dr.  Daniel  Coxie. 
In  the  prosecution  of  this  claim,  it  appeared  that 
Col.  Wood,  of  Virginia,  from  165-1  to  1664,  ex- 
plored several  branches  of  the  Ohio  and  "  Mescha- 
cebe,"  as  they  spell  the  Mississippi.  A  Mr.  Need- 
ham,  who  was  employed  by  Col.  Wood,  kept  a 
journal  of  the  exploration.  There  is  also  the  ac- 
count of  some  one  who  had  explored  the  Missis- 
sippi to  the  Yellow,  or  Missouri  River,  before  1676. 
These,  and  others,  are  said  to  have  been  there 
when  La  Salle  explored  the  outlet  of  the  Great 
River,  as  he  found  tools  among  the  natives  which 
were  of  European  manufacture.  They  had  been 
brought  here  by  English  adventurers.  Also,  when 
Iberville  was  colonizing  the  lower  part  of  Louis- 
iana, these  same  persons  visited  the  Chickasaws 
and  stirred  them  up  against  the  French.  It  is  also 
stated  that  La  Salle  found  that  some  one  had  been 
among  the  Natchez  tribes  when  he  returned  from 
the  discovery  of  the  outlet  of  the  Mississippi,  and 
excited  them  against  him.  There  is,  however,  no 
good  authority  for  these  statements,  and  they  are 
doubtless  incorrect.  There  is  also  an  account  that 
in  1678,  several  persons  went  from  New  England 
as  far  south  as  New  Mexico,  "  one  hundred  and 
fifty  leagues  beyond  the  Meschacebe,"  the  narrative 
reads,  and  on  their  return  wrote  an  account  of  the 
expedition.  This,  also,  cannot  be  traced  to  good 
authority.  The  only  accurate  account  of  the 
English  reaching  the  West  was  when  Bienville 
met  the  British  vessel  at  the  "English  Turn," 
about  1700.  A  few  of  their  traders  may  have 
been  in  the  valley  west  of  the  Alleghany  Mount- 
ains before  1700,  though  no  reliable  accounts  are 
now  found  to  confirm  these  suppositions.  Still, 
from  the  earliest  occupation  of  the  Atlantic  Coast 
by  the  EngHsh,  they  claimed  the  country,  and, 
though  the  policy  of  its  occupation  rested  for  a 
time,  it  was  never  ftilly  abandoned.  Its  revival 
dates  from  1710  properly,  though  no  immediate 
endeavor  was  made  for  many  years  after.     That 




year,  Alexander  Spottswood  was  made  Governor  of 
Virginia.  No  sooner  did  he  assume  the  functions 
of  ruler,  than,  casting  his  eye  over  his  dominion,  he 
saw  the  great  West  beyond  the  Alleghany  Mount- 
ains unoccupied  by  the  English,  and  rapidly  filling 
with  the  French,  who  he  observed  were  gradually 
confining  the  English  to  the  Atlantic  Coast.  His 
prophetic  eye  saw  at  a  glance  the  animus  of  the 
whole  scheme,  and  he  determined  to  act  promptly 
on  the  defensive.  Through  his  representation,  the 
Virginia  Assembly  was  induced  to  make  an  appro- 
priation to  defray  the  expense  of  an  exploration  of 
the  mountains,  and  see  if  a  suitable  pass  could  not 
then  be  found  where  they  could  be  crossed.  The 
Governor  led  the  expedition  in  person.  The  pass 
was  discovered,  a  route  marked  out  for  future  em- 
igrants, and  the  party  returned  to  Williamsburg. 
There  the  Governor  established  the  order  of  the 
"Knights  of  the  Golden  Horseshoe,"  presented 
his  report  to  the  Colonial  Assembly  and  one  to  his 
King.  In  each  report,  he  exposed  with  great  bold- 
ness the  scheme  of  the  French,  and  advised  the 
building  of  a  chain  of  forts  across  to  the  Ohio,  and 
the  formation  of  settlements  to  counteract  them. 
The  British  Government,  engrossed  with  other 
matters,  neglected  his  advice.  Forty  years  after, 
they  remembered  it,  only  to  regret  that  it  was  so 
thoughtlessly  disregarded. 

Individuals,  however,  profited  by  his  advice.  By 
1730,  traders  began  in  earnest  to  cross  the  mount- 
ains and  gather  from  the  Indians  the  stores  beyond. 
They  now  began  to  adopt  a  system,  and  abandoned 
the  heretofore  renegade  habits  of  those  who  had 
superseded  them,  many  of  whom  never  returned  to 
the  Atlantic  Coast.  In  1742,  Joan  Howard  de- 
scended the  Ohio  in  a  skin  canoe,  and,  on  the 
Mississippi  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  French.  His 
captivity  did  not  in  the  least  deter  others  from 
coming.  Indeed,  the  date  of  his  voyage  was  the 
commencement  of  a  vigorous  trade  with  the  In- 
dians by  the  English,  who  crossed  the  Alleghanies 
by  the  route  discovered  by  Gov.  Spottswood.  In 
1748,  Conrad  Weiser,  a  German  of  Herenberg,  who 
had  acquired  in  early  life  a  knowledge  of  the  jMo- 
hawk  tongue  by  a  residence  among  them,  was  sent 
on  an  to  the  Shawanees  on  the  Ohio.  He 
went  as  far  as  Logstown,a  Shawanee  village  on  the 
north  bank  of  the  Ohio,  about  seventeen  miles  bc- 
k)W  the  site  of  Pittsburgh.  Here  he  met  the  chiefs 
in  coun.sel,  and  secured  their  promise  of  aid  against 
the  French. 

The  principal  ground  of  the  claims  of  the 
English  in  the  Northwest  was  the  treaty  with  the 

Five  Nations — the  Iroquois.  This  powerful  confed- 
eration claimed  the  jurisdiction  over  an  immense 
extent  of  country.  Their  policy  differed  considera- 
bly from  other  Indian  tribes.  They  were  the  only 
confederation  which  attempted  any  form  of  gov- 
ernment in  America.  They  were  often  termed  the 
"  Six  Nations,"  as  the  entrance  of  another  tribe 
into  the  confederacy  made  that  number.  Tliey 
were  the  conquerors  of  nearly  all  tribes  from  Lower 
Canada,  to  and  beyond  the  Mississippi.  They  only 
exacted,  however,  a  tribute  from  the  conquered 
tribes,  leaving  them  to  manage  their  own  internal 
affairs,  and  stipulating  that  to  them  alone  did  the 
right  of  cession  belong.  Their  country,  under 
these  claims,  embraced  all  of  America  north  of  the 
Cherokee  Nation,  in  Virginia;  all  Kentucky,  and 
all  the  Northwest,  save  a  district  in  Ohio  and  Indi- 
ana, and  a  small  section  in  Southwestern  Illinois, 
claimed  by  the  Miami  Confederacy.  The  Iroquois, 
or  Six  Nations,  were  the  terror  of  all  other  tribes. 
It  was  they  who  devastated  the  Illinois  country 
about  Rock  Fort  in  1680,  and  caused  wide-spread 
alarm  among  all  the  Western  Indians.  In  16S4, 
Lord  Howard,  Governor  of  Virginia,  held  a  treaty 
with  the  Iroquois  at  Albany,  when,  at  the  request 
of  Col.  Duncan,  of  New  York,  they  placed  them- 
selves under  the  protection  of  the  English.  They 
made  a  deed  of  sale  then,  by  treaty,  to  the  British 
Government,  of  a  vast  tract  of  country  south  and 
east  of  the  Illinois  River,  and  extending  into  Can- 
ada. In  1726,  another  deed  was  drawn  up  and 
signed  by  the  chiefs  of  the  national  confederacy  by 
which  their  lands  were  conveyed  in  trust  to 
England,  "  to  be  protected  and  defended  by  His 
Majesty,  to  and  for  the  use  of  the  grantors  and 
their  heirs."* 

If  the  Six  Nations  had  a  good  claim  to  the  West- 
ern country,  there  is  but  little  doubt  but  England 
was  justified  in  defending  their  country  against  the 
French,  as,  by  the  treaty  of  Uti-echt,  they  had 
agreed  not  to  invade  the  lands  of  Britain's  Indian 
allies.  This  claim  was  vigorously  contested  by 
France,  as  that  country  claimed  the  Iroquois  had 
no  lawful  jurisdiction  over  the  West.  In  all  the 
disputes,  the  interests  of  the  contending  nations 
was,  however,  the  paramount  consideration.  The 
rights  of  the  Indians  were  little  regarded. 

The  British  also  purchased  land  by  the  treaty 
of  Lancaster,  in  1744,  wherein  they  agreed  to  pay 
the  Six  Nations  for  land  settled  unlawfully  in 
Pennsylvania,  Virginia  and   Maryland.     The  In- 

*  Annals  of  the  West. 




(lians  were  given  goods  and  gold  amounting  to 
near  a  thousand  pounds  sterling.  They  were  also 
promised  the  protection  of  the  English.  Had  this 
latter  provision  been  faithfully  carried  out,  much 
blood  would  have  been  saved  in  after  years.  The 
treaties  with  the  Six  Nations  were  the  real  basis 
of  the  claims  of  Great  Britain  to  ihe  West ;  claims 
that  were  only  settled  by  war.  The  Shawanee  In- 
dians, on  the  Ohio,  were  also  becoming  hostile  to 
the  English,  and  began  to  assume  a  threatening 
exterior.  Peter  Chartier,  a  half-breed,  residing  in 
Philadelphia,  escaped  from  the  authorities,  those 
by  whom  he  was  held  for  a  violation  of  the  laws, 
and  joining  the  Shawanees,  persuaded  them  to  join 
the  French.  Soon  after,  in  1743  or  1744,  he 
placed  himself  at  the  head  of  400  of  their  war- 
riors, and  lay  in  wait  on  the  Alleghany  River  for 
the  provincial  traders.  He  captured  two,  exhib- 
ited to  them  a  captain's  commission  from  the 
French,  and  seized  their  goods,  worth  £1,600. 
The  Indians,  after  this,  emboldened  by  the  aid 
given  them  by  the  French,  became  more  and  more 
hostile,  and  Weiser  was  again  sent  across  the  mount- 
ains in  1748,  with  presents  to  conciliate  them  and 
sound  them  on  their  feelings  for  the  rival  nations, 
and  also  to  see  what  they  thought  of  a  settlement 
of  the  English  to  be  made  in  the  West.  The  visit 
of  Conrad  Weiser  was  successful,  and  Thomas  Lee, 
with  twelve  other  Virginians,  among  whom  were 
Lawrence  and  Augustine  AVashington,  brothers  of 
George  Washington,  formed  a  company  which 
they  styled  the  Ohio  Company,  and,  in  1748,  peti- 
tioned the  King  for  a  grant  beyond  the  mountains. 
The  monarch  approved  the  petition  and  the  gov- 
ernment of  Virginia  was  ordered  to  grant  the  Com- 
pany 500,000  acres  within  the  bounds  of  that 
colony  beyond  the  Alleghanies,  200,000  of  which 
were  to  be  located  at  once.  This  provision  was  to 
hold  good  for  ten  years,  free  of  quit  rent,  provided 
the  Company  would  settle  100  families  within 
seven  years,  and  build  a  fort  sufficient  for  their 
protection.  These  terms  the  Company  accepted, 
and  sent  at  once  to  London  for  a  cargo  suitable  for 
the  Indian  trade.  This  was  the  beginning  of 
English  Companies  in  the  West;  this  one  forming 
a  prominent  part  in  the  history  of  Ohio,  as  will 
be  .seen  hereafter.  Others  were  also  formed  in 
Virginia,  whose  object  was  the  colonization  of  the 
West.  One  of  these,  the  Loyal  Company,  received, 
on  the  12th  of  June,  1749,  a  grant  of  800,000 
acres,  from  the  line  of  Canada  on  the  north  and 
west,  and  on  the  29th  of  October,  1751,  the  Green- 
briar  Company  received  a  grant  of  100,000  acres. 

To  these  encroachments,  the  French  were  by  no 
means  blind.  They  saw  plainly  enough  that  if 
the  English  gained  a  foothold  in  the  West,  they 
would  inevitably  endeavor  to  obtain  the  country, 
and  one  day  the  issue  could  only  be  decided  by 
war.  Vaudreuil,  the  French  Governor,  had  long 
anxiously  watched  the  coming  struggle.  In  1774, 
he  wrote  home  representing  the  consequences  that 
would  surely  come,  should  the  English  succeed  in 
their  plans.  The  towns  of  the  French  in  Illinois 
were  producing  large  amounts  of  bread-stuffs  and 
provisions  which  they  sent  to  New  Orleans.  These 
provinces  were  becoming  valuable,  and  not  be 
allowed  to  come  under  control  of  a  rival  power. 
In  1749,  Louis  Celeron  was  sent  by  the  Governor 
with  a  party  of  soldiers  to  plant  leaden  plates,  suit- 
ably inscribed,  along  the  Ohio  at  the  mouths  of 
the  principal  streams.  Two  of  these  plates  were 
afterward  exhumed.  One  was  .sent  to  the  3Iary- 
land  Historical  Society,  and  the  inscription*  deci- 
phered by  De  Witt  Clinton.  On  these  plates  was 
clearly  stated  the  claims  of  France,  as  will  be  seen 
from  the  translation  below. 

England's  claim,  briefly  and  clearly  stated,  read 
as  follows:  "That  all  lands,  or  countries  west- 
ward from  the  Atlantic  Ocean  to  the  South  Sea, 
between  48  and  34  degrees  of  North  Latitude, 
were  expres.sly  included  in  the  grant  of  King 
James  the  First,  to  divers  of  his  subjects,  so  long- 
time since  as  the  year  1606,  and  afterwards  con- 
firmed in  the  year  1620;  and  under  this  grant, 
the  colony  of  Virginia  claims  extent  so  far  west 
as  the  South  Sea,  and  the  ancient  colonies  of 
achusetts  Bay  and  Connecticut,  were  by  their 
respective  charters,  made  to  extend  to  the  said 
South  Sea,  so  that  not  only  the  right  to  the  sea 
coast,  but  to  all  the  Inland  countries  from  sea  to 
sea,  has  at  all  times  been  asserted  by  the  Crown  of 
England. "f 

To  make  good  their  titles,  both  nations  were  now 
doing  their  utmost.  Professedly  at  peace,  it  only 
needed  a  torch  applied,  as  it  were,  to  any  point,  to 
instantly  precipitate  hostilities.     The  French  were 

*  The  following  is  the  translation  of  the  inscription  of  the  plate 
found  at  Venango  :  "  In  the  year  1749,  reign  of  Louis  XV,  King  of 
France,  we,  Celeron,  commandant  of  a  detiichment  by  Monsieur 
thw  Marquis  of  Giillisoniere,  Commander-in-chief  of  New  France, 
to  establish  tranquillity  in  certain  Indian  villages  in  these  Cantons, 
have  buried  this  plate  at  the  confluence  of  the  Toraclakoin,  this 
twenty-ninth  of  July,  near  the  River  Ohio,  otherwise  Beautiful 
River,  as  a  monument  of  renewal  of  possession  which  we  have  taken 
of  the  said  river,  and  all  its  tributaries;  and  of  all  the  land  on  both 
sides,  as  far  as  the  sources  of  said  rivers;  inasmuch  as  th"  preceding 
Kings  of  France  have  enjoyed  it,  and  maintained  it  by  tlnir  arras 
and  by  treaties;  especially  by  those  of  Eyswick,  Utrecht,  and  Aix 
La  Chapelle." 

1  Colonial  Records  of  Pennsylvania. 




bu.silj  engaged  erecting  forts  from  the  southern 
shores  of  Lake  Erie  to  the  Ohio,  and  on  down  in 
the  Illinois  Valley  ;  up  at  Detroit,  and  at  all  its 
posts,  preparations  were  constantly  going  on  for  the 
crisis,  now  sure  to  come.  The  issue  between  the 
two  governments  was  now  fully  miule  up.  It  ad- 
mitted of  no  compromise  but  the  sword.  To  that, 
however,  neither  power  desired  an  immediate  ap- 
peal, and  both  sought  rather  to  establish  and  fortify 
their  interests,  and  to  conciliate  the  Indian  tribes. 
The  English,  through  the  Ohio  Company,  sent  out 
Christopher  Gist  in  the  fall  of  1750,  to  explore  the 
regions  west  of  the  mountains.  He  was  instructed 
to  examine  the  passes,  trace  the  courses  of  the 
rivers,  mark  the  falls,  seek  for  valuable  lands,  ob- 
serve the  strength,  and  to  conciliate  the  friendship 
of  the  Indian  tribes.  He  was  well  fitted  for  such 
an  enterprise.  Hardy,  sagacious,  bold,  an  adept  in 
Indian  character,  a  hunter  by  occupation,  no  man 
was  better  qualified  than  he  for  such  an  undertak- 
ing. He  visited  Logstown,  where  he  w^as  jealously 
received,  passed  over  to  the  Muskingum  River  and 
Valley  in  Ohio,  where  he  found  a  village  of  Wyan- 
dots,  divided  in  sentiment.  At  this  village  he  met 
Crogaii,  another  equally  famous  frontiersman,  who 
had  been  sent  out  by  Pennsylvania.  Together 
they  held  a  council  with  the  chiefs,  and  received 
assurance  of  the  friendship  of  the  tribe.  This 
done,  they  passed  to  the  Shawnee  towns  on  the 
Scioto,  received  their  assurances  of  friendship,  and 
went  on  to  the  Miami  Valley,  which  they  crossed, 
remarking  in  Crogan's  journal  of  its  great  fertili- 
ty. They  made  a  raft  of  logs  on  which  they 
crossed  the  Grreat  Miami,  visited  Piqua,  the  chief 
town  of  the  Pickawillanies,  and  here  made  treaties 
with  the  Weas  and  Piankeshaws.  While  here,  a 
deputation  of  the  Ottawas  visited  the  Miami  Con- 
federacy to  induce  them  to  unite  with  the  French. 
They  were  repulsed  through  the  influence  of  the 
English  agents,  the  Miamis  sending  Gist  word  that 
they  would  "  stand  like  the  mountains.  "  Crogan 
now  returned  and  published  an  account  of  their 
wanderings.  Gist  followed  the  IMiami  to  its 
mouth,  passed  down  the  Ohio  till  within  fifteen 
miles  of  the  falls,  then  returned  by  way  of  the 
Kentucky  River,  over  the  highlands  of  Kentucky 
to  Virginia,  arriving  in  May,  1751.  He  had 
visited  the  Mingoes,  Delawares,  Wyandots,  Shawa- 
nees  and  Miamis,  proposed  a  union  among  these 
tribes,  and  appointed  a  grand  council  to  meet  at 
Logstown  to  form  an  alliance  among  themselves 
and  with  Virginia.  His  journey  was  marvelous 
for  the  day.     It  was  extremely  hazardous,  as  he 

was  part  of  the  time  among  hostile  tribes,  who 
could  have  captured  him  and  been  well  rewarded 
by  the  French  Government.  But  Gist  knew  how 
to  act.  and  was  successful. 

While  Gist  was  doing  this,  some  English  traders 
established  themselves  at  a  place  in  what  is  now 
known  as  Shelby  County,  Ohio,  and  opened  a 
store  for  the  purpose  of  trading  with  the  Indians. 
This  was  clearly  in  the  limits  of  the  West,  claimed 
by  the  French,  and  at  once  aroused  them  to  action. 
The  fort  or  stockade  stood  on  the  banks  of  Loramie's 
Creek,  about  sixteen  miles  northwest  of  the  present 
city  of  Sydney.  It  received  the  name  Loramie 
from  the  creek  by  the  French,  which  received 
its  name  in  turn  from  the  French  trader  of 
that  name,  who  had  a  trading-post  on  this 
creek.  Loramie  had  fled  to  the  Spanish  country 
west  of  the  Mississippi,  and  for  many  years 
was  a  trader  there  ;  his  store  being  at  the  junc- 
tion of  the  Kansas  and  Missouri,  near  the  present 
city  of  Kansas  City,  Mo.  When  the  English 
traders  came  to  Loramie's  Creek,  and  erected 
their  trading-place,  they  gave  it  the  name  of  Pick- 
awillany,  from  the  tribe  of  Indians  there.  The 
Miami  confederacy  granted  them  this  privilege 
as  the  result  of  the  presents  brought  by  Crogan  and 
Gist.  It  is  also  asserted  that  Andrew  Montour, 
a  half-breed,  son  of  a  Seneca  chief  and  the  famous 
Catharine  Montour,  who  was  an  important  fac- 
tor afterward  in  the  English  treaties  with  the 
Indians,  was  with  them,  and  by  his  influence  did 
much  to  aid  in  securing  the  privilege.  Thus  was 
established  the  first  English  trading-post  in  the 
Northwest  Territory  and  in  Ohio.  It,  however, 
enjoyed  only  a  short  duration.  The  French  could 
not  endure  so  clear  an  invasion  of  their  country, 
and  gathering  a  force  of  Ottawas  and  Chippewas, 
now  their  allies,  they  attacked  the  stockade  in 
June,  1752.  At  first  they  demanded  of  the  Miamis 
the  surrender  of  the  fort,  as  they  were  the  real 
cause  of  its  location,  having  granted  the  English 
the  privilege.  The  Miamis  not  only  refused,  but 
aided  the  British  in  the  defense.  In  the  battle  that 
ensued,  fourteen  of  the  Miamis  were  slain,  and  all 
the  traders  captured.  One  account  says  they  were 
burned,  another,  and  probably  the  correct  one, 
states  that  they  were  taken  to  Canada  as  prisoners 
of  war.  It  is  probable  the  traders  were  from  Penn- 
sylvania, as  that  commonwealth  made  the  Miamis 
presents  as  condolence  for  their  warriors  that  were 

Blood  had  now  been  shed.     The  opening  gun  of 
the  French  and  Indian  war  had  been  fired,  and  both 




nations  became  more  deeply  interested  in  affairs  in 
the  West.  The  English  were  determined  to  secure 
additional  title  to  the  West,  and,  in  1752,  sent 
Messrs.  Fry,  Lomax  and  Patton  as  commissioners 
to  Logstown  to  treat  with  the  Indians,  and  confirm 
the  Lancaster  treaty.  They  met  the  Indians  on 
the  9th  of  June,  stated  their  desires,  and  on  the 
11th  received  their  answer.  At  first,  the  sav- 
ages were  not  inclined  to  recognize  the  Lancaster 
treaty,  but  agreed  to  aid  the  English,  as  the  French 
had  already  made  war  on  the  Twigtees  (at  Picka- 
willany),  and  consented  to  the  establishment  of  a 
fort  and  trading-post  at  the  forks  of  the  Ohio. 
This  was  not  all  the  Virginians  wanted,  however, 
and  taking  aside  Andrew  Montour,  now  chief  of  the 
Six  Nations,  persuaded  him  to  use  his  influence 
with  the  red  men.  By  such  means,  they  were  in- 
duced to  treat,  and  on  the  13th  they  all  united  in 
signing  a  deed,  confirming  the  Lancaster  treaty  in 
its  full  extent,  consenting  to  a  settlement  southwest 
of  the  Ohio,  and  covenanting  that  it  should  not  be 
disturbed  by  them.  By  such  means  was  obtained 
the  treaty  with  the  Indians  in  the   Ohio  Valley. 

All  this  time,  the  home  governments  were  en- 
deavoring to  out-maneuver  each  other  with  regard 
to  the  lands  in  the  West,  though  there  the  outlook 
only  betokened  war.  The  French  understood  bet- 
ter than  the  English  how  to  manage  the  Indians, 
and  succeeded  in  attaching  them  firmly  to  their 
cause.  The  English  were  not  honest  in  their 
actions  with  them,  and  hence,  in  after  years,  the 
massacres  that  followed. 

At  the  close  of  1752,  Gist  was  at  work,  in  con- 
formity with  the  Lancaster  and  Logstown  treaties, 
laying  out  a  fort  and  town  on  Chartier's  Creek, 
about  ten  miles  below  the  fork.  Eleven  families 
had  crossed  the  mountains  to  settle  at  Gist's  resi- 
dence west  of  Laurel  Hill,  not  far  from  the  Yough- 
iogheny.  Goods  had  come  from  England  for  the 
Ohio  Company,  which  were  carried  as  fxr  West  as 
Will's  Creek,  where  Cumberland  now  stands  ;  and 
where  they  were  taken  by  the  Indians  and  traders. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  French  were  eatherins; 
cannon  and  stores  on  Lake  Erie,  and,  without 
treaties  or  deeds  of  land,  were  gaining  the  good 
will  of  the  inimical  tribes,  and  preparing,  when  all 
was  ready,  to  strike  the  blow.  Their  fortifications 
consisted  of  a  chain  of  forts  from  Lake  Erie  to 
the  Ohio,  on  the  border.  One  was  at  Presque  Isle, 
on  the  site  of  Erie ;  one  on  French  Creek,  on  the 
site  of  Waterford,  Penn.;  one  at  the  mouth  of 
French  Creek,  in  Venango  County,  Penn.;  while 
opposite  it  was  another,   effectually  commanding 

that  section  of  country.  These  forts,  it  will  be 
observed,  were  all  in  the  limits  of  the  Pennsyl- 
vania colony.  The  Governor  informed  the  Assem- 
bly of  their  existence,  who  voted  £600  to  be  used 
in  purchasing  presents  for  the  Indians  n^ar  the 
forts,  and  thereby  hold  their  friendship.  Virginia, 
also,  took  similar  measures.  Trent  was  sent,  with 
guns  and  ammunition  and  presents,  to  the  friendly 
tribes,  and,  while  on  his  mission,  learned  of  the 
plates  of  lead  planted  by  the  French.  In  October, 
1753,  a  treaty  was  consummated  with  representa- 
tives of  the  Iroquois,  Delawares,  Shawanees,  Twig- 
twees  and  Wyandots,  by  commissioners  from 
Pennsylvania,  one  of  whom  was  the  philosopher 
Franklin.  At  the  conferences  held  at  this  time, 
the  Indians  complained  of  the  actions  of  the 
French  in  forcibly  taking  possession  of  the  dis- 
puted country,  and  also  bitterly  denounced  them 
for  using  rum  to  intoxicate  the  red  men,  when 
they  desired  to  gain  any  advantage.  Not  long 
after,  they  had  similar  grounds  of  complaint  against 
the  English,  whose  lawless  traders  cared  for  nothing 
but  to  gain  the  furs  of  the  savage  at  as  little  ex- 
pense as  possible. 

The  encroachments  of  the  French  on  what  was 
regarded  as  English  territory,  created  intense  feel- 
ing in  the  colonies,  especially  in  Virginia.  The 
purpose  of  the  French  to  inclose  the  English  on 
the  Atlantic  Coast,  and  thus  prevent  their  extension 
over  the  mountains,  became  more  and  more  ap- 
parent, and  it  was  thought  that  this  was  the  open- 
ing of  a  scheme  already  planned  by  the  French 
Court  to  reduce  all  North  America  under  the  do- 
minion of  France.  Gov.  Dinwiddle  determined 
to  send  an  ambassador  to  the  French  posts,  to  as- 
certain their  real  intentions  and  to  observe  the 
amount  and  disposition  of  their  forces.  He  selected 
a  young  Virginian,  then  in  his  twenty-first  year, 
a  surveyor  by  trade  and  one  well  qualified  for  the 
duty.  That  young  man  afterward  led  the  Ameri- 
can Colonies  in  their  struggle  for  liberty.  George 
Washington  and  one  companion,  Mr  Gist,  suc- 
cessfully made  the  trip,  in  the  solitude  of  a  severe 
winter,  received  assurance  from  the  French  com- 
mandant that  they  would  by  no  means  abandon 
their  outposts,  and  would  not  yield  unless  com- 
pelled by  force  of  arms.  The  commandant  was 
exceedingly  polite,  but  firm,  and  assured  the  young 
American  that  "  we  claim  the  country  on  the  Ohio 
by  virtue  of  the  discovery  of  La  Salle  (in  1669) 
and  will  not  give  it  up  to  the  English.  Our  orders 
are  to  make  prisoners  of  every  Englishman  found 
trading  in  the  Ohio  Valley." 



During  Washington's  absence  steps  were  taken 
to  fortify  the  point  formed  by  the  junction  of  the 
Monongahela  and  Alleghany ;  and  when,  on  his 
return,  he  met  seventeen  horses  loaded  with  mate- 
rials and  stores  for  a  fort  at  the  forks  of  the  Ohio, 
and,  soon  after,  some  families  going  out  to  settle, 
he  knew  the  defense  had  begun.  As  soon  as 
Washington  made  his  report,  Gov.  Dinwiddle 
wrote  to  the  Board  of  Trade,  stating  that  the 
French  were  building  a  fort  at  Venango,  and  that, 
in  March,  twelve  or  fifteen  hundred  men  would 
be  ready  to  descend  the  river  with  their  Indian 
allies,  for  which  purpose  three  hundred  canoes  had 
been  collected  ;  and  that  Logstown  was  to  be  made 
headquarters,  while  forts  were  to  be  built  in  other 
places.  He  sent  expresses  to  the  Governors  of 
Pennsylvania  and  New  York,  apprising  them  of  the 
nature  of  affairs,  and  calling  upon  them  for  assist- 
ance. He  also  raised  two  companies,  one  of  which 
was  raised  by  Washington,  the  other  by  Trent. 
The  one  under  Trent  was  to  be  raised  on  the 
frontiers,  and  was,  as  soon  as  possible,  to  repair  to 
the  Fork  and  erect  there  a  fort,  begun  by  the  Ohio 
Company.  Owing  to  various  conflicting  opinions 
between  the  Governor  of  Pennsylvania  and  his 
Assembly,  and  the  conference  with  the  Six  Nations, 
held  by  New  York,  neither  of  those  provinces  put 
forth  any  vigorous  measures  until  stirred  to  action 
by  the  invasions  on  the  frontiers,  and  until  directed 
by  the  Earl  of  Holderness,  Secretary  of  State. 

The  fort  at  Venango  was  finished  by  the  French 
in  April,  1754.  All  along  the  creek  resounded 
the  clang  of  arms  and  the  preparations  for  war. 
New  York  and  Pennsylvania,  though  inactive, 
and  debating  whether  the  French  really  had  in- 
vaded English  territory  or  not,  sent  aid  to  the 
Old  Dominion,  now  all  alive  to  the  conquest.  The 
two  companies  had  been  increased  to  six;  Washing- 
ton was  raised  to  the  rank  of  Lieutenant  Colonel, 
and  made  second  under  command  of  Joshua 
Fry.  Ten  cannon,  lately  from  England,  were  for- 
warded from  Alexandria ;  wagons  were  got  ready 
to  carry  westward  provisions  and  stores  through 
the  heavy  spring  roads;  and  everywhere  men  were 
enlisting  under  the  King's  promise  of  two  hundred 
thousand  acres  of  land  to  those  who  would  go. 
They  were  gathering  along  Will's  Creek  and  far 
beyond,  while  Trent,  who  had  come  for  more  men 
and  supplies,  left  a  little  band  of  forty-one  men, 
working  away  in  hunger  and  want  at  the  Fork,  to 
which  both  nations  were  looking  with  anxious  eyes. 
Though  no  enemy  was  near,  and  only  a  few  Indian 
scouts  were  seen,  keen  eyes  had  observed  the  low 

fortifications  at  the  Fork.  Swift  feet  had  borne 
the  news  of  it  up  the  valley,  and  though  Ensign 
Ward,  left  in  command,  felt  himself  secure,  on  the 
17  th  of  April  he  saw  a  sight  that  made  his  heart 
sick.  Sixty  batteaux  and  three  hundred  canoes 
were  coming  down  the  Alleghany.  The  com- 
mandant sent  him  a  summons,  which  evaded  no 
words  in  its  meaning.  It  was  useless  to  contend, 
that  evening  he  supped  with  his  conqueror ;  the 
next  day  he  was  bowed  out  by  the  polite  French- 
man, and  with  his  men  and  tools  marched  up  the 
Monongahela.  The  first  birds  of  spring  were  fill- 
ing the  air  with  iheir  song ;  the  rivers  rolled  by, 
swollen  by  April  showers  and  melting  snows;  all 
nature  was  putting  on  her  robes  of  green  ;  and  the 
fortress,  which  the  English  had  so  earnestly  strived 
to  obtain  and  fortify,  was  now  in  the  hands  of  the 
French.  Fort  Du  Quesne  arose  on  the  incomplete 
fortifications.  The  seven  years'  war  that  followed 
not  only  aff'ected  America,  but  spread  to  all  quar- 
ters of  the  world.  The  war  made  England  a  great 
imperial  power  ;  drove  the  French  from  Asia  and 
America;  dispelled  the  brilliant  and  extended 
scheme  of  Louis  and  his  voluptuous  empire. 

The  active  field  of  operations  was  in  the  Canadas 
principally,  and  along  the  western  borders  of  Penn- 
sylvania. There  were  so  few  people  then  in  the 
present  confines  of  Ohio,  that  only  the  possession 
of  the  country,  in  common  with  all  the  West, 
could  be  the  animus  of  the  conflict.  It  so  much 
concerned  this  part  of  the  New  World,  that  a  brief 
resume  of  the  war  will  be  necessary  to  fully  under- 
stand its  history. 

The  fall  of  the  post  at  the  fork  of  the  Ohio,  Fort 
Du  Quesne,  gave  the  French  control  of  the  West. 
Washington  went  on  with  his  few  militia  to  re- 
take the  post.  Though  he  was  successful  at  first, 
he  was  in  the  end  defeated,  and  surrendered, 
being  allowed  to  return  with  all  his  munitions  of 
war.  The  two  governments,  though  trying  to 
come  to  a  peaceful  solution  of  the  question,  were 
getting  ready  for  the  conflict.  France  went  stead- 
ily on,  though  at  one  time  England  gave,  in  a 
measure,  her  consent  to  allow  the  French  to  retain 
all  the  country  west  of  the  Alleghanies  and  south 
of  the  lakes.  Had  this  been  done,  what  a  difi'erent 
future  would  have  been  in  America !  Other  des- 
tinies were  at  work,  however,  and  the  plan  fell 

England  sent  Gen.  Braddock  and  a  fine  force 
of  men,  who  marched  directly  toward  the  post  on 
the  Ohio.  His  ill-fated  expedition  resulted  only 
in  the  total  defeat  of  his  army,  and  his  own  death. 




Washington  saved  a  remnant  of  the  army,  and 
made  his  way  back  to  the  colonies.  The  En- 
gHsh  needed  a  leader.  They  next  planned  four 
campaigns;  one  against  Fort  Du  Quesne;  one 
against  Crown  Point;  one  against  Niagara,  and 
one  against  the  French  settlements  in  Nova  Scotia. 
Nearly  every  one  proved  a  failure.  The  English 
were  defeated  on  sea  and  on  land,  all  owing  to  the 
incapacity  of  Parliament,  and  the  want  of  a  suit- 
able, vigorous  leader.  The  settlements  on  the  front- 
iers, now  exposed  to  a  cruel  foe,  prepared  to  defend 
themselves,  and  already  the  signs  of  a  government 
of  their  own,  able  to  defend  itself,  began  to 
appear.  They  received  aid  from  the  colonies. 
Though  the  French  were  not  repulsed,  they  and 
their  red  allies  found  they  could  not  murder  with 
impunity.  Self-preservation  was  a  stronger  incen- 
tive in  conflict  than  aggrandizement,  and  the 
cruelty  of  the  Indians  found  avengers. 

The  great  Pitt  became  Prime  Minister  June  29, 
1757.  The  leader  of  the  English  now  appeared. 
The  British  began  to  regain  their  losses  on  sea  and 
land,  and  for  them  a  brighter  day  was  at  hand. 
The  key  to  the  West  must  be  retaken,  and  to  Gen. 
Forbes  was  assigned  the  duty.  Preceding  him, 
a  trusty  man  was  sent  to  the  Western  Indians 
at  the  head-waters  of  the  Ohio,  and  along  the  Mg- 
nongahela  and  Alleghany,  to  see  if  some  compro- 
mise with  them  could  not  be  made,  and  their  aid 
secured.  The  French  had  been  busy  through  their 
traders  inciting  the  Indians  against  the  English. 
The  lawless  traders  were  another  source  of  trouble. 
Caring  nothing  for  either  nation,  they  carried  on  a 
distressing  traffic  in  direct  violation  of  the  laws, 
continually  engendering  ill-feeling  among  the  na- 
tives. "Your  traders,"  said  one  of  them,  "bring 
scarce  anything  but  rum  and  flour.  They  bring 
little  powder  and  lead,  or  other  valuable  goods. 
The  rum  ruins  us.  We  beg  you  would  prevent 
its  coming  in  such  quantities  by  regulating  the 
traders.  *  *  *  These  wicked  whisky  sell- 
ers, when  they  have  got  the  Indians  in  liquor,  make 
them  sell  the  very  clothes  ofi"  their  backs.  If  this 
practice  be  continued,  we  must  be  inevitably  ruined. 
We  most  earnestly,  therefore,  beseech  you  to  remedy 
it."  They  complained  of  the  French  traders  the  same 
way.  They  were  also  beginning  to  see  the  animus 
of  the  whole  conflict.  Neither  power  cared  as 
much  for  them  as  for  their  land,  and  flattered  and 
bullied  by  turns  as  served  their  purposes  best. 

The  man  selected  to  go  upon  this  undertaking 
was  Christian  Frederic  Post,  a  Moravian,  who  had 
lived  among  the  Indians  seventeen  years,  and  mar- 

ried into  one  of  their  tribes.  Ho  was  amissionary, 
and  though  obliged  to  cross  a  c(,ini.ry  whose  every 
stream  had  been  dyed  by  blood,  and  every  hillside 
rung  with  the  death-yell,  and  grown  red  with  the 
light  of  burning  huts,  he  went  willingly  on  his  way. 
Of  his  journey,  sufierings  and  doings,  his  own 
journal  tells  the  story.  He  left  Philadelphia  on  the 
15th  of  July,  1758,  and  on  the  7th  of  August 
safely  passed  the  French  post  at  Venango,  went  on 
to  Big  Beaver  Creek,  where  he  held  a  conference 
with  the  chiefs  of  the  Indians  gathered  there.  It 
was  decided  that  a  great  conference  should  be 
held  opposite  Fort  Du  Quesne,  where  there  were 
Indians  of  eight  nations.  "We  will  bear  you  in 
our  bosoms,"  said  the  natives,  when  Post  expressed 
a  fear  that  he  might  be  delivered  over  to  the 
French,  and  royally  they  fulfilled  their  promises. 
At  the  conference,  it  was  made  clear  to  Post  that 
all  the  Western  Indians  were  wavering  in  their 
allegiance  to  the  French,  owing  largely  to  the  fail- 
ure of  that  nation  to  fulfill  their  promises  of  aid  to 
prevent  them  from  being  deprived  of  their  land  by 
the  Six  Nations,  and  through  that  confederacy,  by  the 
English.  The  Indians  complained  bitterly,  more- 
over, of  the  disposition  of  the  whites  in  over-run- 
ning and  claiming  their  lands.  "Why  did  you  not 
fight  your  battles  at  home  or  on  the  sea,  instead  of 
coming  into  our  country  to  fight  them?"  they 
asked  again  and  again,  and  mournfully  shook  their 
heads  when  they  thought  of  the  future  before  them. 
"  Your  heart  is  good,"  said  they  to  Post.  "  You 
speak  sincerely ;  but  we  know  there  is  always  a  great 
number  who  wish  to  get  rich ;  they  have  enough  ; 
look  !  we  do  not  want  to  be  rich  and  take  away 
what  others  have.  The  white  people  think  we 
have  no  brains  in  our  heads ;  that  they  arc  big, 
and  we  are  a  handful ;  but  remember  when  you 
hunt  for  a  rattlesnake,  you  cannot  always  find  it, 
and  perhaps  it  will  turn  and  bite  you  before  you  see 
it."*  When  the  war  of  Pontiac  came,  and  all 
the  West  was  desolated,  this  saying  might  have 
been  justly  remembered.  After  concluding  a  peace. 
Post  set  out  for  Philadelphia,  and  after  incredi- 
ble hardships,  reached  the  settlement  uninjured 
early  in  September.  His  mission  had  more  to  do 
than  at  first  is  apparent,  in  the  success  of  the 
English.  Had  it  not  been  for  him,  a  second  Brad- 
dock's  defeat  might  have  befallen  Forbes,  now  on 
his  way  to  subjugate  Fort  Du  Quesne. 

Through  the  heats  of  August,  the  army  hewed  its 
way  toward  the  West.     Early  in   September  it 

*  Post's  Journal. 




reached  Raystown,  whither  Washington  had  been 
ordered  with  his  troops.  Sickness  had  prevented 
him  from  being  here  ah-eady.  Two  officers  were 
sent  out  to  reconnoiter  the  fort,  who  returned  and 
gave  a  very  good  account  of  its  condition.  Gen. 
Forbes  desired  to  know  more  of  it,  and  sent  out 
Maj.  Grant,  with  800  men,  to  gain  more  complete 
knowledge.  Maj.  Grant,  supposing  not  more  than 
21 M)  soldiers  to  be  in  the  fort,  marched  near  it  and 
made  a  feint  to  draw  them  out,  and  engage  them 
in  battle.  lie  was  greatly  misinformed  as  to  the 
strength  of  the  French,  and  in  the  engagement 
that  followed  he  was  badly  beaten — 270  of  his  men 
killed,  42  wounded,  and  several,  including  himself, 
taken  prisoners.  The  French,  elated  with  their 
victory,  attacked  the  main  army,  but  were  repulsed 
and  obliged  to  retreat  to  the  fort.  The  army  con- 
tinued on  its  march.  On  the  24th  of  November 
they  reached  Turtle  Creek,  where  a  council  of  war 
was  held,  and  where  Gen.  Forbes,  who  had  been  so 
ill  as  to  be  carried  on  a  litter  from  the  start,  de- 
clared, with  a  mighty  oath,  he  would  sleep  that 
night  in  the  fort,  or  in  a  worse  place.  The  Indi- 
ans had,  however,  carried  the  news  to  the  French 
that  the  English  were  as  plenty  as  the  trees  of  the 
woods,  and  in  their  fright  they  set  fire  to  the  fort  in 
the  night  and  left  up  and  down  the  Ohio  River. 
The  next  morning  the  English,  who  had  heard  the 
explosion  of  the  magazine,  and  seen  the  light  of 
the  burning  walls,  marched  in  and  took  peaceable 
possession.  A  small  fortification  was  thrown  up 
on  the  bank,  and,  in  honor  of  the  great  English 
statesman,  it  was  called  Fort  Pitt.  Col.  Hugh  Mer- 
cer was  left  in  command,  and  the  main  body  of  the 
army  marched  back  to  the  settlements.  It  reached 
Philadelphia  January  17,  1759.  On  the  11th  of 
March,  Gen.  Forbes  died,  and  was  buried  in  the 
chancel  of  Christ's  Church,  in  that  city. 

Post  was  now  sent  on  a  mission  to  the  Six  Na- 
tions, with  a  report  of  the  treaty  of  Easton.  He 
was  again  instrumental  in  preventing  a  coalition  of 
the  Indians  and  the  French.  Indeed,  to  this  ob- 
scure IMoravian  missionary  belongs,  in  a  large 
measure,  the  honor  of  the  capture  of  Fort  Du 
Quesne,  for  by  his  influence  had  the  Indians  been 
restrained  from  attacking  the  army  on  its  march. 

The  garrison,  on  leaving  the  fort,  went  up  and 
down  the  Ohio,  part  to  Presque  Isle  by  land,  part  to 
Fort  Venango,  while  some  of  them  went  on  down 
the  Ohio  nearly  to  the  Mississippi,  and  there,  in 
what  is  now  Massac  County,  HI.,  erected  a  fort, 
called  by  them  Fort  Massac.  It  was  afterward 
named  by  many  Fort  Massacre,  from  the  erroneous 

supposition  that  a  garrison  had  been  massacred 

The  French,  though  deprived  of  the  key  to 
the  West,  went  on  preparing  stores  and  ammunition, 
expecting  to  retake  the  fort  in  the  spring.  Before 
they  could  do  this,  however,  other  places  demanded 
their  attention. 

The  success  of  the  campaign  of  1758  opened 
the  way  for  the  consummation  of  the  great  scheme 
of  Pitt — the  complete  reduction  of  Canada.  Three 
expeditions  were  planned,  by  which  Canada, 
already  well  nigh  annihilated  and  suffering  for 
food,  was  to  be  subjugated.  On  the  west,  Prideaux 
was  to  attack  Niagara ;  in  the  center,  Amherst  was 
to  advance  on  Ticonderoga  and  Crown  Point ;  on 
the  east,  Wolfe  was  to  besiege  Quebec.  All  these 
points  gained,  the  three  armies  were  to  be  united 
in  the  center  of  the  province. 

Amherst  appeared  before  Ticonderoga  July  22. 
The  French  blew  up  their  works,  and  retired 
to  Crown  Point.  Driven  from  there,  they  re- 
treated to  Isle  Aux  Nois  and  entrenched  them- 
selves. The  lateness  of  the  season  prevented  fur- 
ther action,  and  Amherst  went  into  winter  quar- 
ters at  Crown  Point.  Early  in  June,  Wolfe 
appeared  before  Quebec  with  an  army  of  8,000 
men.  On  the  night  of  September  12,  he  silently 
ascended  the  river,  climbed  the  heights  of  Abra- 
ham, a  spot  considered  impregnable  by  the 
French,  and  on  the  summit  formed  his  army  of 
5,000  men.  Montcalm,  the  French  commander, 
was  compelled  to  give  battle.  The  British  col- 
umns, flushed  with  success,  charged  his  half-formed 
lines,  and  dispersed  them. 

"They  fly!  they  fly!"  heard  Wolfe,  just  as  he 
expired  from  the  effect  of  a  mortal  wound,  though 
not  till  he  had  ordered  their  retreat  cut  off,  and 
exclaimed,  "Now,  God  be  praised,  I  die  happy." 
Montcalm,  on  hearing  from  the  surgeon  that  death 
would  come  in  a  few  hours,  said,  "  I  am  glad  of  it. 
I  shall  not  live  to  see  the  surrender  of  Quebec."  At 
five  the  next  morning  he  died  happy. 

Prideaux  moved  up  Lake  Ontario,  and  on  the 
6th  of  July  invested  Niagara.  Its  capture  would 
cut  off  the  French  from  the  west,  and  every  en- 
deavor was  made  to  hold  it.  Troops,  destined  to 
take  the  small  garrison  at  Fort  Pitt,  were  held  to 
assist  in  raising  the  siege  of  Niagara.  M.  de 
Aubry,  commandant  in  Illinois,  came  up  with  400 
men  and  200,000  pounds  of  flour.  Cut  off  by  the 
abandonment  of  Fort  Du  Quesne  from  the  Ohio 
route,  he  ascended  that  river  as  far  as  the  Wabash, 
thence  to  portage  of  Fort  Miami,  or  Fort  Wayne, 





down  the  Maumee  to  Lake  Erie,  and  on  to  Presqu- 
ville,  or  Presque  Isle,  over  the  portage  to  Le  Bceuf, 
and  thence  down  French  Creek  to  Fort  Venango. 
He  was  chosen  to  lead  the  expedition  for  the  relief 
of  Niagara.  They  were  pursued  by  Sir  William 
Johnson,  successor  to  Prideaux,  who  had  lost  his 
life  by  the  bursting  of  a  cannon,  and  were  obliged  to 
flee.  The  next  day  Niagara,  cut  ofl"  from  succor, 

All  America  rang  with  exultation.  Towns  were 
bright  with  illuminations  ;  the  hillsides  shone  with 
bonfires.  From  press,  from  pulpit,  from  platform, 
and  from  speakers'  desks,  went  up  one  glad  song  of 
rejoicing.  England  was  victorious  everywhere. 
The  colonies  had  done  their  fiiU  share,  and  now 
learned  their  strength.  That  strength  was  needed 
now,  for  ere  long  a  different  conflict  raged  on  the 
soil  of  America — a  conflict  ending  in  the  birth  of 
a  new  nation. 

The  English  sent  Gen.  Stanwix  to  fortify  Fort 
Pitt,  still  looked  upon  as  one  of  the  principal  for- 
tresses in  the  West.  He  erected  a  good  fortifica- 
tion there,  which  remained  under  British  control 
fifteen  years.  Now  nothing  of  the  fort  is  left.  No 
memorial  of  the  British  possession  remains  in  the 
West  but  a  single  redoubt,  built  in  1764  by  Col. 
Bouquet,  outside  of  the  fort.  Even  this  can  hardly 
now  be  said  to  exist. 

The  fall  of  Quebec  did  not  immediately  produce 
the  submission  of  Canada.  M.  de  Levi,  on  whom 
the  command  devolved,  retired  with  the  French 
Army  to  Montreal.  In  the  spring  of  1760,  he  be- 
sieged Quebec,  but  the  arrival  of  an  English  fleet 
caused  him  to  again  retreat  to  Montreal. 

Amherst  and  Johnson,  meanwhile,  effected  a 
union  of  their  forces,  the  magnitude  of  whose 
armies  convinced  the  French  that  resistance  would 
be  useless,  and  on  the  8th  of  September,  M.  de 
Vaudreuil,  the  Governor  of  Canada,  surrendered 
Montreal,  Quebec,  Detroit,  Mackinaw  and  all  other 
posts  in  Canada,  to  the  English  commander-in- 
chief,  Amherst,  on  condition  that  the  French  in- 
habitants should,  during  the  war,  be  "protected 
in  the  full  and  fi-ee  exercise  of  their  religion,  and 
the  full  enjoyment  of  their  civil  rights,  leaving 
their  future  destinies  to  be  decided  by  the  treaty 
of  peace." 

Though  peace  was  concluded  in  the  New  World, 
on  the  continent  the  Powers  experienced  some 
difficulty  in  arriving  at  a  satisfactory  settlement. 
It  was  finally  settled  by  what  is  known  in  history 
as  the  "family  compact."  France  and  Spain  saw 
in  the  conquest  the  growing  power  of  England, 

and  saw,  also,  that  its  continuance  only  extended 
that  power.  Negotiations  were  re-opened,  and  on 
the  3d  of  November,  1762,  preliminaries  were 
agreed  to  and  signed,  and  afterward  ratified  in 
Paris,  in  February,  1763.  By  the  terms  of  the 
compact,  Spain  ceded  to  Great  Britian  East  and 
West  Florida.  To  compensate  Spain,  France 
ceded  to  her  by  a  secret  article,  all  Louisiana  west 
of  the  Mississippi. 

The  French  and  Indian  war  was  now  over. 
Canada  and  all  its  dependencies  were  now  in  pos- 
session of  the  English,  who  held  undisputed  sway 
over  the  entire  West  as  far  as  Mississippi.  It  only 
remained  for  them  to  take  possession  of  the  out- 
posts. Major  Robert  Rogers  was  sent  to  take  pos- 
session ot  Detroit  and  establish  a  garrison  there. 
He  was  a  partisan  officer  on  the  borders  of  New 
Hampshire,  where  he  earned  a  name  for  bravery, 
but  afterward  tarnished  it  by  treasonable  acts.  On 
his  way  to  Detroit,  on  the  7th  of  November,  1760, 
he  was  met  by  the  renowned  chief,  Pontiac,  who 
authoritatively  commanded  him  to  pause  and  ex- 
plain his  acts.  Rogers  replied  by  explaining  the 
conquest  of  Canada,  and  that  he  was  acting  under 
orders  from  his  King.  Through  the  influence  of 
Pontiac,  the  army  was  saved  from  the  Indians 
sent  out  by  the  French,  and  was  allowed  to  pro- 
ceed on  its  way.  Pontiac  had  assured  his  protec- 
tion as  long  as  the  English  treated  him  with  due 
deference.  Beletre,  the  commandant  at  Detroit, 
refused  to  surrender  to  the  English  commander, 
until  he  had  received  positive  assurance  from  his 
Governor,  Vaudreuil,  that  the  country  was  indeed 
conquered.  On  the  29th  of  September,  the  colors 
of  France  gave  way  to  the  ensign  of  Great  Britain 
amid  the  shouts  of  the  soldiery  and  the  astonish- 
ment of  the  Indians,  whose  savage  natures  could 
not  understand  how  such  a  simple  act  declared  one 
nation  victors  of  another,  and  who  wondered  at 
the  forbearance  displayed.  The  lateness  of  the 
season  prevented  further  operations,  but  early  the 
next  spring,  Mackinaw,  Green  Bay,  Ste.  Marie,  St. 
Joseph  and  the  Ouitenon  surrounded,  and  nothing 
was  left  but  the  Illinois  towns.  These  were  se- 
cured as  soon  as  the  necessary  arrangements  could 
be  made. 

Though  the  English  were  now  masters  of  the 
West,  and  had,  while  many  of  these  events  nav 
rated  were  transpiring,  extended  their  settlements 
beyond  the  AUeghanies,  they  were  by  no  means 
secure  in  their  possession.  The  woods  and  prairies 
were  full  of  Indians,  who,  finding  the  English  like 
the  French,  caring  more  for  gain  than  the  welfare 




of  the  natives,  began  to  exhibit  impatience  and  re- 
sentment as  they  saw  their  lands  gradually  taken 
from  them.  The  English  policy  differed  very 
materially  from  the  French.  The  French  made 
the  Indian,  in  a  measure,  independent  and  taught 
him  a  desire  for  European  goods.  They  also 
affiliated  easily  with  them,  and  became  thereby 
strongly  endeared  to  the  savage.  The  French 
were  a  merry,  easy-going  race,  fond  of  gayety  and 
delighting  in  adventure.  The  English  were  harsh, 
stern,  and  made  no  advances  to  gain  the  friend- 
ship of  the  savage.  They  wanted  land  to  cultivate 
and  drove  away  the  Indian's  game,  and  forced  him 
farther  west.  "Where  shall  we  go?"  said  the 
Indian,  despondently;  "you  drive  us  farther  and 
farther  west;  by  and  by  you  will  want  all  the 
land."  And  the  Anglo-Saxon  went  sturdily  on, 
paying  no  heed  to  the  complaints.     The  French 

traders  incited  the  Indian  to  resent  the  encroach- 
ment. "  The  English  will  annihilate  you  and  take 
all  your  land,"  said  they.  "  Their  father,  the  King 
of  France,  had  been  asleep,  now  he  had  awakened 
and  was  coming  with  a  great  army  to  reclaim  Can- 
ada, that  had  been  stolen  from  him  while  he  slept." 
Discontent  under  such  circumstances  was  but 
natural.  Soon  all  the  tribes,  from  the  mountains 
to  the  Mississippi,  were  united  in  a  plot.  It  was 
discovered  in  1761,  and  arrested.  The  next  sum- 
mer, another  was  detected  and  arrested.  The 
officers,  and  all  the  people,  failed  to  realize  the 
danger.  The  rattlesnake,  though  not  found,  was 
ready  to  strike.  It  is  only  an  Indian  discontent, 
thought  the  people,  and  they  went  on  preparing  to 
occupy  the  country.  They  were  mistaken — the 
crisis  only  needed  a  leader  to  direct  it.  That 
leader  appeared. 




PONTIAC,  the  great  chief  of  the  Ottawas,  was 
now  about  fifty  years  old.  He  had  watched 
the  conflict  between  the  nations  with  a  jealous  eye, 
and  as  he  saw  the  gradual  growth  of  the  English 
people,  their  encroachment  on  the  lands  of  the  In- 
dians, their  greed,  and  their  assumption  of  the  soil, 
his  soul  was  stirred  within  him  to  do  something 
for  his  people.  He  had  been  a  true  friend  of  the 
French,  and  had  led  the  Indians  at  the  defeat  of 
Braddock.  Amid  all  the  tumult,  he  alone  saw  the 
true  state  of  affairs.  The  English  would  inevit- 
ably crush  out  the  Indians.  To  save  his  race  he 
saw  another  alliance  with  the  French  was  neces- 
sary, and  a  restoration  of  their  power  and  habits 
needed.  It  was  the  plan  of  a  statesman.  It  only 
failed  because  of  the  perfidy  of  the  French.  Matur- 
ing his  plans  late  in  the  autumn  of  1762,  he  sent 
messengers  to  all  the  Western  and  Southern  tribes, 
with  the  black  wampum  and  red  tomahawk,  em- 
blems of  war,  from  the  great  Pontiac.  "On  a  cer- 
tain day  in  the  next  year,"  said  the  messenger,  "all 
the  tribes  are  to  rise,  seize  all  the  English  posts, 
and  then  attack  the  whole  frontier." 

The  great  council  of  all  the  tribes  was  held  at 
the  river  Ecorces,  on  the  27th  of  April,  1763. 
There,  before  the  assembled  chiefs,  Pontiac  deliv- 

ered a  speech,  full  of  eloquence  and  art.  He 
recounted  the  injuries  and  encroachments  of  the 
English,  and  disclosed  their  designs.  The  French 
king  was  now  awake  and  would  aid  them.  Should 
they  resign  their  homes  and  the  graves  of  their 
fathers  without  an  effort?  Were  their  young  men 
no  longer  brave?  Were  they  squaws?  The 
Great  Master  of  Life  had  chided  them  for  their 
inactivity,  and  had  sent  his  commands  to  drive 
the  "Red  Dogs"  from  the  earth.  The  chiefs 
eagerly  accepted  the  wampum  and  the  tomahawk, 
and  separated  to  prepare  for  the  coming  strife. 

The  post  at  Detroit  was  informed  of  the  plot 
the  evening  before  it  was  to  occur,  by  an  Ojibway 
girl  of  great  beauty,  the  mistress  of  the  com- 
mander. Major  Gladwin.  Pontiac  was  foiled  here, 
his  treachery  discovered,  and  he  was  sternly  ordered 
from  the  conference.  A  regular  seige  followed, 
but  he  could  not  prevail.  He  exhibited  a  degree 
of  sagacity  unknown  in  the  annals  of  savage  war- 
fare, but  all  to  no  purpose ;  the  English  were  too 
strong  for  him. 

At  all  the  other  posts,  save  one,  however,  the 
plans  of  Pontiac  were  carried  out,  and  atrocities, 
unheard  of  before  in  American  history,  resulted. 
The  Indians  attacked  Detroit  on  the  first  of  May, 




and,  foiled  in  their  plans,  a  siege  immediately  fol- 
lowed. On  the  16th,  a  party  of  Indians  appeared 
before  the  fort  at  Sandusky.  Seven  of  them  were 
admitted.  Suddenly,  while  smoking,  the  massacre 
begins.  All  but  Ensign  Paulli,  the  commander, 
fall.     He  is  carried  as  a  trophy  to  Pontiac. 

At  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Joseph's,  the  mission- 
aries had  maintained  a  mission  station  over  sixty 
years.  They  gave  way  to  an  English  garrison  of 
fourteen  soldiers  and  a  few  traders.  On  the 
morning  of  May  25,  a  deputation  of  Pottawato- 
mies  are  allowed  to  enter.  In  less  than  two  min- 
utes, all  the  garrison  but  the  commander  are  slain. 
He  is  sent  to  Pontiac. 

Near  the  present  city  of  Fort  Wayne,  Ind., 
at  the  junction  of  the  waters,  stood  Fort  Miami, 
garrisoned  by  a  few  men.  Holmes,  the  com- 
mander, is  asked  to  visit  a  sick  woman.  He  is 
slain  on  the  way,  the  sergeant  following  is  made 
prisoner,  and  the  nine  soldiers  surrender. 

On  the  night  of  the  last  day  of  May,  the  wam- 
pum reaches  the  Indian  village  below  La  Fayette, 
Ind.,  and  near  Fort  Ouitenon.  The  commander 
of  the  fort  is  lured  into  a  cabin,  bound,  and  his 
garrison  surrender.  Through  the  clemency  of 
French  settlers,  they  are  received  into  their  houses 
and  protected. 

At  Michilimackinac,  a  game  of  ball  is  projected. 
Suddenly  the  ball  is  thrown  through  the  gate  of  the 
stockade.  The  Indians  press  in,  and,  at  a  signal, 
almost  all  are  slain  or  made  prisoners. 

The  fort  at  Presque  Isle,  now  Erie,  was  the 
point  of  communication  between  Pittsburgh  and 
Niagara  and  Detroit.  It  was  one  of  the  most 
tenable,  and  had  a  garrison  of  four  and  twenty 
men.  On  the  22d  of  June,  the  commander,  to 
save  his  forces  from  total  annihilation,  surrenders, 
and  all  are  carried  prisoners  to  Detroit. 

The  capitulation  at  Erie  left  Le  Bceuf  with- 
out hope.  He  was  attacked  on  the  18th, 
but  kept  oif  the  Indians  till  midnight,  when  he 
made  a  successful  retreat.  As  they  passed  Ve- 
nango, on  their  way  to  Fort  Pitt,  they  saw  only 
the  ruins  of  that  garrison.  Not  one  of  its  immates 
had  been  spared. 

Fort  Pitt  was  the  most  important  station  west 
of  the  Alleghanies.  "  Escape  !  "  said  Turtle's 
Heart,  a  Delaware  warrior ;  "  you  will  all  be 
slain.  A  great  army  is  coming."  "There  are 
three  large  English  armies  coming  to  my  aid," 
said  Ecuyer,  the  commander.  "  I  have  enough 
provisions  and  ammunition  to  stand  a  siege  of  three 
years'  time."     A  second  and  third  attempt  was 

made  by  the  savages  to  capture  the  post,  but  all  to 
no  avail.  Baffled  on  all  sides  here,  they  destroy 
Ligonier,  a  few  miles  below,  and  massacre  men, 
women  and  children.  Fort  Pitt  was  besieged  till 
the  last  day  of  July,  but  withstood  all  attacks. 
Of  all  the  outposts,  only  it  and  Detroit  were  left. 
All  had  been  captured,  and  the  majority  of  the 
garrison  slain.  Along  the  frontier,  the  war  was 
waged  with  fury.  The  Indians  were  fighting  for 
their  homes  and  their  hunting-grounds;  and  for 
these  they  fought  with  the  fury  and  zeal  of 

Detachments  sent  to  aid  Detroit  are  cut  off. 
The  prisoners  are  burnt,  and  Pontiac,  infusing  his 
zealous  and  demoniacal  spirit  into  all  his  savage 
allies,  pressed  the  siege  with  vigor.  The  French 
remained  neutral,  yet  Pontiac  made  requisitions 
on  them  and  on  their  neighbors  in  Illinois,  issuing 
bills  of  credit  on  birch -bark,  all  of  which  were 
faithfully  redeemed.  Though  these  two  posts 
could  not  be  captured,  the  frontier  could  be 
annihilated,  and  vigorously  the  Indians  pursued 
their  policy.  Along  the  borders  of  Pennsylvania 
and  Virginia  a  relentless  warfare  was  waged, 
sparing  no  one  in  its  way.  Old  age,  feeble  infancy, 
strong  man  and  gentle  woman,  fair  girl  and  hope- 
ful boy — all  fell  before  the  scalping-knife  of  the 
merciless  savage.  The  frontiers  were  devastated. 
Thousands  were  obliged  to  flee,  leaving  their 
possessions  to  the  torch  of  the  Indian. 

The  colonial  government,  under  British  direc- 
tion, was  inimical  to  the  borders,  and  the  colonists 
saw  they  must  depend  only  upon  their  own  arms 
for  protection.  Already  the  struggle  for  freedom 
was  upon  them.  They  could  defend  only  them- 
selves. They  must  do  it,  too ;  for  that  defense  is 
now  needed  in  a  different  cause  than  settling  dis- 
putes between  rival  powers.  "  We  have  millions 
for  defense,  but  not  a  cent  for  tribute,"  said  they, 
and  time  verified  the  remark. 

Gen.  Amherst  bestirred  himself  to  aid  the 
frontiers.  He  sent  Col.  Henry  Bouquet,  a  native 
of  Switzerland,  and  now  an  officer  in  the  English 
Army,  to  relieve  the  garrison  at  Fort  Pitt.  They 
followed  the  route  made  by  Gen.  Forbes,  and  on 
the  way  relieved  Forts  Bedford  and  Ligonier,  both 
beleaguered  by  the  Indians.  About  a  day's  jour- 
ney beyond  Ligonier,  he  was  attacked  by  a  body 
of  Indians  at  a  place  called  Bushy  Run.  For 
awhile,  it  seemed  that  he  and  all  his  army  would 
be  destroyed ;  but  Bouquet  was  bold  and  brave 
and,  under  a  feint  of  retreat,  routed  the  savages. 
He  passed  on,  and  relieved  the  garrison  at   Fort 



HISTORY   or    OHIO. 

Pitt,  and  thus  secured  it  against  the  assaults  of 
the  Indians. 

The  campaign  had  been  disastrous  to  the  En- 
glish, but  fatal  to  the  plans  of  Pontiac.  He  could 
not  capture  Detroit,  and  he  knew  the  great  scheme 
must  fail.  The  battle  of  Bushy  Run  and  the 
relief  of  Fort  Pitt  closed  the  campaign,  and  all 
hope  of  co-operation  was  at  an  end.  Circum- 
stances were  combined  against  the  confederacy, 
and  it  was  fast  falling  to  pieces.  A  proclamation 
was  issued  to  the  Indians,  explaining  to  them  the 
existing  state  of  affairs,  and  showing  to  them  the 
futility  of  their  plans.  Pontiac,  however,  would 
not  give  up.  Again  he  renewed  the  siege  of  De- 
troit, and  Gren.  Gage,  now  in  command  of  the 
army  in  the  colonies,  resolved  to  carry  the  war 
into  their  own  country.  Col.  Bradstreet  was  or- 
dered to  lead  one  army  by  way  of  the  lakes, 
against  the  Northern  Indians,  while  Col.  Bouquet 
was  sent  against  the  Indians  of  the  Ohio.  Col. 
Bradstreet  went  on  his  way  at  the  head  of  1,200 
men,  but  trusting  too  much  to  the  natives  and 
their  promises,  his  expedition  proved  largely  a  fail- 
ure. He  relieved  Detroit  in  August,  1764,  which 
had  been  confined  in  the  garrison  over  fifteen 
months,  and  dispersed  the  Indians  that  yet  lay 
around  the  fort.  But  on  his  way  back,  he  saw  how 
the  Indians  had  duped  him,  and  that  they  were 
still  plundering  the  settlements.  His  treaties  were 
annulled  by  Gage,  who  ordered  him  to  destroy 
their  towns.  The  season  was  far  advanced,  his 
provisions  were  getting  low,  and  he  was  obliged  to 
return  to  Niagara  chagrined  and  disappointed. 

Col.  Bouquet  knew  well  the  character  of  the 
Indians,  and  shaped  his  plans  accordingly.  He 
had  an  army  of  1,500  men,  500  regulars  and  1,000 
volunteers.  They  had  had  experience  in  fighting 
the  savages,  and  could  be  depended  on.  At  Fort 
Loudon,  he  heard  of  Bradstreet's  ill  luck,  and  saw 
through  the  deception  practiced  by  the  Indians. 
He  arrived  at  Fort  Pitt  the  17th  of  September, 
where  he  arrested  a  deputation  of  chiefs,  who  met 
him  with  the  same  promises  that  had  deceived 
Bradstreet.  He  sent  one  of  their  number  back, 
threatening  to  put  to  death  the  chiefs  unless  they 
allowed  his  messengers  to  safely  pass  through  their 
country  to  Detroit.  The  decisive  tone  of  his 
words  convinced  them  of  the  fate  that  awaited 
them  unless  they  complied.  On  the  3d  of  Octo- 
ber the  army  left  Fort  Pitt,  marched  down  the 
river  to  and  across  the  Tuscarawas,  arriving  in  the 
vicinity  of  Fredrick  Post's  late  mission  on  the  17th. 
There  a  conference  was  held  with  the  assembled 

tribes.  Bouquet  sternly  rebuked  them  fur  their 
faithlessness,  and  when  told  by  the  chiefs  they  could 
not  restrain  their  young  men,  he  as  sternly  told 
them  they  were  responsible  for  their  acts.  He 
told  them  he  would  trust  them  no  longer.  If  they 
delivered  up  all  their  prisoners  within  twelve  days 
they  might  hope  for  peace,  otherwise  there  would 
be  no  mercy  shown  them.  They  were  completely 
humbled,  and,  separating  hastily,  gathered  their 
captives.  On  the  25th,  the  army  proceeded  down 
to  the  Tuscarawas,  to  the  junction  with  White 
Woman  River,  near  the  town  of  Coshocton,  in 
Coshocton  County,  Ohio,  and  there  made  prepa- 
rations for  the  reception  of  the  captives.  There 
they  remained  until  the  18th  of  November;  from 
day  to  day  prisoners  were  brought  in — men,  women 
and  children — and  delivered  to  their  friends.  Many 
were  the  touching  scenes  enacted  during  this  time. 
The  separated  husband  and  wife  met,  the  latter 
often  carrying  a  child  born  in  captivity.  Brothers 
and  sisters,  separated  in  youth,  met ;  lovers  rushed 
into  each  other's  arms ;  children  found  their 
parents,  mothers  their  sons,  fathers  their  daughters, 
and  neighbors  those  from  whom  they  had  been 
separated  many  years.  Yet,  there  were  many  dis- 
tressing scenes.  Some  looked  in  vain  for  long-lost 
relatives  and  friends,  that  never  should  return. 
Others,  that  had  been  captured  in  their  infancy, 
would  not  leave  their  savage  friends,  and  when 
force  was  used  some  fled  away.  One  mother 
looked  in  vain  for  a  child  she  had  lost  years  be- 
fore. Day  by  day,  she  anxiously  watched,  but  no 
daughter's  voice  reached  her  ears.  One,  clad  in 
savage  attire,  was  brought  before  her.  It  could 
not  be  her  daughter,  she  was  grown.  So  was  the 
maiden  before  her.  "  Can  not  you  remember  some 
mark?"  asked  Bouquet,  whose  sympathies  were 
aroused  in  this  case.  "There  is  none,"  said  the 
anxious  and  sorrowful  mother.  "Sing  a  song  you 
sang  over  her  cradle,  she  may  remember,"  suggested 
the  commander.  One  is  sung  by  her  mother.  As 
the  song  of  childhood  floats  out  among  the  trees 
the  maiden  stops  and  listens,  then  approaches. 
Yes,  she  remembers.  Mother  and  daughter  are 
held  in  a  close  embrace,  and  the  stern  Bouquet 
wipes  away  a  tear  at  the  scene. 

On  the  18th,  the  army  broke  up  its  encamp- 
ment and  started  on  its  homeward  march.  Bouquet 
kept  six  principal  Indians  as  hostages,  and  re- 
turned to  the  homes  of  the  captives.  The  Indians 
kept  their  promises  faithfully,  and  the  next  year 
representatives  of  all  the  Western  tribes  met  Sir 
William  Johnson,  at  the  German  Flats,  and  made 





a  treaty  of  peace.  A  tract  of  land  in  the  Indian 
country  was  ceded  to  the  whites  for  the  benefit  of 
those  who  had  suffered  in  the  late  war.  The  In- 
dians desired  to  make  a  treaty  with  Johnson, 
whereby  the  Alleghany  River  should  be  the  west- 
ern boundary  of  the  English,  but  he  excused  him- 
self on  the  ground  of  proper  power. 

Not  long  after  this  the  Illinois  settlements,  too 
remote  to  know  much  of  the  struggle  or  of  any  of 
the  great  events  that  had  convulsed  an  empire,  and 
changed  the  destiny  of  a  nation,  were  brought 
under  the  English  rule.  There  were  five  villages 
at  this  date:  Kaskaskia,  Cahokia,  St.  Philip,  Yin- 
cennes  and  Prairie  du  Rocher,  near  Fort  Chartres, 
the  military  headquarters  of  these  French  posses- 
sions. They  were  under  the  control  or  command 
of  M.  de  Abadie,  at  New  Orleans.  They  had  also 
extended  explorations  west  of  the  Mississippi,  and 
made  a  few  settlements  in  what  was  Spanish  terri- 
tory. The  country  had  been,  however,  ceded  to 
France,  and  in  February,  1764,  the  country  was 
formally  taken  possession  of  and  the  present  city 
of  St.  Louis  laid  out. 

As  soon  as  the  French  knew  of  the  change  of 
government,  many  of  them  went  to  the  west  side  of 
the  river,  and  took  up  their  residence  there.  They 
were  protected  in  their  religion  and  civil  rights  by 
the  terms  of  the  treaty,  but  preferred  the  rule  of 
their  own  King. 

The  British  took  possession  of  this  country  early 
in  1765.  Gen.  G-age  sent  Capt.  Stirling,  of  the 
English  Army,  who  arrived  before  summer,  and  to 
whom  St.  Ange,  the  nominal  commandant,  surren- 
dered the  authority.  The  British,  through  a  suc- 
cession of  commanders,  retained  control  of  the  coun- 
try until  defeated  by  George  Rogers  Clarke,  and 
his  "ragged  Virginia  militia." 

After  a  short  time,  the  French  again  ceded  the 
country  west  of  the  Mississippi  to  Spain,  and  re- 
linquished forever  their  control  of  all  the  West  in 
the  New  World. 

The  population  of  Western  Louisiana,  when  the 
exchange  of  governments  occurred,  was  estimated 
to  be  13,538,  of  which  891  were  in  the  Illinois 
country — as  it  was  called — west  of  the  Mississippi. 
East  of  the  river,  and  before  the  French  crossed 
into  Spanish  country,  the  population  was  estimated 
to  be  about  3,000.  All  these  had  grown  into 
communities  of  a  peculiar  character.  Indeed,  that 
peculiarity,  as  has  been  observed,  never  changed 
until  a  gradual  amalgamation  with  the  American 
people  effected  it,  and  that  took  more  than  a  cen- 
tury of  time  to  accomplish. 

The  English  now  owned  the  Northwest.  True, 
they  did  not  yet  occupy  but  a  small  part  of  it,  but 
traders  were  again  crossing  the  mountains,  ex- 
plorers for  lands  were  on  the  Ohio,  and  families 
for  settlement  were  beginning  to  look  upon  the 
West  as  their  future  home.  Companies  were  again 
forming  to  purchase  large  tracts  in  the  Ohio  coun- 
try, and  open  them  for  emigration.  One  thing  yet 
stood  in  the  way — a  definite  boundary  line.  That 
line,  however,  was  between  the  English  and  the 
Indians,  and  not,  as  had  heretofore  been  the  case, 
between  rival  European  Powers.  It  was  necessary 
to  arrange  some  definite  boundarj"  before  land  com- 
panies, who  were  now  actively  pushing  their  claims, 
could  safely  survey  and  locate  their  lands. 

Sir  William  Johnson,  who  had  at  previous  times 
been  instrumental  in  securing  treaties,  wrote  re- 
peatedly to  the  Board  of  Trade,  who  controlled  the 
greater  part  of  the  commercial  transactions  in  the 
colonies — and  who  were  the  first  to  exclaim  against 
extending  English  settlements  beyond  a  limit 
whereby  they  would  need  manufactures,  and  there- 
by become  independent  of  the  Mother  Country — 
urging  upon  them,  and  through  them  the  Crown,  the 
necessity  of  a  fixed  boundary,  else  another  Indian 
war  was  probable.  The  Indians  found  themselves 
gradually  hemmed  in  by  the  growing  power  of  the 
whites,  and  began  to  exhibit  hostile  feelings.  The 
irritation  became  so  great  that  in  the  summer  of 
1767,  Gage  wrote  to  the  Governor  of  Pennsylvania 
concerning  it.  The  Governor  communicated  his 
letter  to  the  General  Assembly,  who  sent  repre- 
sentatives to  England,  to  urge  the  immediate  set- 
tlement of  the  question.  In  compliance  with  these 
requests,  and  the  letters  of  prominent  citizens, 
Franklin  among  the  number,  instructions  were  sent 
to  Johnson,  ordering  him  to  complete  the  purchase 
from  the  Six  Nations,  and  settle  all  differences. 
He  sent  word  to  all  the  Western  tribes  to  meet 
him  at  Fort  Stanwix,  in  October,  1768.  The  con- 
ference was  held  on  the  24:th  of  that  month,  and 
was  attended  by  colonial  representatives,  and  by 
Indians  from  all  parts  of  the  Northwest.  It  was 
determined  that  the  line  should  begin  on  the  Ohio, 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Cherokee  (Tennessee),  thence 
up  the  river  to  the  Alleghany  and  on  to  Kittan- 
ning,  and  thence  across  to  the  Susquehanna.  By 
this  line,  the  whole  country  south  of  the  Ohio  and 
Alleghany,  to  which  the  Six  Nations  had  any 
claim,  was  transferred.  Part  of  this  land  was 
made  to  compensate  twenty-two  traders,  whose  goods 
had  been  stolen  in  1763.  The  deeds  made,  wore 
upon  the  express  agreement  that  no  claims  should 

--« S) 





ever  be  based  on  the  treaties  of  Lancaster,  Logs- 
town,  etc.,  and  were  signed  by  the  chiefs  of  the  Six 
Nations  for  themselves,  their  alUes  and  dependents, 
and  the  Shawanees,  Delawares,  Mingoes  of  Ohio, 
and  others;  though  the  Shawanees  and  Delaware 
deputies  did  not  sign  them.  On  this  treaty,  in  a 
great  measure,  rests  the  title  by  purchase  to  Ken- 
tucky, Western  Virginia  and  Western  Pennsylva- 
nia. The  rights  of  the  Cherokees  were  purchased 
by  Col.  Donaldson,  either  for  the  King,  Virginia, 
or  for  himself,  it  is  impossible  to  say  which. 

The  grant  of  the  northern  confederacy  was  now 
made.  The  white  man  could  go  in  and  possess 
these  lands,  and  know  that  an  army  would  protect 
him  if  necessary.  Under  such  a  guarantee,  West- 
ern lands  came  rapidly  into  market.  In  addition 
to  companies  already  in  existence  for  the  purchase 
of  land,  others,  the  most  notable  of  these  being  the 
"Walpole"  and  the  "Mississippi"  Land  Companies, 
were  formed.  This  latter  had  among  its  organizers 
such  men  as  Francis  Lightfoot  Lee,  Richard 
Henry  Lee,  George  Washington  and  Arthur  Lee. 
Before  any  of  these  companies,  some  of  whom  ab- 
sorbed the  Ohio  Company,  could  do  anything,  the 
Revolution  came  on,  and  all  land  transactions  were 
at  an  end.  After  its  close,  Congress  would  not 
sanction  their  claims,  and  they  fell  through.  This 
did  not  deter  settlers,  however,  from  crossing  the 
mountains,  and  settling  in  the  Ohio  country.     In 

spite  of  troubles  with  the  Indians — some  of  whom 
regarded  the  treaties  with  the  Six  Nations  as  un- 
lawftil,  and  were  disposed  to  complain  at  the  rapid 
influx  of  whites — and  the  failure  of  the  land  com- 
panies, settlers  came  steadily  during  the  decade 
from  1768  to  1778,  so  that  by  the  close  of  that 
time,  there  was  a  large  population  south  of  the 
Ohio  River ;  while  scattered  along  the  northern 
banks,  extending  many  miles  into  the  wilderness, 
were  hardy  adventurers,  who  were  carving  out 
homes  in  the  magnificent  forests  everywhere  cov- 
ering the  country. 

Among  the  foremost  speculators  in  Western 
lands,  was  George  Washington.  As  early  as  1763, 
he  employed  Col.  Crawford,  afterward  the  leader  in 
"  Crawford's  campaign,"  to  purchase  lands  for  him. 
In  1770,  he  crossed  the  mountains  in  company 
with  several  gentlemen,  and  examined  the  country 
along  the  Ohio,  down  which  stream  he  passed  to 
the  mouth  of  the  Great  Kanawha,  where  he  shot 
some  buffalo,  then  plenty,  camped  out  a  few  nights, 
and  returned,  fully  convinced,  it  seems,  that  one 
day  the  West  would  be  the  best  part  of  the  New- 
World.  He  owned,  altogether,  nearly  fifty  thou- 
sand acres  in  the  West,  which  he  valued  at  $3.33 
per  acre.  Had  not  the  war  of  the  Revolution  just 
then  broken  out,  he  might  have  been  a  resident  of 
the  West,  and  would  have  been,  of  course,  one  of 
its  most  prominent  citizens. 



MEANWHILE,  Kentucky  was  filling  with 
citizens,  and  though  considerable  trouble 
was  experienced  with  the  Indians,  and  the  operations 
of  Col.  Richard  Henderson  and  others,  who  made 
unlawful  treaties  with  the  Indians,  yet  Daniel 
Boone  and  his  associates  had  established  a 
commonwealth,  and,  in  1777,  a  county  was 
formed,  which,  erelong,  was  divided  into  three. 
Louisville  was  laid  out  on  land  belonging  to 
Tories,  and  an  important  start  made  in  this  part 
of  the  West.  Emigrants  came  down  the  Ohio 
River,  saw  the  northern  shores  were  inviting,  and 
sent  back  such  accounts  that  the  land  north  of  the 
river  rapidly  grew  in   favor  with  Eastern   people. 

One  of  the  most  important  Western  characters, 
Col.  (afterward  Gen.)  George  Rogers  Clarke,  had 
had  much  to  do  in  forming  its  character.  He 
was  born  November  19,  1752,  in  Albemarle 
County,  Va.,  and  early  came  West.  He  had  an 
unusually  sagacious  spirit,  was  an  excellent  sur- 
veyor and  general,  and  took  an  active  interest  in 
all  State  and  national  affairs.  He  understood  the 
animus  of  the  Revolution,  and  was  prepared  to 
do  his  part.  Col.  Clarke  was  now  meditating  a 
move  unequaled  in  its  boldness,  and  one  that  had 
more  to  do  with  the  success  of  America  in  the 
struggle  for  independence  than  at  first  appears. 
He  saw  through  the  whole  plan  of  the   British, 




who  held  all  the  outposts,  Kaskaskia,  Detroit, 
Vincennes  and  Niagara,  and  determined  to  circuna- 
vent  them  and  wrest  the  West  from  their  power. 
The  British  hoped  to  encircle  the  Americans  by 
these  outposts,  and  also  unite  the  Indians  in  a 
common  war  against  them.  That  had  been 
attempted  by  the  French  when  the  English  con- 
quered them.  Then  the  French  had  a  powerful 
ally  in  the  person  of  Pontiac,  yet  the  brave  front- 
iersmen held  their  homes  in  many  places,  though 
the  Indians  "  drank  the  blood  of  many  a  Briton, 
scooping  it  up  in  the  hollow  of  joined  hands." 
Now  the  Briton  had  no  Pontiac  to  lead  the  scat- 
tered tribes — tribes  who  now  feared  the  unerring 
aim  of  a  settler,  and  would  not  attack  him  openly — 
Clarke  knew  that  the  Delawares  were  divided  in 
feeling  and  that  the  Shawanees  were  but  imperfectly 
united  in  favor  of  England  since  the  murder  of 
their  noted  chiefs.  He  was  convinced  that,  if  the 
British  could  be  driven  from  the  Western  posts, 
the  natives  could  easily  be  awed  into  submission, 
or  bribed  into  neutrality  or  friendship.  They 
admired,  from  their  savage  views  of  valor,  the 
side  that  became  victorious.  They  cared  little  for 
the  cause  for  which  either  side  was  fighting. 
Clarke  sent  out  spies  among  them  to  ascertain  the 
feasibility  of  his  plans.  The  spies  were  gone 
from  April  20  to  June  22,  and  fully  corroborated 
his  views  concerning  the  English  policy  and  the 
feelings  of  the  Indians  and  French. 

Before  proceeding  in  the  narrative  of  this  expe- 
dition, however,  it  will  be  well  to  notice  a  few  acts 
transpiring  north  of  the  Ohio  River,  especially  re- 
lating to  the  land  treaties,  as  they  were  not  without 
effect  on  the  British  policy.  Many  of  the  Indians 
north  and  south  of  the  Ohio  would  not  recognize 
the  validity  of  the  Fort  Stanwix  treaty,  claiming 
the  Iroquois  had  no  right  to  the  lands,  despite 
their  conquest.  These  discontented  natives  har- 
assed the  emigrants  in  such  a  manner  that  many 
Indians  were  slain  in  retaliation.  This,  and  the 
working  of  the  French  traders,  who  at  all  times 
were  bitterly  opposed  to  the  English  rule,  filled  the 
breasts  of  the  natives  with  a  malignant  hate,  which 
years  of  bloodshed  could  not  wash  out.  The 
murder  of  several  Indians  by  lawless  whites  fanned 
the  coal  into  a  blaze,  and,  by  1774,  several  retalia- 
tory murders  occurred,  committed  by  the  natives 
in  revenge  for  their  fallen  friends.  The  Indian 
slew  any  white  man  he  found,  as  a  revenge  on  some 
friend  of  his  slain  ;  the  frontiersman,  acting  on  the 
same  principle,  made  the  borders  extremely  dan- 
gerous to  invaders  and   invaded.     Another  cause 

of  fear  occurred  about  this  time,  which  threatened 
seriously  to  retard  emigration. 

Pittsburgh  had  been  claimed  by  both  Pennsyl- 
vania and  Virginia,  and,  in  endeavoring  to  settle 
the  dispute,  Lord  Dunmore's  war  followed.  Dr. 
John  Connelly,  an  ambitious,  intriguing  person, 
induced  Lord  Dunmore  to  assert  the  claims  of  Vir- 
ginia, in  the  name  of  the  King.  In  attempting  to 
carry  out  his  intentions,  he  was  arrested  by  Arthur 
St.  Clair,  representing  the  proprietors  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, who  was  at  Pittsburgh  at  the  time.  Con- 
nelly was  released  on  bail,  but  went  at  once  to 
Staunton,  where  he  was  sworn  in  as  a  Justice  of 
Peace.  Returning,  he  gathered  a  force  of  one 
hundred  and  fifty  men,  suddenly  took  possession  of 
Pittsburgh,  refused  to  allow  the  magistrates  to 
enter  the  Court  House,  or  to  exercise  the  functions 
of  their  ofiices,  unless  in  conformity  to  his  will. 
Connelly  refused  any  terms  offered  by  the  Penn- 
sylvania deputies,  kept  possession  of  the  place, 
acted  very  harshly  toward  the  inhabitants,  stiiTed 
up  the  neutral  Indians,  and,  for  a  time,  threatened 
to  make  the  boundary  line  between  the  two  colonies 
a  very  serious  question.  His  actions  led  to  hostile 
deeds  by  some  Indians,  when  the  whites,  no  doubt 
urged  by  him,  murdered  seven  Indians  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Captina  River,  and  at  the  house  of 
a  settler  named  Baker,  where  the  Indians  were 
decoyed  under  promises  of  friendship  and  offers  of 
rum.  Among  those  murdered  at  the  latter  place, 
was  the  entire  family  of  the  famous  Mingoe  chief, 
Logan.  This  has  been  charged  to  Michael  Cresap ; 
but  is  untrue.  Daniel  Grreathouse  had  command 
of  the  party,  and  though  Cresap  may  have  been 
among  them,  it  is  unjust  to  lay  the  blame  at  his 
feet.  Both  murders,  at  Captina  and  Yellow  Creek, 
were  cruel  and  unwarranted,  and  were,  without 
doubt,  the  cause  of  the  war  that  followed,  though 
the  root  of  the  matter  lay  in  Connelly's  arbitrary 
actions,  and  in  his  needlessly  alarming  the  Indians. 
Whatever  may  have  been  the  facts  in  relation  to 
the  murder  of  Logan's  family,  they  were  of  such 
a  nature  as  to  make  all  feel  sure  of  an  Indian  war, 
and  preparations  were  made  for  the  conflict. 

An  army  was  gathered  at  Wheeling,  which, 
some  time  in  July,  under  command  of  Col.  Mc- 
Donald, descended  the  Ohio  to  the  mouth  of  Cap- 
tina Creek.  They  proposed  to  march  against  an 
Indian  town  on  the  Muskingum.  The  Indians 
sued  for  peace,  but  their  pretensions  being  found 
spurious,  their  towns  and  crops  were  destroyed. 
The  army  then  retreated  to  Williamsburg,  having 
accomplished  but  little. 

■  T 



The  Delawares  were  anxious  for  peace ;  even  the 
Mingoes,  whose  relatives  had  been  slain  at  Yellow 
Creek,  and  Captina,  were  restrained;  but  Logan, 
who  had  been  turned  to  an  inveterate  foe  to  the 
Americans,  came  suddenly  upon  the  Monongahela 
settlements,  took  thirteen  scalps  in  revenge  for  the 
loss  of  his  family,  returned  home  and  expressed 
himself  ready  to  treat  with  the  Long  Knives,  the 
Virginians.  Had  Connelly  acted  properly  at  this 
juncture,  the  war  might  have  been  ended;  but 
his  actions  only  incensed  both  borderers  and  In- 
dians. So  obnoxious  did  he  become  that  Lord 
Dunmore  lost  faith  in  him,  and  severely  repri- 
manded him. 

To  put  a  stop  to  the  depredations  of  the  Indians, 
two  large  bodies  of  troops  were  gathered  in  Vir- 
ginia, one  under  Gren.  Andrew  Lewis,  and  one 
under  command  of  Dunmore  himself  Before 
the  armies  could  meet  at  the  mouth  of  the  Great 
Kanawha,  their  objective  point,  Lewis'  army,  which 
arrived  first,  was  attacked  by  a  furious  band  of  Dela- 
wares, Shawanees,  Iroquois  and  Wyandots.  The 
conflict  was  bitterly  prolonged  by  the  Indians,  who, 
under  the  leadership  of  Cornstalk,  were  deter- 
mined to  make  a  decisive  effort,  and  fought  till 
late  at  night  (October  10,  1774),  and  then  only  by 
a  strategic  move  of  Lewis'  command — which  re- 
sulted in  the  defeat  of  the  Indians,  compelling  them 
to  cross  the  Ohio — was  the  conflict  ended.  Mean- 
while, Dunmore's  army  came  into  the  enemy's 
country,  and,  being  joined  by  the  remainder  of 
Lewis'  command,  pressed  forward  intending  to  an- 
nihilate the  Indian  towns.  Cornstalk  and  his 
chiefs,  however,  sued  for  peace,  and  the  conflict 
closed.  Dunmore  established  a  camp  on  Sippo 
Creek,  where  he  held  conferences  with  the  natives 
and  concluded  the  war.  When  he  left  the  country, 
he  stationed  100  men  at  the  mouth  of  the  Great 
Kanawha,  a  few  more  at  Pittsburgh,  and  another 
corps  at  Wheeling,  then  called  Fort  Fincastle. 
Dunmore  intended  to  return  to  Pittsburgh  the 
next  spring,  meet  the  Indians  and  form  a  definite 
peace ;  but  the  revolt  of  the  colonies  prevented. 
However,  he  opened  several  offices  for  the  sale  of 
lands  in  the  West,  some  of  which  were  in  the  limits 
of  the  Pennsylvania  colony.  This  led  to  the  old 
boundary  dispute  again;  but  before  it  could  be 
settled,  the  Revolution  began,  and  Lord  Duamore's, 
as  well  as  almost  all  other  land  speculations  in  the 
West,  were  at  an  end. 

In  1775  and  1776,  the  chief  events  transpiring 
in  the  West  relate  to  the  treaties  with  the  Indians, 
and  the  endeavor  on  the  part  of  the  Americans  to 

have  them  remain  neutral  in  the  family  quarrel  now 
coming  on,  which  they  could  not  understand.  The 
British,  like  the  French,  however,  could  not  let 
them  alone,  and  finally,  as  a  retaliatory  measure. 
Congress,  under  advice  of  Washington,  won  some  of 
them  over  to  the  side  of  the  colonies,  getting  their 
aid  and  holding  them  neutral.  The  colonies  only 
offered  them  rewards  for  prisoners  ;  never,  like  the 
British,  offering  rewards  for  scalps.  Under  such 
rewards,  the  atrocities  of  the  Indians  in  some  quar- 
ters were  simply  horrible.  The  scalp  was  enough 
to  get  a  reward,  that  was  a  mark  of  Indian  valor, 
too,  and  hence,  helpless  innocence  and  decrepit  old 
age  were  not  spared.  They  stirred  the  minds  of 
the  pioneers,  who  saw  the  protection  of  their  fire- 
sides a  vital  point,  and  led  the  way  to  the  scheme 
of  Col.  Clarke,  who  was  now,  as  has  been  noted,  the 
leading  spirit  in  Kentucky.  He  saw  through  the 
scheme  of  the  British,  and  determined,  by  a  quick, 
decisive  blow,  to  put  an  end  to  it,  and  to  cripple 
their  power  in  the  West. 

Among  the  acts  stimulating  Clarke,  was  the  attack 
on  Fort  Henry,  a  garrison  about  one-half  mile 
above  Wheeling  Creek,  on  the  Ohio,  by  a  renegade 
white  man,  Simon  Girty,  an  agent  in  the  employ  of 
the  British,  it  is  thought,  and  one  of  the  worst 
wretches  ever  known  on  the  frontier.  When  Girty 
attacked  Fort  Henry,  he  led  his  red  allies  in  regu- 
lar military  fashion,  and  attacked  it  without  mercy. 
The  defenders  were  brave,  and  knew  with  whom 
they  were  contending.  Great  bravery  was  displayed 
by  the  women  in  the  fort,  one  of  whom,  a  Miss 
Zane,  carried  a  keg  of  gunpowder  from  a  cabin 
to  the  fort.  Though  repeatedly  fired  at  by  the  sav- 
ages, she  reached  the  fort  in  safety.  After  awhile, 
however,  the  effect  of  the  frontiersmen's  shots  began 
to  be  felt,  and  the  Indians  sullenly  withdrew. 
Re-enforcements  coming,  the  fort  was  held,  and 
Girty  and  his  band  were  obliged  to  flee. 

Clarke  saw  that  if  the  British  once  got  con- 
trol over  the  Western  Indians  the  scene  at  Fort 
Henry  would  be  repeated,  and  would  not  likely, 
in  all  cases,  end  in  fiivor  of  the  Americans.  With- 
out communicating  any  of  his  designs,  he  left  Har- 
rodsburg  about  the  1st  of  October,  1777,  and 
reached  the  capital  of  Virginia  by  November  5. 
Still  keeping  his  mind,  he  awaited  a  favorable  op- 
portunity to  broach  his  plans  to  those  in  power, 
and,  in  the  meanwhile,  carefully  watched  the  exist- 
ing state  of  feeling.  When  the  opportunity  came, 
Clarke  broached  his  plans  to  Patrick  Henry,  Gov- 
ernor of  Virginia,  who  at  once  entered  warmly 
into    them,   recognizing    their    great    importance. 



Through  his  aid,  Clarke  procured  the  necessary  au- 
thority to  prosecute  his  plans,  and  returned  at  once 
to  Pittsburgh.  He  intended  raising  men  about 
this  post,  but  found  them  fearful  of  leaving  their 
homes  unprotected.  However,  he  secured  three 
companies,  and,  with  these  and  a  number  of  volun- 
teers, picked  up  on  the  way  down  the  Ohio  River, 
he  fortified  Corn  Island,  near  the  falls,  and  made 
ready  for  his  expedition.  He  had  some  trouble  in 
keeping  his  men,  some  of  those  from  Kentucky 
refusing  to  aid  in  subduing  stations  out  of  their 
own  country.  He  did  not  announce  his  real  inten- 
tions till  he  had  reached  this  point.  Here  Col. 
Bowman  joined  him  with  his  Kentucky  militia, 
and,  on  the  24tli  of  June,  1778,  during  a  total 
eclipse  of  the  sun,  the  party  left  the  fort.  Before 
his  start,  he  learned  of  the  capture  of  Burgoyne, 
and,  when  nearl}'  down  to  Fort  3Iassac,  he  met 
some  of  his  spies,  who  informed  him  of  the  exag- 
gerated accounts  of  the  ferocity  of  the  Long 
Knives  that  the  French  had  received  from  the 
British.  By  proper  action  on  his  part,  Clarke  saw 
both  these  items  of  information  could  be  made 
very  beneficial  to  him.  Leaving  the  river  near 
Fort  Massac,  he  set  out  on  the  march  to  Kaskas- 
kia,  through  a  hot  summer's  sun,  over  a  country 
fiill  of  savage  foes.  They  reached  the  town  un- 
noticed, on  the  evening  of  July  4,  and,  before 
the  astonished  British  and  French  knew  it,  they 
were  all  prisoners.  M.  Rocheblave,  the  English 
commander,  was  secured,  but  his  wife  adroitly  con- 
cealed the  papers  belonging  to  the  garrison.  In 
the  person  of  M.  Gibault,  the  French  priest,  Clarke 
found  a  true  friend.  When  the  true  character  of 
the  Virginians  became  apparent,  the  French  were 
easily  drawn  to  the  American  side,  and  the  priest 
secured  the  surrender  and  allegiance  of  Cahokia 
through  his  personal  influence.  M.  Gibault  told 
him  he  would  also  secure  the  post  at  St.  Vincent's, 
which  he  did,  returning  from  the  mission  about 
the  1st  of  AugTist.  During  the  interval,  Clarke  re- 
enlisted  his  men,  formed  his  plans,  sent  his  pris- 
oners to  Kentucky,  and  was  ready  for  ftiture  action 
when  M.  Gibault  arrived.  He  sent  Capt.  Helm 
and  a  single  soldier  to  Vincennes  to  hold  that  fort 
until  he  could  put  a  garrison  there.  It  is  but 
proper  to  state  that  the  English  commander,  Col. 
Hamilton,  and  his  band  of  soldiers,  were  absent  at 
Detroit  when  the  priest  secured  the  village  on  the 
"  Ouabache."  When  Hamilton  returned,  in  the 
autumn,  he  was  greatly  surprised  to  see  the  Amer- 
ican flag  floating  from  the  ramparts  of  the  fort, 
and  when  approaching  the  gate  he  was  abruptly 

halted  by  Capt.  Helm,  who  stood  with  a  lighted  fuse 
in  his  hand  by  a  cannon,  answering  Hamilton's 
demand  to  surrender  with  the  imperative  inquiry, 
"Upon  what  terms,  sir?"  "LTpon  the  honors  of 
war,"  answered  Hamilton,  and  he  marched  in 
greatly  chagrined  to  see  he  had  been  halted  by 
two  men.  The  British  commander  sat  quietly 
down,  intending  to  go  on  down  the  river  and  sub- 
due Kentucky  in  the  spring,  in  the  mean  time 
off'ering  rewards  for  American  scalps,  and  thereby 
gaining  the  epithet "  Hair-buyer  General."  Clarke 
heard  of  his  actions  late  in  January,  1779,  and,  as 
he  says,  "  I  knew  if  I  did  not  take  him  he  would 
take  me,"  set  out  early  in  February  with  his  troops 
and  marched  across  the  marshy  plains  of  Lower 
Illinois,  reaching  the  Wabash  post  by  the  22d  of 
that  month.  The  unerring  aim  of  the  Westerner 
was  eff"ectual.  "  They  will  shoot  your  eyes  out," 
said  Helm  to  the  British  troops.  "  There,  I  told 
you  so,"  he  further  exclaimed,  as  a  soldier  vent- 
ured near  a  port-hole  and  received  a  shot  directly 
in  his  eye.  On  the  24th  the  fort  surrendered. 
The  American  flag  waved  again  over  its  ramparts. 
The  "Hair-buyer  General"  was  sent  a  prisoner  to 
Virginia,  where  he  was  kept  in  close  confinement 
for  his  cruel  acts.  Clarke  returned  to  Kaskaskia, 
perfected  his  plans  to  hold  the  Illinois  settlements, 
went  on  to  Kentucky,  from  where  he  sent  word  to 
the  colonial  authorities  of  the  success  of  his  expe- 
dition. Had  he  received  the  aid  promised  him, 
Detroit,  in  easy  reach,  would  have  fallen  too,  but 
Gen.  Green,  failing  to  send  it  as  promised,  the  capt- 
ure of  that  important  post  was  delayed. 

Had  Clarke  failed,  and  Hamilton  succeeded,  the 
whole  West  would  have  been  swept,  from  the  Alle- 
ghanies  to  the  Mississippi.  But  for  this  small 
army  of  fearless  Virginians,  the  union  of  all  the 
tribes  from  Georgia  to  Maine  against  the  colonies 
might  have  been  effected,  and  the  whole  current 
of  American  history  changed.  America  owes 
Clarke  and  his  band  more  than  it  can  ever  pay. 
Clarke  reported  the  capture  of  Kaskaskia  and  the 
Illinois  country  early  after  its  surrender,  and  in 
October  the  county  of  Illinois  was  established, 
extending  over  an  unlimited  expanse  of  country, 
by  the  Virginia  Legislature.  John  Todd  was 
appointed  Lieutenant  Colonel  and  Civil  Governor. 
In  November,  Clarke  and  his  men  received  the 
thanks  of  the  same  body,  who,  in  after  years, 
secured  them  a  grant  of  land,  which  they  selected 
on  the  right  bank  of  the  Ohio  River,  opposite 
Louisville.  They  expected  here  a  city  would  rise 
one  day,  to  be  the  peer  of  Louisville,  then  coming 





into  prominence  as  an  important  place.  By  some 
means,  their  expectations  failed,  and  only  the 
dilapidated  village  of  Clarkesburg  perpetuates 
their  hopes. 

The  conquest  of  Clarke  changed  the  face  of 
aifairs  in  relation  to  the  whole  country  north  of 
the  Ohio  River,  which  would,  in  all  probability, 
have  been  made  the  boundary  between  Canada  and 
the  United  States.  When  this  was  proposed,  the 
strenuous  arguments  based  on  this  conquest,  by 
the  American  Commissioners,  secured  the  present 
boundary  line  in  negotiating  the  treaty  of  1793. 

Though  Clarke  had  failed  to  capture  Detroit, 
Congress  saw  the  importance  of  the  post,  and 
resolved  on  securing  it.  Gren.  McCosh,  commander 
at  Fort  Pitt,  was  put  in  command,  and  $1,000,- 
000  and  3,000  men  placed  at  his  disposal.  By 
some  dilatory  means,  he  got  no  further  than  the 
Tuscarawas  River,  in  Ohio,  where  a  half-way 
house,  called  Fort  Laurens,  for  the  President  of 
Congress,  was  built.  It  was  too  far  out  to  be  of 
practicable  value,  and  was  soon  after  abandoned. 

Indian  troubles  and  incursions  by  the  British 
were  the  most  absorbing  themes  in  the  West. 
The  British  went  so  far  as  Kentucky  at  a  later 
date,  while  they  intended  reducing  Fort  Pitt,  only 
abandoning  it  when  learning  of  its  strength. 
Expeditions  against  the  Western  Indians  were  led 
by  Gen.  Sullivan,  Col.  Daniel  Broadhead,  Col. 
Bowman  and  others,  which,  for  awhile,  silenced 
the  natives  and  taught  them  the  power  of  the 
Americans.  They  could  not  organize  so  readily 
as  before,  and  began  to  attach  themselves  more 
closely  to  the  British,  or  commit  their  depredations 
in  bands,  fleeing  into  the  wilderness  as  soon  as 
they  struck  a  blow.  In  this  way,  several  localities 
suffered,  until  the  settlers  became  again  exasper- 
ated ;  other  expeditions  were  formed,  and  a  second 
chastisement  given.  In  1781,  Col.  Broadhead 
led  an  expedition  against  the  Central  Ohio  Indians. 
It  did  not  prove  so  successful,  as  the  Indians  were 
led  by  the  noted  chief  Brant,  who,  though  not 
cruel,  was  a  foe  to  the  Americans,  and  assisted  the 
British  greatly  in  their  endeavors  to  secure  the  West. 

Another  class  of  events  occun-ed  now  in  the 
West,  civil  in  their  relations,  yet  destined  to  form 
an  important  part  of  its  history — its  land  laws. 

It  must  be  borne  in  mind,  that  Virginia  claimed 
the  greater  portion  of  the  country  north  of  the 
Ohio  River,  as  well  as  a  large  part  south.  The 
other  colonies  claimed  land  also  in  the  West  under 
the  old  Crown  grants,  which  extended  to  the 
South  or  Western  Sea.     To  more  complicate  mat- 

ters, several  land  companies  held  proprietary  rights 
to  portions  of  these  lands  gained  by  grants  from 
the  Crown,  or  from  the  Colonial  Assemblies. 
Others  were  based  on  land  warrants  issued 
in  1763;  others  on  selection  and  survey  and 
still  others  on  settlement.  In  this  state  of 
mixed  afiairs,  it  was  difficult  to  say  who  held  a 
secure  claim.  It  was  a  question  whether  the  old 
French  grants  were  good  or  not,  especially  since 
the  change  in  government,  and  the  eminent  pros- 
pect of  still  another  change.  To,  in  some  way, 
aid  in  settling  these  claims,  Virginia  sent  a  com- 
mission to  the  West  to  sit  as  a  court  and  determine 
the  proprietorship  of  these  claims.  This  court, 
though  of  as  doubtful  authority  as  the  claims 
themselves,  went  to  work  in  Kentucky  and  along 
the  Ohio  River  in  1779,  and,  in  the  course  of  one 
year,  granted  over  three  thousand  certificates. 
These  were  considered  as  good  authority  for  a 
definite  title,  and  were  so  regarded  in  after  pur- 
chases. Under  them,  many  pioneers,  like  Daniel 
Boone,  lost  their  lands,  as  all  were  required  to 
hold  some  kind  of  a  patent,  while  others,  who 
possessed  no  more  principle  than  "land-sharks" 
of  to-day,  acquired  large  tracts  of  land  by  holding 
a  patent  the  court  was  bound  to  accept.  Of  all 
the  colonies,  Virginia  seemed  to  have  the  best 
title  to  the  Northwest,  save  a  few  parcels,  such  as 
the  Connecticut  or  Western  Reserve  and  some 
similar  tracts  held  by  New  York,  Massachusetts 
and  New  Jersey.  When  the  territory  of  the 
Northwest  was  ceded  to  the  General  Government, 
this  was  recognized,  and  that  country  was  counted 
as  a  Virginia  county. 

The  Spanish  Government,  holding  the  region 
west  of  the  Mississippi,  and  a  portion  east  toward 
its  outlet,  became  an  important  but  secret  ally  of 
the  Americans.  When  the  French  revolt  was 
suppressed  by  O'Reilly,  and  the  Spanish  assumed 
the  government  of  Louisiana,  both  Upper  and 
Lower,  there  was  a  large  tract  of  country,  known 
as  Florida  (East  and  West),  claimed  by  England, 
and  duly  regarded  as  a  part  of  her  dominion. 
The  boundaries  had  been  settled  when  the  French 
first  occupied  Lower  Louisiana.  The  Spaniards 
adopted  the  patriarchal  form  of  rule,  as  much  as 
was  consistent  with  their  interests,  and  allowed  the 
French  full  religious  and  civil  liberty,  save  that  all 
tribunals  were  after  the  Spanish  fashion,  and 
governed  by  Spanish  rules.  The  Spaniards,  long 
jealous  of  England's  growing  power,  secretly  sent 
the  Governors  of  Louisiana  word  to  aid  the 
Americans  in  their  struggle  for  freedom.     Though 




they  controlled  the  Mississippi  River,  they  allowed 
an  American  officer  (Capt.  Willing)  to  descend  the 
river  in  January,  1778,  with  a  party  of  fifty  men, 
and  ravage  the  British  shore  from  Manchez  Bayou 
to  Natchez. 

On  the  8th  of  May,  1779,  Spain  declared  war 
against  Great  Britain;  and,  on  the  8th  of  July, 
the  people  of  Louisiana  were  allowed  to  take  a 
part  in  the  war.  Accordingly,  Galvez  collected  a 
force  of  1,400  men,  and,  on  the  7th  of  September, 
took  Fort  Manchac.  By  the  21st  of  September, 
he  had  taken  Baton  Rouge  and  Natchez.  Eight 
vessels  were  captured  by  the  Spaniards  on  the 
Mississippi  and  on  the  lakes.  In  1780  Mobile 
fell;  in  March,  1781,  Pensacola,  the  chief  British 
post  in  West  Florida,  succumbed  after  a  long 
siege,  and,  on  the  9th  of  May,  all  West  Florida 
was  surrendered  to  Spain. 

This  war,  or  the  war  on  the  Atlantic  Coast,  did 
not  immediately  affect  Upper  Louisiana.  Great 
Britain,  however,  attempted  to  capture  St.  Louis. 
Though  the  commander  was  strongly  suspected  of 
being  bribed  by  the  English,  yet  the  place  stood 
the  siege  fi-om  the  combined  force  of  Indians  and 
Canadians,  and  the  assailants  were  dispersed.  This 
was  done  during  the  summer  of  1680,  and  in  the 
autumn,  a  company  of  Spanish  and  French  resi- 
dents, under  La  Balme,  went  on  an  expedition 
against  Detroit.  They  marched  as  far  north  as 
the  British  trading-post  Ke-ki-ong-a,  at  the  head 
of  the  Maumee  River,  but  being  surprised  in  the 
night,  and  the  commander  slain,  the  expedition 
was  defeated,  having  done  but  little. 

Spain  may  have  had  personal  interests  in  aiding 
the  Americans.  She  was  now  in  control  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi River,  the  natural  outlet  of  the  Northwest, 
and,  in  1780,  began  the  troubles  relative  to  the 
navigation  of  that  stream.  The  claims  of  Spain 
were  considered  very  unjust  by  the  Continental 
Congress,  and,  while  deliberating  over  the  question, 
Virginia,  who  was  jealously  alive  to  her  Western 
interests,  and  who  yet  held  jurisdiction  over  Ken- 
tucky, sent  through  Jefferson,  the  Governor,  Gen. 
George  Rogers  Clarke,  to  erect  a  fort  below  the 
mouth  of  the  Ohio.  This  proceeding  was  rather 
unwarrantable,  especially  as  the  fort  was  built  in 
the  country  of  the  Chickasaws,  who  had  thus  far 
been  true  friends  to  the  Americans,  and  who  looked 
upon  the  fort  as  an  innovation  on  their  territory. 
It  was  completed  and  occupied  but  a  short  time, 
Clarke  being  recalled. 

Virginia,  in  1780,  did  a  very  important  thing; 
namely,  establishing  an  institution  for  higher  edu- 

cation. The  Old  Dominion  confiscated  the  lands 
of  "Robert  McKenzie,  Henry  Collins  and  Alex- 
ander McKee,  Britons,  eight  thousand  acres,"  and 
invested  the  proceeds  of  the  sale  in  a  public  semi- 
nary. Transylvania  University  now  lives,  a  monu- 
ment to  that  .spirit. 

While  Clarke  was  building  Fort  Jefferson,  a  force 
of  British  and  Indians,  under  command  of  Capt. 
Bryd,  came  down  from  Canada  and  attacked  the 
Kentucky  settlements,  getting  into  the  country  be- 
fore any  one  was  aware.  The  winter  before  had 
been  one  of  unusual  severity,  and  game  was  ex- 
ceedingly scarce,  hence  the  army  was  not  prepared 
to  conduct  a  campaign.  After  the  capture  of  Rud- 
dle's Station,  at  the  south  fork  of  the  Licking,  Bryd 
abandoned  any  further  attempts  to  reduce  the  set- 
tlements, except  capturing  Martin's  Station,  and 
returned  to  Detroit. 

This  expedition  gave  an  additional  motive  for 
the  chastisement  of  the  Indians,  and  Clarke,  on  his 
return  from  Fort  Jefferson,  went  on  an  expedition 
against  the  Miami  Indians.  He  destroyed  their 
towns  at  Loramie's  store,  near  the  present  city  of 
Sydney,  Ohio,  and  at  Piqua,  humbling  the  natives. 
While  on  the  way,  a  part  of  the  army  remained 
on  the  north  bank  of  the  Ohio,  and  erected  two 
block-houses  on  the  present  site  of  Cincinnati. 

The  exploits  of  Clarke  and  his  men  so  effectually 
chastised  the  Indians,  that,  for  a  time,  the  West 
was  safe.  During  this  period  of  quiet,  the  meas- 
ures which  led  to  the  cession  of  Western  lands  to 
the  General  Government,  began  to  assume  a  defi- 
nite form.  All  the  colonies  claiming  Western 
lands  were  willing  to  cede  them  to  the  Government, 
save  Virginia,  which  colony  wanted  a  large  scope 
of  Southern  country  southeast  of  the  Ohio,  as  far 
as  South  Carolina.  All  recognized  the  justice  of 
all  Western  lands  becoming  public  property,  and 
thereby  aiding  in  extinguishing  the  debts  caused  by 
the  war  of  the  Revolution,  now  about  to  close. 
As  Virginia  held  a  somewhat  different  view,  the 
cession  was  not  made  until  1783. 

The  subject,  however,  could  not  be  allowed  to 
rest.  The  war  of  the  Revolution  was  now  drawing 
to  a  close ;  victory  on  the  part  of  the  colonies  was 
apparent,  and  the  Western  lands  must  be  a  part  of 
the  public  domain.  Subsequent  events  brought 
about  the  desired  cession,  though  several  events 
transpired  before  the  plan  of  cession  was  consum- 

Before  the  close  of  1780,  the  Legislature  of 
Virginia  passed  an  act,  establishing  the  "town  of 
Louisville,"  and  confiscated  the   lands   of    John 





Connelly,  who  was  one  of  its  original  proprietors, 
and  who  distinguished  himself  in  the  commence- 
ment of  Lord  Dunmore's  war,  and  who  was  now  a 
Tory,  and  doing  all  he  could  against  the  patriot 
cause.  The  proceeds  of  the  sale  of  his  lands  were 
divided  between  Virginia  and  the  county  of  Jefferson. 
Kentucky,  the  next  year,  was  divided  into  three 
counties,  Jefferson,  Lincoln  and  Fayette.  Courts 
were  appointed  in  each,  and  the  entry  and  location 
of  lands  given  into  their  hands.  Settlers,  in  spite 
of  Lidian  troubles  and  British  intrigue,  were 
pouring  over  the  mountains,  particularly  so  during 
the  years  1780  and  1781.  The  expeditions  of 
Clarke  against  the  Miami  Indians ;  Boone's  cap- 
tivity, and  escape  from  them ;  their  defeat  when 
attacking  Boonesboro,  and  other  places  —  all 
combined  to  weaken  their  power,  and  teach  them 
to  respect  a  nation  whose  progress  they  could  not 

The  pioneers  of  the  West,  obliged  to  depend  on 
themselves,  owing  to  the  struggle  of  the  colonies 
for  freedom,  grew  up  a  hardy,  self-reliant  race, 
with  all  the  vices  and  virtues  of  a  border  life,  and 
with  habits,  manners  and  customs  necessary  to 
their  peculiar  situation,  and  suited  to  their  peculiar 
taste.  A  resume  of  their  experiences  and  daily 
lives  would  be  quite  interesting,  did  the  limits  of 
this  history  admit  it  here.  In  the  part  relating 
directly  to  this  county,  the  reader  will  find  such 
lives  given;  here,  only  the  important  events  can 
be  noticed. 

The  last  event  of  consequence  occurring  in  the 
West  before  the  close  of  the  Revolution,  is  one 
that  might  well  have  been  omitted.  Had  such 
been  the  case,  a  great  stain  would  have  been  spared 
the  character  of  Western  pioneers.  Reference  is 
made  to  the  massacre  of  the  Moravian  Christian 

These  Indians  were  of  the  Delaware  nation 
chiefly,  though  other  Western  tribes  were  visited 
and  many  converts  made.  The  first  converts  were 
made  in  New  York  and  Connecticut,  where,  after 
a  good  start  had  been  made,  and  a  prospect  of 
many  souls  being  saved,  they  incurred  the  enmity 
of  the  whites,  who,  becoming  alarmed  at  their  suc- 
cess, persecuted  them  to  such  an  extent  that  they 
were  driven  out  of  New  York  into  Pennsylvania, 
where,  in  1744,  four  years  after  their  arrival  in 
the  New  World,  they  began  new  missions.  In 
1748,  the  New  York  and  Connecticut  Indians  fol- 
lowed their  teachers,  and  were  among  the  founders 
of  Friedenshutten,  "Tents  of  Peace,"  a  hamlet 
near   Bethlehem,  where  their  teachers  were   sta- 

tioned. Other  hamlets  grew  around  them,  until 
in  the  interior  of  the  colony,  existed  an  Indian 
community,  free  from  all  savage  vices,  and  grow- 
ing up  in  Christian  virtues.  As  their  strength 
grew,  lawless  whites  again  began  to  oppress  them. 
They  could  not  understand  the  war  of  1754,  and 
were,  indeed,  in  a  truly  embarrassing  position. 
The  savages  could  form  no  conception  of  any  cause 
for  neutrality,  save  a  secret  sympathy  with  the 
English ;  and  if  they  could  not  take  up  the  hatchet, 
they  were  in  the  way,  and  must  be  removed.  Fail- 
ing to  do  this,  their  red  brothers  became  hostile. 
The  whites  were  but  little  better.  The  old  suspi- 
cions which  drove  them  from  New  York  were 
aroused.  They  were  secret  Papists,  in  league  with 
the  French,  and  furnished  them  with  arms  and  in- 
telligence; they  were  interfering  with  the  liquor 
traffic;  they  were  enemies  to  the  Government, 
and  the  Indian  and  the  white  man  combined  against 
them.  They  were  obliged  to  move  from  place  to 
place;  were  at  one  time  protected  nearly  a  year, 
near  Philadelphia,  from  lawless  whites,  and  finally 
were  compelled  to  go  far  enough  West  to  be  out 
of  the  way  of  French  and  English  arms,  or  the 
Iroquois  and  Cherokee  hatchets.  They  came 
finally  to  the  Muskingum,  where  they  made  a  set- 
tlement called  Schonbrun,  "beautiful  clear  spring," 
in  what  is  now  Tuscarawas  County.  Other  settle- 
ments gathered,  from  time  to  time,  as  the  years 
went  on,  till  in  1772  large  numbers  of  them  were 
within  the  borders  of  the  State. 

Until  the  war  of  independence  broke  out,  they 
were  allowed  to  peacefully  pursue  their  way.  When 
that  came,  they  were  between  Fort  Pitt  and  De- 
troit, one  of  which  contained  British,  the  other 
Americans.  Again  they  could  not  understand  the 
struggle,  and  could  not  take  up  the  hatchet.  This 
brought  on  them  the  enmity  of  both  belligerent 
parties,  and  that  of  their  own  forest  companions, 
who  could  not  see  wherein  their  natures  could 
change.  Among  the  most  hostile  persons,  were 
the  white  renegades  McKee,  Girty  and  Elliott. 
On  their  instigation,  several  of  them  were  slain, 
and  by  their  advice  they  were  obliged  to  leave  their 
fields  and  homes,  where  they  had  many  comforts, 
and  where  they  had  erected  good  chapels  in  which 
to  worship.  It  was  just  before  one  of  these  forced 
removals  that  Mary,  daughter  of  the  missionary 
Hecke welder,  was  born.  She  is  supposed  to  be 
the  first  white  female  child  born  north  of  the  Ohio 
River.  Her  birth  occurred  April  16,  1781.  It 
is  but  proper  to  say  here,  that  it  is  an  open  ques- 
tion, and  one  that  will  probably  never  be  decided, 





L  e.  Who  was  the  first  white  child  born  in  Ohio  ? 
In  all  probability,  the  child  was  born  during  the 
captivity  of  its  mother,  as  history  plainly  shows 
that  when  white  women  were  released  from  the 
Indians,  some  of  them  carried  children  born  while 
among  the  natives. 

When  the  Moravians  were  forced  to  leave  their 
settlements  on  the  Muskingum,  and  taken  to  San- 
dusky, they  left  growing  fields  of  corn,  to  which 
they  were  obliged  to  return,  to  gather  food.  This 
aroused  the  whites,  only  wanting  some  pretext 
whereby  they  might  attack  them,  and  a  party, 
headed  by  Col.  David  Williamson,  determined  to 
exterminate  them.  The  Moravians,  hearing  of  their 
approach,  fled,  but  too  late  to  warn  other  settle- 
ments, and  Gnadenhutten,  Salem  and  one  or  two 
smaller  settlements,  were  surprised  and  taken. 
Under  deceitful  promises,  the  Indians  gave  up  all 
their  arms,  showed  the  whites  their  treasures,  and 
went  unknowingly  to  a  terrible  death.  When  ap- 
prised of  their  fate,  determined  on  by  a  majority 
of  the  rangers,  they  begged  only  time  to  prepare. 
They  were  led  two  by  two,  the  men  into  one,  the 
women  and  children  into  another  "slaughter- 
house," as  it  was  termed,  and  all  but  two  lads  were 
wantonly  slain.  An  infamous  and  more  bloody 
deed  never  darkened  the  pages  of  feudal  times ; 
a  deed  that,  in  after  years,  called  aloud  for  venge- 
ance, and  in  some  measure  received  it.  Some  of 
Williamson's  men  wrung  their  hands  at  the  cruel 
fate,  and  endeavored,  by  all  the  means  in  their 
power,  to  prevent  it;  but  all  to  no  purpose.  The 
blood  of  the  rangers  was  up,  and  they  would  not  spare 
"man,  woman  or  child,  of  all  that  peaceful  band." 

Having  completed  their  horrible  work,  (March 
8,  1782),  Williamson  and  his  men  returned  to 
Pittsburgh.  Everywhere,  the  Indians  lamented 
the  untimely  death  of  their  kindred,  their  savage 
relatives  determining  on  their  revenge;  the  Chris- 
tian ones  could  only  be  resigned  and  weep. 

Williamson's  success,  for  such  it  was  viewed  by 
many,  excited  the  borderers  to  another  invasion, 
and  a  second  army  was  raised,  this  time  to 
go  to  the  Sandusky  town,  and  annihilate  the 
Wyandots.  Col.  William  Crawford  was  elected 
leader ;  he  accepted  reluctantly ;  on  the  way, 
the  army  was  met  by  hordes  of  savages  on  the  5th  of 

June,  and  totally  routed.  They  were  away  north, 
in  what  is  now  Wyandot  County,  and  were  obliged 
to  flee  for  their  lives.  The  blood  of  the  murdered 
Moravians  called  for  revenge.  The  Indians  de- 
sired it ;  were  they  not  relatives  of  the  fallen 
Christians?  Crawford  and  many  of  his  men  fell 
into  their  hands  ; .  all  sufi"ered  unheard-of  tortures, 
that  of  Crawford  being  as  cruel  as  Indian  cruelty 
could  devise.  He  was  pounded,  pierced,  cut  with 
knives  and  burned,  all  of  which  occupied  nearly 
three  hours,  and  finally  lay  down  insensible  on  a  bed 
of  coals,  and  died.  The  savage  captors,  in  demoni- 
acal glee,  danced  around  him,  and  upbraided  him 
for  the  cruel  murder  of  their  relatives,  giving  him 
this  only  consolation,  that  had  they  captured  Will- 
iamson, he  might  go  free,  but  he  must  answer  for 
Williamson's  brutality. 

The  war  did  not  cease  here.  The  Indians,  now 
aroused,  carried  their  attack  as  far  south  as  into 
Kentucky,  killing  Capt.  Estill,  a  brave  man,  and 
some  of  his  companions.  The  British,  too,  were 
active  in  aiding  them,  and  the  14th  of  August  a 
large  force  of  them,  under  Girty,  gathered  silently 
about  Bryant's  Station.  They  were  obliged  to  re- 
treat. The  Kentuckians  pursued  them,  but  were 
repulsed  with  considerable  loss. 

The  attack  on  Bryant's  Station  aroused  the  peo- 
ple of  Kentucky  to  strike  a  blow  that  would  be 
felt.  Gen.  Clarke  was  put  at  the  head  of  an  army 
of  one  thousand  and  fifty  men,  and  the  Miami 
country  was  a  second  time  destroyed.  Clarke  even 
went  as  far  north  as  the  British  trading-post  at  the 
head  of  the  Miami,  where  he  captured  a  great 
amount  of  property,  and  destroyed  the  post.  Other 
outposts  also  fell,  the  invading  army  suffering  but 
little,  and,  by  its  decisive  action,  practically  closing 
the  Indian  wars  in  the  West.  Pennsylvania  suf- 
fered some,  losing  Hannahstown  and  one  or  two 
small  settlements.  Williamson's  and  Crawford's 
campaigns  aroused  the  fury  of  the  Indians  that 
took  time  and  much  blood  and  war  to  subdue.  The 
Revolution  was,  however,  drawing  to  a  close.  Amer- 
ican arms  were  victorious,  and  a  new  nation  was 
now  coming  into  existence,  who  would  change  the 
whole  current  of  Western  matters,  and  make  of  the 
Northwest  a  land  of  liberty,  equality  and  union. 
That  nation  was  now  on  the  stage. 




® w_ 


^ ® 




THE  occupation  of  the  West  by  the  American, 
really  dates  from  the  campaign  of  Gen.  Clarke  in 
1778,  when  he  captured  the  British  posts  in  the 
Illinois  country,  and  Vincennes  on  the  Wabash. 
Had  he  been  properly  supported,  he  would  have 
reduced  Detroit,  then  in  easy  reach,  and  poorly  de- 
fended. As  it  was,  however,  that  post  remained  in 
charge  of  the  British  till  after  the  close  of  the  war 
of  the  Revolution.  They  also  held  other  lake 
posts ;  but  these  were  included  in  the  terms  of 
peace,  and  came  into  the  possession  of  the  Ameri- 
cans. They  were  abandoned  by  the  British  as 
soon  as  the  different  commanders  received  notice 
from  their  chiefs,  and  British  rule  and  English 
occupation  ceased  in  that  part  of  the  New  World. 

The  war  virtually  closed  by  the  surrender  of 
Lord  Cornwallis  at  Yorktown,  Va.,  October  19, 
1781.  The  struggle  was  prolonged,  however,  by 
the  British,  in  the  vain  hope  that  they  could  re- 
trieve the  disaster,  but  it  was  only  a  useless  waste 
of  men  and  money.  America  would  not  be  sub- 
dued. "If  we  are  to  be  taxed,  we  will  be  repre- 
sented," said  they,  "else  we  will  be  a  free  govern- 
ment, and  regulate  our  own  taxes."  In  the  end, 
they  were  free. 

Provisional  articles  of  peace  between  the  United 
States  and  Great  Britain  were  signed  in  Paris  on 
the  30th  of  November,  1782.  This  was  followed 
by  an  armistice  negotiated  at  Versailles  on  the  20th 
of  January,  1783;  and  finally,  a  definite  treaty  of 
peace  was  concluded  at  Paris  on  the  3d  of  the  next 
September,  and  ratified  by  Congress  on  the  4th  of 
January,  1784.  By  the  second  article  of  the  defi- 
nite treaty  of  1783,  the  boundaries  of  the  United 
States  were  fixed.  A  glance  at  the  map  of  that 
day  shows  the  boundary  to  have  been  as  follows: 
Beginning  at  Passamaquoddy  Bay,  on  the  coast  of 
Maine,  the  line  ran  north  a  little  above  the  forty- 
fifth  parallel  of  latitude,  when  it  diverged  southwest- 
erly, irregularly,  until  it  reached  that  parallel,  when 
it  followed  it  until  it  reached  the  St.  Lawrence  River. 
It  followed  that  river  to  Lake  Ontario,  down  its 
center ;  up  the  Niagara  River  ;  through  Lake  Erie, 

up  the  Detroit  River  and  through  Lakes  Huron  and 
Superior,  to  the  northwest  extremity  of  the  latter. 
Then  it  pursued  another  irregular  western  course 
to  the  Lake  of  the  Woods,  when  it  turned  south- 
ward to  the  Mississippi  River.  The  commissioners 
insisted  that  should  be  the  western  boundary,  as 
the  lakes  were  the  northern.  It  followed  the  Mis- 
sissippi south  until  the  mouth  of  Red  River  was 
reached,  when,  turning  east,  it  followed  almost  a 
direct  line  to  the  Atlantic  Coast,  touching  the 
coast  a  little  north  of  the  outlet  of  St.  John's 

From  this  outline,  it  will  be  readily  seen  what 
boundary  the  United  States  possessed.  Not  one- 
half  of  its  present  domain. 

At  this  date,  there  existed  the  original  thirteen 
colonies :  Virginia  occupying  all  Kentucky  and 
all  the  Northwest,  save  about  half  of  Michigan  and 
Wisconsin,  claimed  by  Massachusetts ;  and  the  upper 
part  of  Ohio,  Indiana  and  Illinois,  and  the  lower 
part  (a  narrow  strip)  of  Michigan,  claimed  by  Con- 
necticut. Georgia  included  all  of  Alabama  and 
Mississippi.  The  Spaniards  claimed  all  Florida 
and  a  narrow  part  of  lower  Georgia.  All  the  coun- 
try west  of  the  Father  of  Waters  belonged  to  Spain, 
to  whom  it  had  been  secretly  ceded  when  the  fam- 
ily compact  was  made.  That  nation  controlled  the 
Mississippi,  and  gave  no  small  uneasiness  to  the 
young  government.  It  was,  however,  happily  set- 
tled finally,  by  the  sale  of  Louisana  to  the  United 

Pending  the  settlement  of  these  questions  and 
the  formation  of  the  Federal  Union,  the  cession  of 
the  Northwest  by  Virginia  again  came  before 
Congress.  That  body  found  itself  unable  to  fulfill 
its  promises  to  its  soldiers  regarding  land,  and 
again  urged  the  Old  Dominion  to  cede  the  Terri- 
tory to  the  General  Government,  for  the  good  of 
all.  Congress  forbade  settlers  from  occupying  the 
Western  lands  till  a  definite  cession  had  been 
made,  and  the  title  to  the  lands  in  question  made 
good.  But  speculation  was  stronger  than  law, 
and  without  waiting  for  the  slow  processes  of  courts, 




the  adventurous  settlers  were  pouring  into  the 
country  at  a  rapid  rate,  only  retarded  by  the  rifle 
and  scalping-knife  of  the  savage — a  temporary 
check.  The  policy  of  allowing  any  parties  to  obtain 
land  from  the  Indians  was  strongly  discouraged 
by  Washington.  He  advocated  the  idea  that  only 
the  General  Government  could  do  that,  and,  in  a 
letter  to  James  Duane,  in  Congress,  he  strongly 
urged  such  a  course,  and  pointed  out  the  danger 
of  a  border  war,  unless  some  such  measure  was 
stringently  followed. 

Under  the  circumstances,  Congress  pressed  the 
claims  of  cession  upon  Virginia,  and  finally  in- 
duced the  Dominion  to  modify  the  terms  proposed 
two  years  before.  On  the  20th  of  December, 
1783,  Virginia  accepted  the  proposal  of  Congress, 
and  authorized  her  delegates  to  make  a  deed  to 
the  United  States  of  all  her  right  in  the  territory 
northwest  of  the  Ohio. 

The  Old  Dominion  stipulated  in  her  deed  of 
cession,  that  the  territory  should  be  divided  into 
States,  to  be  admitted  into  the  Union  as  any  other 
State,  and  to  bear  a  proportionate  share  in  the 
maintenance  of  that  Union;  that  Virginia  should 
be  re-imbursed  for  the  expense  incurred  in  subduing 
the  British  posts  in  the  territory;  that  the  French 
and  Canadian  inhabitants  should  be  protected  in  their 
rights ;  that  the  grant  to  Gen.  George  Rogers  Clarke 
and  his  men,  as  well  as  all  other  similar  grants, 
should  be  confirmed,  and  that  the  lands  should  be 
considered  as  the  common  property  of  the  United 
States,  the  proceeds  to  be  applied  to  the  use  of  the 
whole  country.  Congress  accepted  these  condi- 
tions, and  the  deed  was  made  March  1,  1784. 
Thus  the  country  came  from  under  the  dominion 
of  Virginia,  and  became  common  property. 

A  serious  difficulty  arose  about  this  time,  that 
threatened  for  awhile  to  involve  England  and 
America  anew  in  war.  Virginia  and  several 
other  States  refused  to  abide  by  that  part  of  the 
treaty  relating  to  the  payment  of  debts,  especially 
so,  when  the  British  carried  away  quite  a  number 
of  negroes  claimed  by  the  Americans.  This  re- 
fusal on  the  part  of  the  Old  Dominion  and  her 
abettors,  caused  the  English  to  retain  her  North- 
western outposts,  Detroit,  Mackinaw,  etc.  She 
held  these  till  1786,  when  the  questions  were 
finally  settled,  and  then  readily  abandoned  them. 

The  return  of  peace  greatly  augmented  emigra- 
tion to  the  West,  especially  to  Kentucky.  When 
the  war  closed,  the  population  of  that  county  (the 
three  counties  having  been  made  one  judicial  dis- 
trict, and  Danville  designated  as  the  seat  of  gov- 

ernment) was  estimated  to  be  about  twelve  thousand. 
In  one  year,  after  the  close  of  the  war,  it  increased 
to  30,0U0,  and  steps  for  a  State  government  were 
taken.  Owing  to  the  divided  sentiment  among  its 
citizens,  its  perplexing  questions  of  land  titles 
and  proprietary  rights,  nine  conventions  were  held 
before  a  definite  course  of  action  could  be  reached. 
This  prolonged  the  time  till  1792,  when,  in  De- 
cember of  that  year,  the  election  for  persons  to 
form  a  State  constitution  was  held,  and  the  vexed 
and  complicated  questions  settled.  In  1783,  the 
first  wagons  bearing  merchandise  came  across  the 
mountains.  Their  contents  were  received  on  flat- 
boats  at  Pittsburgh,  and  taken  down  the  Ohio  to 
Louisville,  which  that  spring  boasted  of  a  store, 
opened  by  Daniel  Broadhead.  The  next  year, 
James  Wilkinson  opened  one  at  Lexington. 

Pittsburgh  was  now  the  principal  town  in  the 
West.  It  occupied  the  same  position  regarding 
the  outposts  that  Omaha  has  done  for  several  years 
to  Nebra.ska.  The  town  of  Pittsburgh  was  laid 
out  immediately  after  the  war  of  1764,  by  Col. 
Campbell.  It  then  consisted  of  four  squares  about 
the  fort,  and  received  its  name  from  that  citadel. 
The  treaty  with  the  Six  Nations  in  1768,  con- 
veyed to  the  proprietaries  of  Pennsylvania  all  the 
lands  of  the  Alleghany  below  Kittanning,  and  all 
the  country  south  of  the  Ohio,  within  the  limits  of 
Penn's  charter.  This  deed  of  cession  was  recog- 
nized when  the  line  between  Pennsylvania  and 
Virginia  was  fixed,  and  gave  the  post  to  the  Key- 
stone State.  In  accordance  with  this  deed,  the 
manor  of  Pittsburgh  was  withdrawn  from  market 
in  1769,  and  was  held  as  the  property  of  the  Penn 
family.  When  Washington  visited  it  in  1770,  it 
seems  to  have  declined  in  consequence  of  the 
afore-mentioned  act.  He  mentions  it  as  a  "  town  of 
about  twenty  log  houses,  on  the  Monongahela, 
about  three  hundred  yards  from  the  fort."  The 
Penn's  remained  true  to  the  King,  and  hence  all 
their  land  that  had  not  been  surveyed  and  returned 
to  the  land  office,  was  confiscated  by  the  common- 
wealth. Pittsburgh,  having  been  surveyed,  was 
still  left  to  them.  In  the  spring  of  1784,  Tench 
Francis,  the  agent  of  the  Penns,  was  induced  to 
lay  out  the  manor  into  lots  and  offer  them  for  sale. 
Though,  for  many  years,  the  place  was  rather  un- 
promising, it  eventually  became  the  chief  town  in 
that  part  of  the  West,  a  position  it  yet  holds.  In 
1786,  John  Scull  and  Joseph  Hall  started  the 
Pittsburgh  Gazette,  the  first  paper  published  west 
of  the  mountains.  In  the  initial  number,  appeared  a 
lengthy  article  from  the  pen  of  H.  H.  Brackenridge, 

-^1 Si 



afterward  one  of  the  most  prominent  members 
of  the  Pennsylvania  bar.  He  had  located  in 
Pittsburgh  in  1781.  His  letter  gives  a  most  hope- 
ful prospect  in  store  for  the  future  city,  and  is  a 
highly  descriptive  article  of  the  Western  country. 
It  is  yet  preserved  in  the  "Western  Annals,"  and 
is  well  worth  a  perusal. 

Under  the  act  of  peace  in  1783,  no  provision  was 
made  by  the  British  for  their  allies,  especially  the 
Six  Nations.  The  question  was  ignored  by  the 
English,  and  was  made  a  handle  by  the  Americans 
in  gaining  them  to  their  cause  before  the  war  had 
fully  closed.  The  treaties  made  were  regarded  by 
the  Indians  as  alliances  only,  and  when  the  En- 
glish left  the  country  the  Indians  began  to  assume 
rather  a  hostile  bearing.  This  excited  the  whites, 
and  for  a  while  a  war  with  that  formidable  con- 
federacy was  imminent.  Better  councils  prevailed, 
and  Congress  wisely  adopted  the  policy  of  acquiring 
their  lands  by  purchase.  In  accordance  with  this 
policy,  a  treaty  was  made  at  Fort  Stanwix  with 
the  Six  Nations,  in  October,  1784.  By  this  treaty, 
all  lands  west  of  a  line  drawn  from  the  mouth  of 
Oswego  Creek,  about  four  miles  east  of  Niagara, 
to  the  mouth  of  Buffalo  Creek,  and  on  to  the 
northern  boundary  of  Pennsylvania,  thence  west 
along  that  boundary  to  its  western  extremity, 
thence  south  to  the  Ohio  River,  should  be  ceded 
to  the  United  States.  (They  claimed  west  of  this  line 
by  conquest.)  The  Six  Nations  were  to  be  secured 
in  the  lands  they  inhabited,  reserving  only  six  miles 
square  around  Oswego  fort  for  the  support  of  the 
same.  By  this  treaty,  the  indefinite  claim  of  the 
Six  Nations  to  the  West  was  extinguished,  and  the 
question  of  its  ownership  settled. 

It  was  now  occupied  by  other  Western  tribes, 
who  did  not  recognize  the  Iroquois  claim,  and  who 
would  not  yield  without  a  purchase.  Especially 
was  this  the  case  with  those  Indians  living  in  the 
northern  part.  To  get  possession  of  that  country 
by  the  same  process,  the  United  States,  through 
its  commissioners,  held  a  treaty  at  Fort  Mcintosh 
on  the  21st  of  January,  1785.  The  Wyandot, 
Delaware,  Chippewa  and  Ottawa  tribes  were  pres- 
ent, and,  through  their  chiefs,  sold  their  lands  to 
the  Government.  The  Wyandot  and  Delaware 
nations  were  given  a  reservation  in  the  north  part 
of  Ohio,  where  they  were  to  be  protected.  The 
others  were  allotted  reservations  in  Michigan.  To 
all  was  given  complete  control  of  their  lands,  allow- 
ing them  to  punish  any  white  man  attempting  to 
settle  thereon,  and  guaranteeing  them  in  their 

By  such  means  Congress  gained  Indian  titles  to 
the  vast  realms  north  of  the  Ohio,  and,  a  few 
months  later,  that  legislation  was  commenced  that 
should  determine  the  mode  of  its  disposal  and  the 
plan  of  its  settlements. 

To  facilitate  the  settlement  of  lands  thus  acquired, 
Congress,  on  May  20, 1785,  passed  an  act  for  dispos- 
ing of  lands  in  the  Northwest  Territory.  Its  main 
provisions  were :  A  surveyor  or  surveyors  should  be 
appointed  from  the  States ;  and  a  geographer,  and 
his  assistants  to  act  with  them.  The  surveyors 
were  to  divide  the  territory  into  townships  of  six 
miles  square,  by  lines  running  due  north  and 
south,  and  east  and  west.  The  starting-place 
was  to  be  on  the  Ohio  River,  at  a  point  where  the 
western  boundary  of  Pennsylvania  crossed  it. 
This  would  give  the  first  range,  and  the  first 
township.  As  soon  as  seven  townships  were 
surveyed,  the  maps  and  plats  of  the  same  were  to 
be  sent  to  the  Board  of  the  Treasury,  who  would 
record  them  and  proceed  to  place  the  land  in  the 
market,  and  so  on  with  all  the  townships  as  fast  as 
they  could  be  prepared  ready  for  sale.  Each  town- 
ship was  to  be  divided  into  thirty-six  sections,  or 
lots.  Out  of  these  sections,  numbers  8,  11,  26  and 
29  were  reserved  for  the  use  of  the  Government, 
and  lot  No.  16,  for  the  establishment  of  a  common- 
school  fund.  One-third  of  all  mines  and  minerals  was 
also  reserved  for  the  United  States.  Three  townships 
on  Lake  Erie  were  reserved  for  the  use  of  officers, 
men  and  others,  refiigees  from  Canada  and  from 
Nova  Scotia,  who  were  entitled  to  grants  of  land. 
The  Moravian  Indians  were  also  exempt  from 
molestation,  and  guaranteed  in  their  homes.  Sol- 
diers' claims,  and  all  others  of  a  like  nature,  were 
also  recognized,  and  land  reserved  for  them. 

Without  waiting  for  the  act  of  Congress,  settlers 
had  been  pouring  into  the  country,  and,  when  or- 
dered by  Congress  to  leave  undisturbed  Indian 
lands,  refused  to  do  so.  They  went  into  the  In- 
dian country  at  their  peril,  however,  and  when 
driven  out  by  the  Indians  could  get  no  redress 
from  the  Government,  even  when  life  was  lost. 

The  Indians  on  the  Wabash  made  a  treaty  at 
Fort  Finney,  on  the  Miami,  January  31,  1786, 
promising  allegiance  to  the  United  States,  and  were 
allowed  a  reservation.  This  treaty  did  not  include 
the  Piankeshaws,  as  was  at  first  intended.  These, 
refusing  to  live  peaceably,  stirred  up  the  Shawa- 
nees,  who  began  a  series  of  predatory  excursions 
against  the  settlements.  This  led  to  an  expedition 
against  them  and  other  restless  tribes.  Gen.  Clarke 
commanded  part  of  the  army  on  that  expedition. 




but  got  no  farther  than  Vincennes,  when,  owing  to 
the  discontent  of  his  Kentucky  troops,  he  was 
obliged  to  return.  Col.  Benjamin  Logan,  how- 
ever, marched,  at  the  head  of  four  or  five  hundred 
mounted  riflemen,  into  the  Indian  country,  pene- 
trating as  far  as  the  head-waters  of  Mad  River. 
He  destroyed  several  towns,  much  corn,  and  took 
about  eighty  prisoners.  Among  these,  was  the 
chief  of  the  nation,  who  was  wantonly  slain, 
greatly  to  Logan's  regret,  who  could  not  restrain 
his  men.  His  expedition  taught  the  Indians  sub- 
mission, and  that  they  must  adhere  to  their  con- 

Meanwhile,  the  difficulties  of  the  navigation  of 
the  Mississippi  arose.  Spain  would  not  relinquish 
the  right  to  control  the  entire  southern  part  of  the 
river,  allowing  no  free  navigation.  She  was  secretly 
hoping  to  cause  a  revolt  of  the  Western  provinces, 
especially  Kentucky,  and  openly  favored  such  a 
move.  She  also  claimed,  by  conquest,  much  of  the 
land  on  the  east  side  of  the  river.  The  slow  move- 
ments of  Congress;  the  failure  of  Virginia  to 
properly  protect  Kentucky,  and  the  inherent  rest- 
lessness in  some  of  the  Western  men,  well-nigh 
precipitated  matters,  and,  for  a  while,  serious  results 
were  imminent.  The  Kentuckians,  and,  indeed, 
all  the  people  of  the  West,  were  determined  the 
river  should  be  free,  and  even  went  so  far  as  to 
raise  a  regiment,  and  forcibly  seize  Spanish  prop- 
erty in  the  West.  Great  Britain  stood  ready,  too, 
to  aid  the  West  should  it  succeed,  providing  it 
would  make  an  alliance  with  her.  But  while  the 
excitement  was  at  its  height,  Washington  coun- 
seled better  ways  and  patience.  The  decisive  tone 
of  the  new  republic,  though  almost  overwhelmed 
with  a  burden  of  debt,  and  with  no  credit,  debarred 
the  Spanish  from  too  forcible  measures  to  assert 
their  claims,  and  held  back  the  disloyal  ones  from 
attempting  a  revolt. 

New  Y^ork,  Massachusetts  and  Connecticut  ceded 
their  lands,  and  now  the  United  States  were  ready 
to  fulfill  their  promises  of  land  grants,  to  the  sol- 
diers who  had  preserved  the  nation.  This  did 
much  to  heal  the  breach  in  the  West,  and  restore 
confidence  there ;  so  that  the  Mississippi  question 
was  overlooked  for  a  time,  and  Kentucky  forgot  her 

The  cession  of  their  claims  was  the  signal  for 
the  formation  of  land  companies  in  the  East ;  com- 
panies whose  object  was  to  settle  the  Western  coun- 
try, and,  at  the  same  time,  enrich  the  founders  of 
the  companies.  Some  of  these  companies  had  been 
formed  in  the  old  colonial  days,  but  the  recent  war 

had  put  a  stop  to  all  their  proceedings.  Congress 
would  not  recognize  their  claims,  and  new  com- 
panies, under  old  names,  were  the  result.  By  such 
means,  the  Ohio  Company  emerged  from  the  past, 
and,  in  1786,  took  an  active  existence. 

Benjamin  Tupper,  a  Revolutionary  soldier,  and 
since  then  a  government  surveyor,  who  had  been 
west  as  far  as  Pittsburgh,  revived  the  question. 
He  was  prevented  from  prosecuting  his  surveys  by 
hostile  Indians,  and  returned  to  Massachusetts. 
He  broached  a  plan  to  Gen.  Bufus  Putnam,  as  to 
the  renewal  of  their  memorial  of  1788,  which  re- 
sulted in  the  publication  of  a  plan,  and  inviting  all 
those  interested,  to  meet  in  February  in  their  re- 
spective counties,  and  choose  delegates  to  a  con- 
vention to  be  held  at  the  "  Bunch-of-grapes  Tav- 
ern." in  Boston,  on  the  first  of  March,  1786.  On 
the  day  appointed,  eleven  persons  appeared,  and 
by  the  3d  of  March  an  outline  was  drawn  up,  and 
subscriptions  under  it  began  at  once.  The  leading 
features  of  the  plan  were  :  "  A  fund  of  $1 ,000,000, 
mainly  in  Continental  certificates,  was  to  be  raised 
for  the  purpose  of  purchasing  lands  in  the  Western 
country;  there  were  to  be  1,000  shares  of  $1,000 
each,  and  upon  each  share  $10  in  specie  were  to 
be  paid  for  contingent  expenses.  One  year's  inter- 
est was  to  be  appropriated  to  the  charges  of  making 
a  settlement,  and  assisting  those  unable  to  move 
without  aid.  The  owners  of  every  twenty  shares 
were  to  choose  an  agent  to  represent  them  and 
attend  to  their  interests,  and  the  agents  were  to 
choose  the  directors.  The  plan  was  approved,  and 
in  a  year's  time  from  that  date,  the  Company  was 

By  the  time  this  Company  was  organized,  all 
claims  of  the  colonies  in  the  coveted  territory  were 
done  away  with  by  their  deeds  of  cession,  Connect- 
icut being  the  last. 

While  troubles  were  still  existing  south  of  the 
Ohio  River,  regarding  the  navigation  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi, and  many  urged  the  formation  of  a  sepa- 
rate, independent  State,  and  while  Congress  and 
Washington  were  doing  what  they  could  to  allay 
the  feeling  north  of  the  Ohio,  the  New  England 
associates  were  busily  engaged,  now  that  a  Com- 
pany was  formed,  to  obtain  the  land  they  wished 
to  purchase.  On  the  8th  of  March,  1787,  a  meet- 
ing of  the  agents  chose  Gen.  Parsons,  Gen.  Put- 
nam and  the  Rev.  Mannasseh  Cutler,  Directors  for 
the  Company.  The  last  selection  was  quite  a 
fitting  one  for  such  an  enterprise.     Dr.  Cutler  was 

*  Historical  CoUectionB. 




an  accomplished  scholar,  an  excellent  •gentleman, 
and  a  firm  believer  in  freedom.  In  the  choice  of 
him  as  the  agent  of  the  Company,  lies  the  fact, 
though  unforeseen,  of  the  beginning  of  anti-slavery 
in  America.  Through  him  the  famous  "  compact 
of  1787,"  the  true  corner-stone  of  the  Northwest, 
originated,  and  by  him  was  safely  passed.  He 
was  a  good  "wire-puller,"  too,  and  in  this  had  an 
advantage.  Mr.  Hutchins  was  at  this  time  the 
geographer  for  the  United  States,  and  was,  prob- 
ably, the  best-posted  man  in  America  regarding 
the  West.  Dr.  Cutler  learned  from  him  that  the  desirable  portions  were  on  the  Muskingum 
River,  north  of  the  Ohio,  and  was  advised  by  him 
to  buy  there  if  he  couH. 

Congress  wanted  money  badly,  and  many  of  the 
members  favored  the  plan.  The  Southern  mem- 
bers, generally,  were  hostile  to  it,  as  the  Doctor 
would  listen  to  no  grant  which  did  not  embody 
the  New  England  ideas  in  the  charter.  These 
members  were  finally  won  over,  some  bribery  be- 
ing used,  and  some  of  their  favorites  made  officers 
of  the  Territory,  whose  formation  was  now  going 
on.  This  took  time,  however,  and  Dr.  Cutler,  be- 
coming impatient,  declared  they  would  purchase 
from  some  of  the  States,  who  held  small  tracts  in 
various  parts  of  the  West.  This  intimation  brought 
the  tardy  ones  to  time,  and,  on  the  23d  of  July, 
Congress  authorized  the  Treasury  Board  to  make 
the  contract.  On  the  26th,  Messrs.  Cutler  and 
Sargent,  on  behalf  of  the  Company,  stated  in 
writing  their  conditions;  and  on  the  27th,  Con- 
gress referred  their  letter  to  the  Board,  and  an 
order  of  the  same  date  was  obtained.  Of  this  Dr. 
Cutler's  journal  says: 

"  By  this  grant  we  obtained  near  five  millions 
of  acres  of  land,  amounting  to  $3,500,000 ;  1 ,500,- 
000  acres  for  the  Ohio  Company,  and  the  remainder 
for  a  private  speculation,  in  which  many  of  the 
principal  characters  of  America  are  concerned. 
Without  connecting  this  peculation,  similar  terms 
and  advantages  for  the  Ohio  Company  could  not 
have  been  obtained." 

Messrs.  Cutler  and  Sargent  at  once  closed  a  ver- 
bal contract  with  the  Treasury  Board,  which  was 
executed  in  form  on  the  27th  of  the  next  Octo- 

By  this  contract,  the  vast  region  bounded  on  the 
south  by  the  Ohio,  west  by  the  Scioto,  east  by  the 
seventh  range  of  townships  then  surveying,  and 
north  by  a  due  west  line,  drawn  from  the  north 

*  Land  Laws. 

boundary  of  the  tenth  township  from  the  Ohio, 
direct  to  the  Scioto,  was  sold  to  the  Ohio  associ- 
ates and  their  secret  copartners,  for  $1  per  acre, 
subject  to  a  deduction  of  one-third  for  bad  lands 
and  other  contingencies. 

The  whole  tract  was  not,  however,  paid  for  nor 
taken  by  the  Company — even  their  own  portion  of 
a  million  and  a  half  acres,  and  extending  west  to  the 
eighteenth  range  of  townships,  was  not  taken ;  and 
in  1792,  the  boundaries  of  the  purchase  proper 
were  fixed  as  follows:  the  Ohio  on  the  south,  the 
seventh  range  of  townships  on  the  east,  the  six- 
teenth range  on  the  west,  and  a  line  on  the  north 
so  drawn  as  to  make  the  grant  750,000  acres,  be- 
sides reservations ;  this  grant  being  the  portion 
which  it  was  originally  agreed  the  Company  might 
enter  into  at  once.  In  addition  to  this,  214,285 
acres  were  granted  as  army  bounties,  under  the 
resolutions  of  1779  and  1780,  and  100,000  acres 
as  bounties  to  actual  settlers;  both  of  the  latter 
tracts  being  within  the  original  grant  of  1787,  and 
adjoining  the  purchase  as  before  mentioned. 

While  these  things  were  progressing.  Congress 
was  bringing  into  form  an  ordinance  for  the  gov- 
ernment and  social  organization  of  the  North- 
west Territory.  Virginia  made  her  cession  in 
March,  1784,  and  during  the  month  following  the 
plan  for  the  temporary  government  of  the  newly 
acquired  territory  came  under  discussion.  On  the 
19th  of  April,  Mr.  Spaight,  of  North  Carolina, 
moved  to  strike  from  the  plan  reported  by  Mr. 
Jefferson,  the  emancipationist  of  his  day,  a  provis- 
ion for  the  prohibition  of  slavery  north  of  the  Ohio 
after  the  year  1800.  The  motion  prevailed.  From 
that  day  till  the  23d,  the  plan  was  discussed  and 
altered,  and  finally  passed  unanimously  with  the  ex- 
ception of  South  Carolina.  The  South  would  have 
slavery,  or  defeat  every  measure.  Thus  this  hide- 
ous monster  early  began  to  assert  himself.  By  the 
proposed  plan,  the  Territory  was  to  have  been 
divided  into  States  by  parallels  of  latitude  and  merid- 
ian lines.  This  division,  it  was  thought,  would  make 
ten  States,  whose  names  were  as  follows,  beginning 
at  the  northwest  corner,  and  going  southwardly : 
Sylvania,  Michigania,  Cheresonisus,  Assenispia, 
Metropotamia,  Illinoia,  Saratoga,  Washington, 
Polypotamia  and  Pelisipia.* 

A  more  serious  difficulty  existed,  however,  to 
this  plan,  than  its  catalogue  of  names — the  number 
of  States  and  their  boundaries.  The  root  of  the  evil 
was  in  the  resolution  passed  by  Congress  in  October, 

*  Spark's  Washington. 




1 780,  which  fixed  the  size  of  the  States  to  be  formed 
from  the  ceded  lands,  at  one  hundred  to  one  hundred 
and  fifty  miles  square.  The  terms  of  that  resolu- 
tion being  called  up  both  by  Virginia  and  Massa- 
chusetts, further  legislation  was  deemed  necessary 
to  change  them.  July  7,  1786,  this  subject  came 
up  in  Congress,  and  a  resolution  passed  in  favor  of 
a  division  into  not  less  than  three  nor  more  than 
five  States.  Virginia,  at  the  close  of  1788,  assented 
to  this  proposition,  which  became  the  basis  upon 
which  the  division  should  be  made.  On  the  29th 
of  September,  Congress  having  thus  changed  the 
plan  for  dividing  the  Northwestern  Territory  into 
ten  States,  proceeded  again  to  consider  the  terms  of 
an  ordinance  for  the  government  of  that  region.  At 
this  juncture,  the  genius  of  Dr.  Cutler  displayed 
itself  A  graduate  in  medicine,  law  and  divinity  ; 
an  ardent  lover  of  liberty ;  a  celebrated  scientist, 
and  an  accomplished,  portly  gentleman,  of  whom 
the  Southern  senators  said  they  had  never  before 
seen  so  fine  a  specimen  from  the  New  England  colo- 
nies, no  man  was  better  prepared  to  form  a  govern- 
ment for  the  new  Territory,  than  he.  The  Ohio 
Company  was  his  real  object.  He  was  backed  by 
them,  and  enough  Continental  money  to  purchase 
more  than  a  million  acres  of  land.  This  was  aug- 
mented by  other  parties  until,  as  has  been  noticed, 
he  represented  over  five  million  acres.  This  would 
largely  reduce  the  public  debt.  Jefi'erson  and  Vir- 
ginia were  regarded  as  authority  concerning  the 
land  Virginia  had  just  ceded  to  the  Greneral  Gov- 
ernment. Jefferson's  policy  was  to  provide  for  the 
national  credit,  and  still  check  the  growth  of  slavery. 
Here  was  a  good  opportunity.  Massachusetts 
owned  the  Territory  of  Maine,  which  she  was  crowd- 
ing into  market.  She  opposed  the  opening  of 
the  Northwest.  This  stirred  Virginia.  The  South 
caught  the  inspiration  and  rallied  around  the  Old 
Dominion  and  Dr.  Cutler.  Thereby  he  gained  the 
credit  and  good  will  of  the  South,  an  auxiliary  he 
used  to  good  purpose.  Massachusetts  could  not 
vote  against  him,  because  many  of  the  constituents 
of  her  members  were  interested  in  the  Ohio  Com- 
pany. Thus  the  Doctor,  using  all  the  arts  of  the 
lobbyist,  was  enabled  to  hold  the  situation.  True  to 
deeper  convictions,  he  dictated  one  of  the  most  com- 
pact and  finished  documents  of  wise  statesmanship 
that  has  ever  adorned  any  statute-book.  Jefferson 
gave  it  the  term,  "Articles  of  Compact,"  and 
rendered  him  valuable  aid  in  its  construction.  This 
"  Compact"  preceded  the  Federal  Constitution,  in 
both  of  which  are  seen  Jefferson's  master-mind. 
Dr.  Cutler  followed  closely  the  constitution  of  Mas- 

sachusetts, adopted  three  years  before.  The  prom- 
inent features  were  :  The  exclusion  of  slavery  from 
the  Territory  forever.  Provision  for  public  schools, 
giving  one  township  for  a  seminary,  and  eveiy  six- 
teenth section.  (That  gave  one  thirty-sixth  of  all 
the  land  for  public  education.)  A  provision  pro- 
hibiting the  adoption  of  any  constitution  or  the 
enactment  of  any  law  that  would  nullify  pre-exist- 
ing contracts. 

The  compact  further  declared  that  "  Religion, 
morality  and  knowledge  being  necessary  to  good 
government  and  the  happiness  of  mankind,  schools 
and  the  means  of  education  shall  always  be  en- 

The  Doctor  planted  himself  firmly  on  this  plat- 
form, and  would  not  yield.  It  was  that  or  nothing. 
Unless  they  could  make  the  land  desirable ,  it  was 
not  wanted,  and,  taking  his  horse  and  buggy,  he 
started  for  the  Constitutional  Convention  in  Phil- 
adelphia. His  influence  succeeded.  On  the  13th 
of  July,  1787,  the  bill  was  put  upon  its  passage 
and  was  unanimously  adopted.  Every  member 
from  the  South  voted  for  it ;  only  one  man,  Mr. 
Yates,  of  New  York,  voted  against  the  measure ; 
but  as  the  vote  was  made  by  States,  his  vote  was 
lost,  and  the  "  Compact  of  1787  "  was  beyond  re- 
peal. Thus  the  great  States  of  the  Northwest 
Territory  were  consecrated  to  freedom,  intelligence 
and  morality.  This  act  was  the  opening  step  for 
freedom  in  America.  Soon  the  South  saw  their 
blunder,  and  endeavored,  by  all  their  power,  to  re- 
peal the  compact.  In  1803,  Congress  referred  it 
to  a  committee,  of  which  John  Randolph  was 
chairman.  He  reported  the  ordinance  was  a  com- 
pact and  could  not  be  repealed.  Thus  it  stood, 
like  a  rock,  in  the  way  of  slavery,  which  still,  in 
spite  of  these  provisions,  endeavored  to  plant  that 
infernal  institution  in  the  West.  Witness  the 
early  days  of  Ohio,  Indiana  and  Illinois.  But  the 
compact  could  not  be  violated  ;  New  England  ideas 
could  not  be  put  down,  and  her  sons  stood  ready 
to  defend  the  soil  of  the  West  from  that  curse. 

The  passage  of  the  ordinance  and  the  grant  of 
land  to  Dr.  Cutler  and  his  associates,  were  soon  fol- 
lowed by  a  request  from  John  Cleve  Symmes,  of 
New  Jersey,  for  the  country  between  the  Miamis. 
Symmes  had  visited  that  part  of  the  West  in  178G, 
and,  being  pleased  with  the  valleys  of  the  Miamis, 
had  applied  to  the  Board  of  the  Treasury  for 
their  purchase,  as  soon  as  they  were  open  to  set- 
tlement. The  Board  was  empowered  to  act  by 
Congress,  and,  in  1788,  a  contract  was  signed,  giv- 
ing him  the  country  he  desired.     The  terms  of  his 






purchase  were  similar  to  those  of  the  Ohio  Com- 
pany. His  appHcation  was  followed  by  others, 
whose  success  or  failure  will  appear  in  the  narrative. 

The  New  England  or  Ohio  Company  was  all 
this  time  busily  engaged  perfecting  its  arrange- 
ments to  occupy  its  lands.  The  Directors  agreed 
to  reserve  5,760  acres  near  the  confluence  of  the 
Ohio  and  Muskingum  for  a  city  and  commons,  for 
the  old  ideas  of  the  English  plan  of  settling  a 
country  yet  prevailed.  A  meeting  of  the  Direct- 
ors was  held  at  Bracket's  tavern,  in  Boston,  No- 
vember 23,  1787,  when  four  surveyors,  and  twen- 
ty-two attendants,  boat-builders,  carpenters,  black- 
smiths and  common  workmen,  numbering  in  all 
forty  persons,  were  engaged.  Their  tools  were 
purchased,  and  wagons  were  obtained  to  transport 
them  across  the  mountains.  Gen.  Rufus  Putnam 
was  made  superintendent  of  the  company,  and 
Ebenezer  Sproat,  of  Rhode  Island,  Anselm  Tup- 
per  and  John  Matthews,  from  Massachusetts,  and 
R.  J.  Meigs,  from  Connecticut,  as  surveyors.  At 
the  same  meeting,  a  suitable  person  to  instruct  them 
in  religion,  and  prepare  the  way  to  open  a  school 
when  needed,  was  selected.  This  was  Rev.  Daniel 
Storey,  who  became  the  first  New  England  minis- 
ter in  the  Northwest. 

The  Indians  were  watching  this  outgrowth  of 
affairs,  and  felt,  from  what  they  could  learn  in  Ken- 
tucky, that  they  would  be  gradually  surrounded  by 
the  whites.  This  they  did  not  relish,  by  any 
means,  and  gave  the  settlements  south  of  the  Ohio 
no  little  uneasiness.  It  was  thought  best  to  hold 
another  treaty  with  them.  In  the  mean  time,  to 
insure  peace,  the  Grovernor  of  Virginia,  and  Con- 
gress, placed  troops  at  Venango,  Forts  Pitt  and 
Mcintosh,  and  at  Miami,  Vincennes,  Louisville, 
and  Muskingum,  and  the  militia  of  Kentucky 
were  held  in  readiness  should  a  sudden  outbreak 
occur.  These  measures  produced  no  results,  save 
insuring  the  safety  of  the  whites,  and  not  until 
January,  1789,  was  Clarke  able  to  carry  out  his 
plans.  During  that  month,  he  held  a  meeting  at  Fort 
Harmar,*  at  the  mouth  of  the  Muskingum,  where 
the  New  England  Colony  expected  to  locate. 

The  hostile  character  of  the  Indians  did  not 
deter  the  Ohio  Company  from  carrying  out  its 
plans.     In  the  winter  of  1787,  Gen.   Rufus  Put- 

*FortIIarmar  was  built  in  1785,  by  a  detachment  of  TJni  tod  States 
soldiers,  under  command  of  Maj.  John  Doughty.  It  was  named  in 
honor  of  Col.  Josiah  Harmar,  to  whose  regiment  Maj.  Doughty  was 
attached.  It  was  the  first  military  post  erected  by  the  Americans 
wit'iin  the  limits  of  Ohio,  except  Fort  Laurens,  a  temporary  struct- 
ure liuilt  in  1778.  When  Marietta  was  founded  it  was  the  military 
post  of  that  part  of  the  country,  and  was  for  many  years  au  impor- 
tant station. 

nam  and  forty-seven  pioneers  advanced  to  the 
mouth  of  the  Youghiogheny  River,  and  began 
building  a  boat  for  transportation  down  the  Ohio 
in  the  spring.  The  boat  was  the  largest  craft  that 
had  ever  descended  the  river,  and,  in  allusion  to 
their  Pilgrim  Fathers,  it  was  called  the  Mayflower. 
It  was  45  feet  long  and  12  feet  wide,  and  esti- 
mated at  50  tons  burden.  Truly  a  formidable  affair 
for  the  time.  The  bows  were  raking  and  curved 
like  a  galley,  and  were  strongly  timbered.  The 
sides  were  made  bullet-proof,  and  it  was  covered 
with  a  deck  roof.  Capt.  Devol,  the  first  ship- 
builder in  the  West,  was  placed  in  command.  On 
the  2d  of  April,  the  Mayflower  was  launched, 
and  for  five  days  the  little  band  of  pioneers  sailed 
down  the  Monongahela  and  the  Ohio,  and,  on  the 
7th,  landed  at  the  mouth  of  the  Muskingum. 
There,  opposite  Fort  Harmar,  they  chose  a  loca- 
tion, moored  their  boat  for  a  temporary  shelter, 
and  began  to  erect  houses  for  their  occupation. 

Thus  was  begun  the  first  English  settlement  in 
the  Ohio  Valley.  About  the  1st  of  July,  they 
were  re-enforced  by  the  arrival  of  a  colony  from 
Massachusetts.  It  had  been  nine  weeks  on  the 
way.  It  had  hauled  its  wagons  and  driven  its 
stock  to  Wheeling,  where,  constructing  flat-boats, 
it  had  floated  down  the  river  to  the  settlement. 

In  October  preceding  this  occurrence,  Arthur 
St.  Clair  had  been  appointed  Governor  of  the  Ter- 
ritory by  Congress,  which  body  also  appointed 
Winthrop  Sargent,  Secretary,  and  Samuel  H. 
Parsons,  James  M.  Varnum  and  John  Armstrong 
Judges.  Subsequently  Mr.  Armstrong  declined 
the  appointment,  and  3Ir.  Symmes  was  given  the 
vacancy.  None  of  these  were  on  the  ground 
when  the  first  settlement  was  made,  though  the 
Judges  came  soon  after.  One  of  the  first  things  the 
colony  found  necessary  to  do  was  to  organize 
some  form  of  government,  whereby  difficulties 
might  be  settled,  though  to  the  credit  of  the  colony 
it  may  be  said,  that  during  the  first  three  months 
of  its  existence  but  one  diff'erence  arose,  and  that 
was  settled  by  a  compromise.*  Indeed,  hardly  a 
better  set  of  men  for  the  purpose  could  have  been 
selected.  Washington  wrote  concerning  this 
colony : 

"  No  colony  in  America  was  ever  settled  under 
such  favorable  auspices  as  that  which  has  com- 
menced at  the  Muskingum.  Information,  prop- 
erty and  strength  will  be  its  characteristics.  I 
know  many  of  the  settlers  personally,  and  there 

♦"Western  Monthly  Magazine." 




never  were  men  better  calculated  to  promote  the 
welfare  of  such  a  community." 

On  the  2d  of  July,  a  meeting  of  the  Directors 
and  agents  was  held  on  the  banks  of  the  Mus- 
kingum for  the  purpose  of  naming  the  newborn 
city  and  its  squares.  As  yet,  the  settlement  had 
been  merely  "The  Muskingum;"  but  the  name 
Marietta  was  now  formally  given  it,  in  honor  of 
Marie  Antoinette.  The  square  upon  which  the 
blockhouses  stood  was  called  Campus  Martius; 
Square  No.  19,  Capitolium ;  Square  No.  61,  Ce- 
cilia., and  the  great  road  running  through  the 
covert- way.  Sacra  Via.*  Surely,  classical  scholars 
were  not  scarce  in  the  colony. 

On  the  Fourth,  an  oration  was  delivered  by 
James  M.  Varnum,  one  of  the  Judges,  and  a 
public  demonstration  held.  Five  days  after,  the 
Governor  arrived,  and  the  colony  began  to  assume 
form.  The  ordinance  of  1787  provided  two  dis- 
tinct grades  of  government,  under  the  first  of 
which  the  whole  power  was  under  the  Governor 
and  the  three  Judges.  This  form  was  at  once 
recognized  on  the  arrival  of  St.  Clair.  The  first 
law  established  by  this  court  was  passed  on  the 
25th  of  July.  It  established  and  regulated  the 
militia  of  the  Territory.  The  next  day  after  its 
publication,  appeared  the  Governor's  proclamation 
erecting  all  the  country  that  had  been  ceded  by 
the  Indians  east  of  the  Scioto  River,  into  the 
county  of  Washington.  Marietta  was,  of  course, 
the  county  seat,  and,  from  that  day,  went  on 
prosperously.  On  September  2,  the  first  court 
was  held  with  becoming  ceremonies.  It  is  thus 
related  in  the  American  Pioneer: 

"The  procession  was  formed  at  the  Point 
(where  the  most  of  the  settlers  resided),  in  the 
following  order:  The  High  Sheriff",  with  his 
drawn  sword;  the  citizens;  the  officers  of  the 
garrison  at  Fort  Harmar;  the  members  of  the 
bar ;  the  Supreme  Judges ;  the  Governor  and 
clergyman ;  the  newly  appointed  Judges  of  the 
Court  of  Common  Pleas,  Gens.  Rufus  Putnam 
and  Benjamin  Tupper. 

"They  marched  up  the  path  that  had  been 
cleared  through  the  forest  to  Campus  Martius 
Hall  (stockade),  where  the  whole  countermarched, 
and  the  Judges  (Putnam  and  Tupper)  took  their 
seats.  The  clergyman,  Rev.  Dr.  Cutler,  then 
invoked  the  divine  blessing.  The  Sheriff,  Col. 
Ebenezer  Sproat,  proclaimed  with  his  solemn  '  Oh 
yes ! '  that  a  court  is  open  for  the  administration  of 

*  "  Carey's  Museum,"  Vol.  4 

even-handed  justice,  to  the  poor  and  to  the  rich, 
to  the  guilty  and  to  the  innocent,  without  respect 
of  persons;  none  to  be  punished  without  a  trial  of 
their  peers,  and  then  in  pursuance  of  the  laws  and 
evidence  in  the  case. 

"  Although  this  scene  was  exhibited  thus  early 
in  the  settlement  of  the  West,  few  ever  equaled  it 
in  the  dignity  and  exalted  character  of  its  princi- 
pal participators.  Many  of  them  belonged  to  the 
history  of  our  country  in  the  darkest,  as  well  as 
the  most  splendid,  period  of  the  Revolutionary 

Many  Indians  were  gathered  at  the  same  time 
to  witness  the  (to  them)  strange  spectacle,  and  for 
the  purpose  of  forming  a  treaty,  though  how 
far  they  carried  this  out,  the  Pioneer  does  not 

The  progress  of  the  settlement  was  quite  satis- 
factory during  the  year.  Some  one  writing  a 
letter  from  the  town  says: 

"The  progress  of  the  settlement  is  sufficiently 
rapid  for  the  first  year.  We  are  continually  erect- 
ing houses,  but  arrivals  are  constantly  coming 
faster  than  we  can  possibly  provide  convenient 
covering.  Our  first  ball  was  opened  about  the 
middle  of  December,  at  which  were  fifteen  ladies, 
as  well  accomplished  in  the  manner  of  polite 
circles  as  any  I  have  ever  seen  in  the  older  States. 
I  mention  this  to  show  the  progress  of  society  in 
this  new  world,  where,  I  believe,  we  shall  vie  with, 
if  not  excel,  the  old  States  in  every  accom- 
plishment necessary  to  render  life  agreeable  and 

The  emigration  westward  at  this  time  was, 
indeed,  exceedingly  large.  The  commander  at 
Fort  Harmar  reported  4,500  persons  as  having 
passed  that  post  between  February  and  June, 
1788,  many  of  whom  would  have  stopped  there, 
had  the  associates  been  prepared  to  receive  them. 
The  settlement  was  fi-ee  from  Indian  depredations 
until  January,  1791,  during  which  interval  it 
daily  increased  in  numbers  and  strength. 

Symmes  and  his  friends  were  not  idle  during  this 
time.  He  had  secured  his  contract  in  October, 
1787,  and,  soon  after,  issued  a  pamphlet  stating 
the  terms  of  his  purchase  and  the  mode  he  intended 
to  follow  in  the  disposal  of  the  lands.  His  plan 
was,  to  issue  warrants  for  not  less  than  one-quarter 
section,  which  might  be  located  anywhere,  save  on 
reservations,  or  on  land  previously  entered.  The 
locator  could  enter  an  entire  section  should  he  de- 
sire to  do  so.  The  price  was  to  be  60f  cents  per 
acre  till  May,  1788  ;  then,  till  November,  SI ;  and 



after  that  time  to  be  regulated  by  the  demand  for 
hind.  Each  purchaser  was  bound  to  begin  im- 
provements within  two  years,  or  forfeit  one-sixth 
of  the  land  to  whoever  would  settle  thereon  and 
remain  seven  years.  Military  bounties  might  be 
taken  in  this,  as  in  the  purchase  of  the  associates. 
For  himself,  Symmes  reserved  one  township  near 
the  mouth  of  the  Miami.  On  this  he  intended  to 
build  a  great  city,  rivaling  any  Eastern  port.  He 
offered  any  one  a  lot  on  which  to  build  a  house, 
providing  he  would  remain  three  years.  Conti- 
nental certificates  were  rising,  owing  to  the  demand 
for  land  created  by  these  two  purchases,  and  Con- 
gress found  the  burden  of  debt  correspondingly 
lessened.  Symmes  soon  began  to  experience  diffi- 
culty in  procuring  enough  to  meet  his  payments. 
He  had  also  some  trouble  in  arranging  his  boundary 
with  the  Board  of  the  Treasury.  These,  and  other 
causes,  laid  the  foundation  for  another  city,  which  is 
now  what  Symmes  hoped  his  city  would  one  day  be. 

In  January,  1788,  Mathias  Denman,  of  New 
Jersey,  took  an  interest  in  Symmes'  purchase, 
and  located,  among  other  tracts,  the  sections  upon 
which  Cincinnati  has  since  been  built.  Retaining 
one-third  of  this  purchase,  he  sold  the  balance  to 
Robert  Patterson  and  John  Filson,  each  getting 
the  same  share.  These  three,  about  August,  agreed 
to  lay  out  a  town  on  their  land.  It  was  designated 
as  opposite  the  mouth  of  the  Licking  River,  to 
which  place  it  was  intended  to  open  a  road  from 
Lexington,  Ky.  These  men  little  thought  of  the 
great  emporium  that  now  covers  the  modest  site  of 
this  town  they  laid  out  that  summer.  Mr.  Filson, 
who  had  been  a  schoolmaster,  and  was  of  a  some- 
what poetic  nature,  was  appointed  to  name  the 
town.  In  respect  to  its  situation,  and  as  if  with 
a  prophetic  perception  of  the  mixed  races  that 
were  in  after  years  to  dwell  there,  he  named  it  Los- 
antiville,*  "  which,  being  interpreted,"  says  the 
"  Western  Annals,"  "  means  ville^  the  town ;  aiiti^ 
opposite  to  ;  os,  the  mouth  ;  7/,  of  Licking.  This 
may  well  put  to  the  blush  the  Campus  Martins 
of  the  Marietta  scholars,  and  the  Fort  Solon  of 
the  Spaniards." 

Meanwhile,  Symmes  was  busy  in  the  East,  and, 
by  July,  got  thirty  people  and  eight  four-horse 
wagons  under  way  for  the  West.  These  reached 
Limestone  by  September,  where  they  met  Mr. 
Stites,   with  several  persons  from  Redstone.     All 

♦Judge  Burnett,  in  his  notes,  disputes  the  above  account  of  the 
origin  of  the  city  of  Cincinnati.  Ho  says  the  name  "  Loaantiville  " 
was  determined  on,  but  not  adopted,  when  the  town  was  laid  out. 
This  version  is  probably  the  correct  one,  and  will  be  found  fully 
given  in  the  detailed  history  of  the  settlements. 

came  to  Symmes'  purchase,  and  began  to  look  for 

Symmes'  mind  was,  however,  ill  at  rest.  He 
could  not  meet  his  fii-st  payment  on  so  vast  a  realm, 
and  there  also  arose  a  difference  of  opinion  be- 
tween him  and  the  Treasury  Board  regarding  the 
Ohio  boundary.  Symmes  wanted  all  the  land  be- 
tween the  two  Miamis,  bordering  on  the  Ohio, 
while  the  Board  wished  him  confined  to  no  more 
than  twenty  miles  of  the  river.  To  this  proposal 
he  would  not  agree,  as  he  had  made  sales  all  along 
the  river.  Leaving  the  bargain  in  an  unsettled 
state,  Congress  considered  itself  released  from  all 
its  obligations,  and,  but  fur  the  representations  of 
many  of  Symmes'  friends,  he  would  have  lost  all 
his  money  and  labor.  His  appointment  as  Judge 
was  not  favorably  received  by  many,  as  they 
thought  that  by  it  he  would  accjuire  unlimited 
power.  Some  of  his  associates  also  complained  of 
him,  and,  for  awhile,  it  surely  seemed  that  ruin 
only  awaited  him.  But  he  was  brave  and  hope- 
ful, and  determined  to  succeed.  On  his  return 
from  a  visit  to  his  purchase  in  September,  1788, 
he  wrote  Jonathan  Dayton,  of  New  Jersey,  one  of 
his  best  friends  and  associates,  that  he  thought 
some  of  the  land  near  the  Great  Miami  "positively 
worth  a  silver  dollar  the  acre  in  its  present  state." 

A  good  many  changes  were  made  in  his  original 
contract,  growing  out  of  his  inability  to  meet  his 
payments.  At  first,  he  was  to  have  not  less  than 
a  million  acres,  under  an  act  of  Congress  passed  in 
October,  1787,  authorizing  the  Treasury  Board  to 
conti-act  with  any  one  who  could  pay  for  such 
tracts,  on  the  Ohio  and  Wabash  Rivers,  whose 
fronts  should  not  exceed  one-third  of  their  depth. 

Dayton  and  JMarsh,  Symmes'  agents,  contracted 
with  the  Board  for  one  tract  on  the  Ohio,  begin- 
ning twenty  miles  up  the  Ohio  from  the  mouth  of 
the  Great  Miami,  and  to  run  back  for  quantitj^  be- 
tween the  Miami  and  a  line  drawn  from  the  Ohio, 
parallel  to  the  general  course  of  that  river.  In 
1791,  three  years  after  Dayton  and  IMarsh  made 
the  contract,  Symmes  found  this  would  throw  the 
purchase  too  far  back  from  the  Ohio,  and  apj^lied 
to  Congress  to  let  him  have  all  between  the  ]Mi- 
amies,  running  back  so  as  to  include  1,000,000 
acres,  which  that  body,  on  April  12,  1792,  agreed 
to  do.  When  the  lands  were  surveyed,  however,  it 
was  found  that  a  line  drawn  from  the  head  of  the 
Little  Miami  due  west  to  the  Great  Miami,  would 
include  south  of  it  less  than  six  hundred  thousand 
acres.  Even  this  Symmes  could  not  pay  for,  and 
when  his  patent  was  issued  in  September,  179-1,  it 



gave  him  and  his  associates  248,540  acres,  exclu- 
sive of  reservations  which  amounted  to  63,142 
acres.  This  tract  was  bounded  by  the  Ohio,  the 
two  Miamis  and  a  due  east  and  west  Une  run  so 
as  to  inckide  the  desired  quantity.  Symmes,  how- 
ever, made  no  further  payments,  and  the  rest  of 
his  purchase  reverted  to  the  United  States,  who 
gave  those  who  had  bought  under  him  ample  pre- 
emption rights. 

The  Government  was  able,  also,  to  give  him  and 
his  colonists  but  little  aid,  and  as  danger  from  hos- 
tile Indians  was  in  a  measure  imminent  (though  all 
the  natives  were  friendly  to  Symmes),  settlers  were 
slow  to  come.  However,  the  band  led  by  Mr. 
Stites  arrived  before  the  1st  of  January,  1789, 
and  locating  themselves  near  the  mouth  of  the 
Little  Miami,  on  a  tract  of  10,000  acres  which 
Mr.  Stites  had  purchased  from  Symmes,  formed 
the  second  settlement  in  Ohio.  They  were  soon 
afterward  joined  by  a  colony  of  twenty-six  persons, 
who  assisted  them  to  erect  a  block-house,  and 
gather  their  corn.  The  town  was  named  Columbia. 
While  here,  the  great  flood  of  January,  1789,  oc- 
curred, which  did  much  to  ensure  the  future 
growth  of  Losantiville,  or  more  properly,  Cincin- 
nati. Symmes  City,  which  was  laid  out  near  the 
mouth  of  the  Great  Miami,  and  which  he  vainly 
strove  to  make  the  city  of  the  future,  Marietta 
and  Columbia,  all  suffered  severely  by  this  flood, 
the  greatest,  the  Indians  said,  ever  known.  The 
site  of  Cincinnati  was  not  overflowed,  and  hence 
attracted  the  attention  of  the  settlers.  Denman's 
warrants  had  designated  his  purchase  as  opposite 
the  mouth  of  the  Licking;  and  that  point  escap- 
ing the  overflow,  late  in  December  the  place  was 
visited  by  Israel  Ludlow,  Symmes'  surveyor,  Mr. 
Patterson  and  Mr.  Denman,  and  about  fourteen  oth- 
ers, who  left  JMaysville  to  "form  a  station  and  lay 
ofi"  a  town  opposite  the  Licking."  The  river  was 
filled  with  ice  "from  shore  to  shore;"  but,  says 
Symmes  in  May,  1789,  "Perseverance  triumphing 
over  difficulty,  and  they  landed  safe  on  a  most  de- 
lightful bank  of  the  Ohio,  where  they  founded 
the  town  of  Losantiville,  which  populates  consid- 
erably." The  settlers  of  Losantiville  built  a  few 
log  huts  and  block-houses,  and  proceeded  to  im- 
prove the  town.  Symmes,  noticing  the  location, 
says:  "Though  they  placed  their  dwellings  in  the 
most  marked  position,  yet  they  suffered  nothing 
from  the  freshet."  This  would  seem  to  give  cre- 
dence to  Judge  Burnett's  notes  regarding  the  origin 
of  Cincinnati,  who  states  the  settlement  was  made 
at  this  time,  and  not  at  the  time  mentioned  when 

jMr.  Filson  named  the  town.  It  is  further  to  be 
noticed,  that,  before  the  town  was  located  by  Mr. 
Ludlow  and  Mr.  Patterson,  Mr.  Filson  had  been 
killed  by  the  Miami  Indians,  and,  as  he  had  not  paid 
for  his  one-third  of  the  site,  the  claim  was  sold  to 
Mr.  Ludlow,  who  thereby  became  one  of  the  origi- 
nal owners  of  the  place.  Just  what  day  the  town 
was  laid  out  is  not  recorded.  All  the  evidence 
tends  to  show  it  must  have  been  late  in  1788,  or 
early  in  1789. 

While  the  settlements  on  the  north  side  of  the 
Ohio  were  thus  progressing,  south  of  it  fears  of  the 
Indians  prevailed,  and  the  separation  sore  was 
kept  open.  The  country  was,  however,  so  torn  by 
internal  factions  that  no  plan  was  likely  to  suc- 
ceed, and  to  this  fact,  in  a  large  measure,  may  be 
credited  the  reason  it  did  not  secede,  or  join  the 
Spanish  or  French  faction,  both  of  which  were 
intriguing  to  get  the  commonwealth.  During 
this  year  the  treasonable  acts  of  James  Wilkinson 
came  into  view.  For  a  while  he  thought  success 
was  in  his  grasp,  but  the  two  governments  were  at 
peace  with  America,  and  discountenanced  any  such 
efforts.  Wilkinson,  like  all  traitors,  relapsed  into 
nonentity,  and  became  mistrusted  by  the  govern- 
ments he  attempted  to  befriend.  Treason  is  al- 
ways odious. 

It  will  be  borne  in  mind,  that  in  1778  prepa- 
rations had  been  made  for  a  treaty  with  the  Indi- 
ans, to  secure  peaceful  possession  of  the  lands 
owned  in  the  West.  Though  the  whites  held 
these  by  purchase  and  treaty,  yet  many  Indians, 
especially  the  Wabash  and  some  of  the  Miami  In- 
dians, objected  to  their  occupation,  claiming  the 
Ohio  boundary  as  the  original  division  line.  Clarke 
endeavored  to  obtain,  by  treaty  at  Fort  Harmar, 
in  1778,  a  confirmation  of  these  grants,  but  was 
not  able  to  do  so  till  January,  9,  1789.  Rep- 
resentatives of  the  Six  Nations,  and  of  the  Wyan- 
dots,  Delawares,  Ottawas,  Chippewas,  Pottawato- 
mies  and  Sacs,  met  him  at  this  date,  and  confirmed 
and  extended  the  treaties  of  Fort  Stanwix  and 
Fort  Mcintosh,  the  one  in  1784,  the  other  in 
1785.  This  secured  peace  with  the  most  of  them, 
save  a  few  of  the  Wabash  Indians,  whom  they 
were  compelled  to  conquer  by  arms.  When  this 
was  accomplished,  the  borders  were  thought  safe, 
and  Virginia  proposed  to  withdraw  her  aid  in  sup- 
port of  Kentucky.  This  opened  old  troubles,  and 
the  separation  dogma  came  out  afresh.  Virginia 
offered  to  allow  the  erection  of  a  separate  State, 
providing  Kentucky  would  assume  part  of  the  old 
debts.     This  the  young  commonwealth  would  not 




do,  and  sent  a  remonstrance.  Virginia  withdrew 
the  proposal,  and  ordered  a  ninth  convention, 
which  succeeded  in  evolving  a  plan  whereby  Ken- 
tucky took  her  place  among  the  free  States  of  the 

North  of  the  Ohio,  the  prosperity  continued. 
In  1789,  Rev.  Daniel  Story,  who  had  been  ap- 
pointed missionary  to  the  West,  came  out  as  a 
teacher  of  the  youth  and  a  preacher  of  the  Gospel. 
Dr.  Cutler  had  preceded  him,  not  in  the  capacity 
of  a  minister,  though  he  had  preached  ;  hence  Mr. 
Story  is  truly  the  first  missionary  from  the  Prot- 
estant Church  who  came  to  the  Ohio  Valley  in 
that  capacity.  When  he  came,  in  1789,  he  found 
nine  associations  on  the  Ohio  Company's  purchase, 
comprising  two  hundred  and  fifty  persons  in  all ; 
and,  by  the  close  of  1790,  eight  settlements  had 
been  made:  two  at  Belpre  (belle  prairie),  one  at 
Newbury,  one  at  Wolf  Creek,  one  at  Duck  Creek, 
one  at  the  mouth  of  Meigs'  Creek,  one  at  Ander- 
son's Bottom,  and  one  at  Big  Bottom.  An  ex- 
tended sketch  of  all  these  settlements  will  be  found 
farther  on  in  this  volume. 

Symmes  had,  all  this  time,  strenuously  endeav- 
ored to  get  his  city — called  Cleves  City — favorably 
noticed,  and  filled  with  people.  Pie  saw  a  rival  in 
Cincinnati.  That  place,  if  made  military  head- 
quarters to  protect  the  Miami  Valley,  would  out- 
rival his  town,  situated  near  the  bend  of  the 
Miami,  near  its  mouth.  On  the  15th  of  June, 
Judge  Symmes  received  news  that  the  Wabash 
Indians  threatened  the  Miami  settlements,  and  as 
he  had  received  only  nineteen  men  for  defense,  he 
applied  for  more.  Before  July,  Maj.  Doughty 
arrived  at  the  "Slaughter  House" — as  the  Miami 
was  sometimes  called,  owing  to  previous  murders 
that  had,  at  former  times,  occurred  therein. 
Through  the  influence  of  Symmes,  the  detach- 
ment landed  at  the  North  Bend,  and,  for  awhile, 
it  was  thought  the  fort  would  be  erected  there. 
This  was  what  Symmes  wanted,  as  it  would 
secure  him  the  headquarters  of  the  military,  and 
aid  in  getting  the  headquarters  of  the  civil  gov- 
ernment. The  truth  was,  however,  that  neither 
the  proposed  city  on  the  Miami — North  Bend,  as 
it  afterward  became  known,  from  its  location — or 
South  Bend,  could  compete,  in  point  of  natural 
advantages,  with  the  plain  on  which  Cincinnati  is 
built.  Had  Fort  Washington  been  built  elsewhere, 
after  the  close  of  the  Indian  war,  nature  would 
have  asserted  her  advantages,  and  insured  the 
growth  of  a  city,  where  even  the  ancient  and  mys- 
terious dwellers  of  the  Ohio  had  reared  the  earthen 

walls  of  one  of  their  vast  temples.  Another  fact 
is  given  in  relation  to  the  erection  of  Fort  Wash- 
ington at  Losantiville,  which  partakes  somewhat  of 
romance.  The  Major,  while  waiting  to  decide  at 
which  place  the  fort  should  be  built,  happened  to 
make  the  acquaintance  of  a  black-eyed  beauty,  the 
wife  of  one  of  the  residents.  Her  husband,  notic- 
ing the  affair,  removed  her  to  Losantiville.  The 
Major  followed;  he  told  Symmes  he  wished  to  see 
how  a  fort  would  do  there,  but  promised  to  give  his 
city  the  preference.  He  found  the  beauty  there,  and 
on  his  return  Symmes  could  not  prevail  on  him  to 
remain.  If  the  story  be  true,  then  the  importance 
of  Cincinnati  owes  its  existence  to  a  trivial  circum- 
stance, and  the  old  story  of  the  ten  years'  war 
which  terminated  in  the  downfall  of  Troy,  which 
is  said  to  have  originated  owing  to  the  beauty  of 
a  Spartan  dame,  was  re-enacted  here.  Troy  and 
North  Bend  fell  because  of  the  beauty  of  a  wo- 
man ;  Cincinnati  was  the  result  of  the  downfall  of 
the  latter  place. 

About  the  first  of  January,  1790,  Governor  St. 
Clair,  with  his  officers,  descended  the  Ohio  River 
from  Marietta  to  Fort  Washington.  There  he  es- 
tablished the  county  of  Hamilton,  comprising  the 
immense  region  of  country  contiguous  to  the 
Ohio,  from  the  Hocking  River  to  the  Great 
Miami;  appointed  a  corps  of  civil  and  military 
officers,  and  established  a  Court  of  Quarter  Ses- 
sions. Some  state  that  at  this  time,  he  changed 
the  name  of  the  village  of  Losantiville  to  Cin- 
cinnati, in  allusion  to  a  society  of  that  name 
which  had  recently  been  formed  among  the  officers 
of  the  Revolutionary  army,  and  established  it  as 
the  seat  of  justice  for  Hamilton.  This  latter  fact 
is  certain;  but  as  regards  changing  the  name  of 
the  village,  there  is  no  good  authority  for  it.  With 
this  importance  attached  to  it,  Cincinnati  began  at 
once  an  active  growth,  and  from  that  day  Cleves' 
city  declined.  The  next  summer,  frame  houses 
began  to  appear  in  Cincinnati,  while  at  the  same 
time  forty  new  log  cabins  appeared  about  the 

On  the  8th  of  January,  the  Governor  arrived  at 
the  falls  of  the  Ohio,  on  his  way  to  establish  a 
government  at  Vincennes  and  Kaskaskia.  From 
Clarkesville,  he  dispatched  a  messenger  to  Major 
Hamtramck,  commander  at  Vincennes,  with 
speeches  to  the  various  Indian  tribes  in  this  part 
of  the  Northwest,  who  had  not  fully  agreed  to  the 
treaties.  St.  Clair  and  Sargent  followed  in  a  few 
days,  along  an  Indian  trail  to  Vincennes,  where  he 
organized  the  county  of  Knox,  comprisir?^  all  the 




country  along  the  Ohio,  from  the  Miami  to  the 
Wabash,  and  made  Vincennes  the  county  seat. 
Then  they  proceeded  across  the  lower  part  of  Illi- 
nois to  Ka.skaskia,  where  he  established  the  county 
of  St.  Clair  (so  named  by  Sargent),  comprising  all 
the  country  from  the  Wabash  to  the  Mississippi. 
Thus  the  Northwest  was  divided  into  three  coun- 
ties, and  courts  established  therein.  St.  Clair 
called  upon  the  French  inhabitants  at  Vincennes 
and  in  the  Illinois  country,  to  show  the  titles  to 
their  lands,  and  also  to  defray  the  expense  of  a 
survey.  To  this  latter  demand  they  replied  through 
their  priest,  Pierre  Gibault,  showing  their  poverty, 
and  inability  to  comply.  They  were  confirmed  in 
their  grants,  and,  as  they  had  been  good  friends  to 
the  patriot  cause,  were  relieved  from  the  expense 
of  the  survey. 

While  the  Governor  was  managing  these  affairs. 
Major  Hamtramck  was  engaged  in  an  effort  to  con- 
ciliate the  Wabash  Indians.  For  this  purpose,  he 
sent  Antoine  Gamelin,  an  intelligent  French  mer- 
chant, and  a  true  friend  of  America,  among  them  to 
carry  messages  sent  by  St.  Clair  and  the  Govern- 
ment, and  to  learn  their  sentiments  and  dispositions. 
Gamelin  performed  this  important  mission  in  the 
spring  of  1790  with  much  sagacity,   and,  as  the 

French  were  good  friends  of  the  natives,  he  did 
much  to  conciliate  these  half-hostile  tribes.  He 
visited  the  towns  of  these  tribes  along  the  Wabash 
and  as  far  north  and  east  as  the  Miami  village, 
Ke-ki-ong-ga — St.  Mary's — at  the  junction  of  the 
St.  Mary's  and  St.  Joseph's  Rivers  (Fort  Wayne). 

Gamelin's  report,  and  the  intelligence  brought  by 
some  traders  from  the  Upper  Wabash,  were  con- 
veyed to  the  Governor  at  Kaskaskia.  The  reports 
convinced  him  that  the  Indians  of  that  part  of  the 
Northwest  were  preparing  for  a  war  on  the  settle- 
ments north  of  the  Ohio,  intending,  if  possible,  to 
drive  them  south  of  it;  that  river  being  still  consid- 
ered by  them  as  the  true  boundary.  St.  Clair  left 
the  administration  of  affairs  in  the  Western  counties 
to  Sargent,  and  returned  at  once  to  Fort  Washing- 
ton to  provide  for  the  defense  of  the  frontier. 

The  Indians  had  begun  their  predatory  incur- 
sions into  the  country  settled  by  the  whites,  and 
had  committed  some  depredations.  The  Kentuck- 
ians  were  enlisted  in  an  attack  against  the  Scioto 
Indians.  April  18,  Gen.  Harmar,  with  100 
regulars,  and  Gen.  Scott,  with  230  volunteers, 
marched  from  Limestone,  by  a  circuitous  route,  to 
the  Scioto,  accomplishing  but  little.  The  savages 
had  fled. 




A  GREAT  deal  of  the  hostility  at  this  period 
was  directly  traceable  to  the  British.  They 
yet  held  Detroit  and  several  posts  on  the  lakes,  in 
violation  of  the  treaty  of  1783.  They  alleged  as 
a  reason  for  not  abandoning  them,  that  the  Ameri- 
cans had  not  fulfilled  the  conditions  of  the  treaty 
regarding  the  collection  of  debts.  Moreover,  they 
did  nil  they  could  to  remain  at  the  frontier  and  en- 
joy the  emoluments  derived  from  the  ftir  trade. 
That  they  aided  the  Indians  in  the  conflict  at  this 
time,  is  undeniable.  Just  how,  it  is  difiicult  to 
say.  But  it  is  well  known  the  savages  had  all  the 
ammunition  and  fire-arms  they  wanted,  more  than 
they  could  have  obtained  from  American  and 
French  renegade  traders.  They  were  also  well 
supplied  with  clothing,  and  were  able  to  prolong 
the  war  some  time.  A  great  confederation  was  on 
the  eve  of  formation.     The  leading  spirits  were 

Cornplanter,  Brant,  Little  Turtle  and  other  noted 
chiefs,  and  had  not  the  British,  as  Brant  said, 
"encouraged  us  to  the  war,  and  promised  us  aid, 
and  then,  when  we  were  driven  away  by  the  Amer- 
icans, shut  the  doors  of  their  fortresses  against  us 
and  refused  us  food,  when  they  saw  us  nearly  con- 
quered, we  would  have  effected  our  object." 

McKee,  Elliott  and  Girty  were  also  actively  en- 
gaged in  aiding  the  natives.  All  of  them  were  in 
the  interest  of  the  British,  a  fact  clearly  proven 
by  the  Indians  themselves,  and  by  other  traders. 

St.  Clair  and  Gen.  Harmar  determined  to  send 
an  expedition  against  the  IMaumee  towns,  and  se- 
cure that  part  of  the  country.  Letters  were  sent 
to  the  militia  ofiicers  of  Western  Pennsylvania, 
Virginia  and  Kentucky,  calling  on  them  for  militia 
to  co-operate  with  the  regular  troops  in  the  cam- 
paign.    According  to  the  plan  of  the  campaign. 





300  militia  were  to  rendezvous  at  Fort  Steuben 
( Jefferson ville),  march  thence  to  Fort  Knox,  at 
Vincennes,  and  join  Maj.  Hamtramck  in  an  expe- 
dition up  the  Wabash  ;  700  were  to  rendezvous  at 
Fort  Washington  to  join  the  regular  army  against 
the  Maumee  towns. 

While  St.  Clair  was  forming  his  army  and  ar- 
ranging for  the  campaign,  three  expeditions  were 
sent  out  against  the  Miami  towns.  One  against 
the  Miami  villages,  not  far  from  the  Wabash,  was 
led  by  Gen.  Harmar.  He  had  in  his  army  about 
fourteen  hundred  men,  regulars  and  militia.  These 
two  parts  of  the  army  could  not  be  made  to  affili- 
ate, and,  as  a  consequence,  the  expedition  did  little 
beyond  burning  the  villages  and  destroying  corn. 
The  militia  would  not  submit  to  discipline,  and  would 
not  serve  under  regular  officers.  It  will  be  seen 
what  this  spirit  led  to  when  St.  Clair  went  on  his 
march  soon  after. 

The  Indians,  emboldened  by  the  meager  success 
of  Harmar's  command,  continued  their  depreda- 
dations  against  the  Ohio  settlements,  destroying 
the  community  at  Big  Bottom.  To  hold  them  in 
check,  and  also  punish  them,  an  army  under  Charles 
Scott  went  against  the  Wabash  Indians.  Little 
was  done  here  but  destroy  towns  and  the  standing 
corn.  In  July,  another  army,  under  Col.  Wilkin- 
son, was  sent  against  the  Eel  River  Indians.  Be- 
coming entangled  in  extensive  morasses  on  the 
river,  the  army  became  endangered,  but  was  finally 
extricated,  and  accomplished  no  more  than  either 
the  other  armies  before  it.  As  it  was,  however,  the 
three  expeditions  directed  against  the  Miamis  and 
Shawanees,  served  only  to  exasperate  them.  The 
burning  of  their  towns,  the  destruction  of  their 
corn,  and  the  captivity  of  their  women  and  chil- 
dren, only  aroused  them  to  more  desperate  efforts 
to  defend  their  country  and  to  harass  their  in- 
vaders. To  accomplish  this,  the  chiefs  of  the 
Miamis,  Shawanees  and  the  Delawares,  Little 
Turtle,  Blue  Jacket  and  Buckongahelas,  were  en- 
gaged in  forming  a  confederacy  of  all  the  tribes  of 
the  Northwest,  strong  enough  to  drive  the  whites 
beyond  the  Ohio.  Pontiac  had  tried  that  before, 
even  when  he  had  open  allies  among  the  French. 
The  Indians  now  had  secret  allies  among  the  Brit- 
ish, yet,  in  the  end,  they  did  not  succeed.  While 
they  were  preparing  for  the  contest,  St.  Clair  was 
gathering  his  forces,  intending  to  erect  a  chain  of 
forts  from  the  Ohio,  by  way  of  the  Miami  and 
Maumee  valleys,  to  the  lakes,  and  thereby  effect- 
ually hold  the  savages  in  check.  Washington 
warmly  seconded   this  plan,  and   designated   the 

junction  of  the  St.  Mary's  and  St.  Joseph's  Rivers  as 
an  important  post.  This  had  been  a  fortification 
almost  from  the  time  the  English  held  the  valley, 
and  only  needed  little  work  to  make  it  a  formid- 
able fortress.  Glen.  Knox,  the  Secretary  of  War, 
also  favored  the  plan,  and  gave  instructions  con- 
cerning it.  Under  these  instructions,  St.  Clair 
organized  his  forces  as  rapidly  as  he  could,  although 
the  numerous  drawbacks  almost,  at  times,  threat- 
ened the  defeat  of  the  campaign.  Through  the 
summer  the  arms  and  accouterments  of  the  army 
were  put  in  readiness  at  Fort  Washington.  Many 
were  found  to  be  of  the  poorest  quality,  and  to  be 
badly  out  of  repair.  The  militia  came  poorly 
armed,  under  the  impression  they  were  to  be  pro- 
vided with  arms.  While  waiting  in  camp,  habits 
of  idleness  engendered  themselves,  and  drunken- 
ness followed.  They  continued  their  accustomed 
freedom,  disdaining  to  drill,  and  refused  to  submit 
to  the  regular  officers.  A  bitter  spirit  broke  out 
between  the  regular  troops  and  the  militia,  which 
none  could  heal.  The  insubordination  of  the  mi- 
litia and  their  officers,  caused  them  a  defeat  after- 
ward, which  they  in  vain  attempted  to  fasten  on 
the  busy  General,  and  the  regular  troops. 

The  army  was  not  ready  to  move  till  September 
17.  It  was  then  2,300  strong.  It  then  moved 
to  a  point  upon  the  Great  Miami,  where  they 
erected  Fort  Hamilton,  the  first  in  the  proposed 
chain  of  fortresses.  After  its  completion,  they 
moved  on  forty -four  miles  farther,  and,  on  the  12th 
of  October,  began  the  erection  of  Fort  Jefferson, 
about  six  miles  south  of  the  present  town  of  Green- 
ville, Darke  County.  On  the  24th,  the  army  again 
took  up  its  line  of  march,  through  a  wilderness, 
marshy  and  boggy,  and  full  of  savage  foes.  The 
army  rapidly  declined  under  the  hot  sun ;  even  the 
commander  was  suffering  from  an  indisposition. 
The  militia  deserted,  in  companies  at  a  time,  leav- 
ing the  bulk  of  the  work  to  the  regular  troops. 
By  the  3d  of  November,  the  army  reached  a 
stream  twelve  yards  wide,  which  St.  Clair  sup- 
posed to  be  a  branch  of  the  St.  Mary  of  the  Mau- 
mee, but  which  in  reality  was  a  tributary  of  the 
Wabash.  Upon  the  banks  of  that  stream,  the 
army,  now  about  fourteen  hundred  strong,  en- 
camped in  two  lines.  A  slight  protection  was 
thrown  up  as  a  safeguard  against  the  Indians,  who 
were  known  to  be  in  the  neighborhood.  The  Gen- 
eral intended  to  attack  them  next  day,  but,  about 
half  an  hour  before  sunrise,  just  after  the  militia 
had  been  dismissed  from  parade,  a  sudden  attack 
was  made  upon  them.     The  militia  were  thrown 

^  a 


HISTOKY   or    OHIO. 


into  confiision,  and  disregarded  the  command  of 
the  officers.  They  had  not  been  sufficiently  drilled, 
and  now  was  seen,  too  late  and  too  plainly,  the  evil 
effects  of  their  insubordination.  Through  the 
morning  the  battle  waged  furiously,  the  men  falling 
by  scores.  About  nine  o'clock  the  retreat  began, 
covered  by  Maj.  Cook  and  his  troops.  The  re- 
treat was  a  disgraceful,  precipitate  flight,  though, 
after  four  miles  had  been  passed,  the  enemy  re- 
turned to  the  work  of  scalping  the  dead  and 
wounded,  and  of  pillaging  the  camp.  Through 
the  day  and  the  night  their  dreadful  work  con- 
tinued, one  squaw  afterward  declaring  "  her  arm 
was  weary  scalping  the  white  men."  The  army 
reached  Fort  Jefferson  a  little  after  sunset,  having 
thrown  away  much  of  its  arms  and  baggage,  though 
the  act  was  entirely  unnecessary.  After  remain- 
ing here  a  short  time,  it  was  decided  by  the  officers 
to  move  on  toward  Fort  Hamilton,  and  thence  to 
Fort  Washington. 

The  defeat  of  St.  Clair  was  the  most  terrible  re- 
verse the  Americans  ever  suffered  from  the  Indi- 
ans. It  was  greater  than  even  Braddock's  defeat. 
His  army  consisted  of  1,200  men  and  86  officers, 
of  whom  714  men  and  G3  officers  were  killed  or 
wounded.  St.  Clair's  army  consisted  of  1,400 
men  and  86  officers,  of  whom  890  men  and  16 
officers  were  killed  or  wounded.  The  comparative 
effects  of  the  two  engagements  very  inadequately 
represent  the  crushing  effect  of  St.  Clair's  defeat. 
An  unprotected  frontier  of  more  than  a  thousand 
miles  in  extent  was  now  thrown  open  to  a  foe  made 
merciless,  and  anxious  to  drive  the  whites  from  the 
north  side  of  the  Ohio.  Now,  settlers  were  scat- 
tered along  all  the  streams,  and  in  all  the  forests,  ex- 
posed to  the  cruel  enemy,  who  stealthily  approached 
the  homes  of  the  pioneer,  to  murder  him  and  his 
family.  Loud  calls  arose  from  the  people  to  defend 
and  protect  them.  St.  Clair  was  covered  with  abuse 
for  his  defeat,  when  he  really  was  not  alone  to  blame 
for  it.  The  militia  would  not  be  controlled.  Had 
Clarke  been  at  their  head,  or  Wayne,  Avho  succeeded 
St.  Clair,  the  result  might  have  been  different.  As 
it  was,  St.  Clair  resigned ;  though  ever  after  he  en- 
joyed the  confidence  of  Washington  and  Congress. 

Four  days  after  the  defeat  of  St.  Clair,  the  army, 
in  its  straggling  condition,  reached  Fort  Washing- 
ton, and  paused  to  rest.  On  the  9th,  St.  Clair 
wrote  fully  to  the  Secretary  of  War.  On  the  12th, 
Gen.  Knox  communicated  the  information  to  Con- 
gress, and  on  the  26th,  he  laid  before  the  Presi- 
dent two  reports,  the  second  containing  sugges- 
tions  regarding   future    operations.     His  sugges- 

tions urged  the  establishment  of  a  strong  United 
States  iVrmy,  as  it  was  plain  the  States  could  not 
control  the  matter.  He  also  urged  a  thorough 
drill  of  the  soldiers.  No  more  insubordination 
could  be  tolerated.  General  Wayne  was  selected 
by  Washington  as  the  commander,  and  at  once  pro- 
ceeded to  the  task  assigned  to  him.  In  June,  1792, 
he  went  to  Pittsburgh  to  organize  the  army  now 
gathering,  which  was  to  be  the  ultimate  argu- 
ment with  the  Indian  confederation.  Through  the 
summer  he  was  steadily  at  work.  "Train  and  dis- 
cipline them  for  the  work  they  are  meant  for," 
wrote  Washington,  "and  do  not  spare  powder  and 
lead,  so  the  men  be  made  good  marksmen."  In 
December,  the  forces,  now  recruited  and  trained, 
gathered  at  a  point  twenty-two  miles  below  Pitts- 
burgh, on  the  Ohio,  called  Legionville,  the  army 
itself  being  denominated  the  Legion  of  the  United 
States,  divided  into  four  sub-legions,  and  provided 
with  the  proper  officers.  Meantime,  Col.  Wilkinson 
succeeded  St.  Clair  as  commander  at  Fort  Wash- 
ington, and  sent  out  a  force  to  examine  the  field  of 
defeat,  and  bury  the  dead.  A  shocking  sight  met 
their  view,  revealing  the  deeds  of  cruelty  enacted 
upon  their  comrades  by  the  savage  enemj'. 

While  Wayne's  army  was  drilling,  peace  meas- 
ures were  pressed  forward  by  the  United  States 
with  equal  perseverance.  The  Iroquois  were  in- 
duced to  visit  Philadelphia,  and  partially  secured 
from  the  general  confederacy.  They  were  wary, 
however,  and,  expecting  aid  from  the  British,  held 
aloof.  Brant  did  not  come,  as  was  hoped,  and  it 
was  plain  there  was  intrigue  somewhere.  Five 
independent  embassies  were  sent  among  the  West- 
ern tribes,  to  endeavor  to  prevent  a  war,  and  win 
over  the  inimical  tribes.  But  the  victories  they 
had  won,  and  the  favorable  whispers  of  the  British 
agents,  closed  the  ears  of  the  red  men,  and  all 
propositions  were  rejected  in  some  form  or  other. 
All  the  embassadors,  save  Putnam,  suffered  death. 
He  alone  was  able  to  reach  his  goal — the  Wabash 
Indians — and  effect  any  treaty.  On  the  27th  of 
December,  in  company  with  Heckewelder,  the  Mo- 
ravian missionary,  he  reached  Vincennes,  and  met 
thirty-one  chiefs,  representing  the  Weas,  Pianke- 
shaws,  Kaskaskias,  Peorias,  Illinois,  Pottawatomies, 
Mascoutins,  Kickapoos  and  Eel  River  Indians,  and 
concluded  a  treaty  of  peace  with  them. 

The  fourth  article  of  this  treaty,  however,  con- 
tained a  provision  guaranteeing  to  the  Indians 
their  lands,  and  when  the  treaty  was  laid  before 
Congress,  February  13,  1793,  that  body,  after 
much  discussion,  refused  on  that  account  to  ratify  it. 





A  great  council  of  the  Indians  was  to  be  held 
at  Auglaize  during  the  autumn  of  1702,  when 
the  assembled  nations  were  to  discuss  fully  their 
means  of  defense,  and  determine  their  future  line 
of  action.  The  council  met  in  October,  and  was 
the  largest  Indian  gathering  of  the  time.  The 
chiefs  of  all  the  tribes  of  the  Northwest  were  there. 
The  representatives  of  the  seven  nations  of  Canada, 
were  in  attendance.  Cornplanter  and  forty-eight 
chiefs  of  the  New  York  (Six  Nations)  Indians  re- 
paired thither.  "  Besides  these,"  said  Cornplanter, 
"there  were  so  many  nations  we  cannot  tell  the 
names  of  them.  There  were  three  men  from  the 
Gora  nation ;  it  took  them  a  whole  season  to  come ; 
and,"  continued  he,  "  twenty -seven  nations  from 
beyond  Canada  were  there."  The  question  of 
peace  or  war  was  long  and  earnestly  debated.  Their 
future  was  solemnly  discussed,  and  around  the 
council  fire  native  eloquence  and  native  zeal 
shone  in  all  their  simple  strength.  One  nation 
after  another,  through  their  chiefs,  presented  their 
views.  The  deputies  of  the  Six  Nations,  who  had 
been  at  Philadelphia  to  consult  the  "Thirteen 
Fires,"  made  their  report.  The  Western  bound- 
ary was  the  principal  question.  The  natives,  with 
one  accord,  declared  it  must  be  the  Ohio  River. 
An  address  was  prepared,  and  sent  to  the  President, 
wherein  their  views  were  stated,  and  agreeing  to 
abstain  from  all  hostilities,  until  they  could  meet 
again  in  the  spring  at  the  rapids  of  the  Maumee, 
and  there  consult  with  their  white  brothers.  They 
desired  the  President  to  send  agents,  "who  are 
men  of  honesty,  not  proud  land-jobbers,  but  men 
who  love  and  desire  peace."  The  good  work  of 
Penn  was  evidenced  here,  as  they  desired  that  the 
embassadors  "be  accompanied  by  some  Friend  or 

The  armistice  they  had  promised  was  not,  how- 
ever, faithfully  kept.  On  the  6th  of  November, 
a  detachment  of  Kentucky  cavalry  at  Fort  St. 
Clair,  about  twenty-five  miles  above  Fort  Hamil- 
ton, was  attacked.  The  commander,  Maj.  Adair, 
was  an  excellent  ofiicer,  well  versed  in  Indian  tac- 
tics, and  defeated  the  savages. 

This  infraction  of  their  promises  did  not  deter 
the  United  States  from  taking  measures  to  meet 
the  Indians  at  the  rapids  of  the  Maumee  "  when 
the  leaves  were  fully  out."  For  that  purpose,  the 
President  selected  as  commissioners,  Charles  Car- 
roll and  Charles  Thompson,  but,  as  they  declined 
the  nomination,  he  appointed  Benjamin  Lincoln, 
Beverly  Randolph  and  Timothy  Pickering,  the  1st 
of  March,  1793,  to  attend  the  convention,  which, 

it  was  thought  best,  should  be  held  at  the  San- 
dusky outpost.  About  the  last  of  April,  these 
commissioners  left  Philadelphia,  and,  late  in  May, 
reached  Niagara,  where  they  remained  guests  of 
Lieut.  Gov.  Simcoe,  of  the  British  Government. 
This  officer  gave  them  all  the  aid  he  could,  yet  it 
was  soon  made  plain  to  them  that  he  would  not 
object  to  the  confederation,  nay,  even  rather  fav- 
ored it.  They  speak  of  his  kindness  to  them,  in 
grateful  terms.  Gov.  Simcoe  advised  the  Indians 
to  make  peace,  but  not  to  give  up  any  of  their 
lands.  That  was  the  pith  of  the  whole  matter. 
The  British  rather  claimed  land  in  New  York, 
under  the  treaty  of  1783,  alleging  the  Americans 
had  not  fully  complied  with  the  terms  of  that 
treaty,  hence  they  were  not  as  anxious  for  peace 
and  a  peaceful  settlement  of  the  difficult  boundary 
question  as  they  sometimes  represented. 

By  July,  "the  leaves  were  fully  out,"  the  con- 
ferences among  the  tribes  were  over,  and,  on  the 
15th  of  that  month,  the  commissioners  met  Brant 
and  some  fifty  natives.  In  a  strong  speech,  Brant 
set  forth  their  wishes,  and  invited  them  to  accom- 
pany him  to  the  place  of  holding  the  council.  The 
Indians  were  rather  jealous  of  Wayne's  continued 
preparations  for  war,  hence,  just  before  setting  out 
for  the  Maumee,  the  commissioners  sent  a  letter  to 
the  Secretary  of  War,  asking  that  all  warlike 
demonstrations  cease  until  the  result  of  their  mis- 
sion be  known. 

On  21st  of  July,  the  embassy  reached  the  head 
of  the  Detroit  River,  where  their  advance  was 
checked  by  the  British  authorities  at  Detroit,  com- 
pelling them  to  take  up  their  abode  at  the  house 
of  Andrew  Elliott,  the  famous  renegade,  then  a 
British  agent  under  Alexander  McKee.  McKee 
was  attending  the  council,  and  the  commissioners 
addressed  him  a  note,  borne  by  Elliott,  to  inform 
him  of  their  arrival,  and  asking  when  they  could 
be  received.  Elliott  returned  on  the  29th,  bring- 
ing with  him  a  deputation  of  twenty  chiefs  from 
the  council.  The  next  day,  a  conference  was  held, 
and  the  chief  of  the  Wyandots,  Sa-wagh-da-wunk, 
presented  to  the  commissioners,  in  writing,  their 
explicit  demand  in  regard  to  the  boundary,  and 
their  purposes  and  powers.  "The  Ohio  must  be 
the  boundary,"  said  he,  "  or  blood  will  flow." 

The  commissioners  returned  an  answer  to  the 
proposition  brought  by  the  chiefs,  recapitulating 
the  treaties  already  made,  and  denying  the  Ohio 
as  the  boundary  line.  On  the  16th  of  August, 
the  council  sent  them,  by  two  Wyandot  runners, 
a  final   answer,  in   which  they  recapitulated  their 





former  assertions,  and  exhibited  great  powers  of 
reasoning  and  clear  logic  in  defense  of  their  po- 
sition. The  commissioners  reply  that  it  is  impos- 
ble  to  accept  the  Ohio  as  the  boundary,  and  declare 
the  negotiation  at  an  end. 

This  closed  the  efforts  of  the  Government  to  ne- 
gotiate with  the  Indians,  and  there  remained  of 
necessity  no  other  mode  of  settling  the  dispute 
but  war.  Liberal  terms  had  been  offered  them, 
but  nothing  but  the  boundary  of  the  Ohio  River 
would  suffice.  It  was  the  only  condition  upon 
which  the  confederation  would  lay  down  its  arms. 
"  Among  the  rude  statesmen  of  the  wilderness, 
there  was  exhibited  as  pure  patriotism  and  as  lofty 
devotion  to  the  good  of  their  race,  as  ever  won  ap- 
plause among  civilized  men.  The  white  man  had, 
ever  since  he  came  into  the  country,  been  encroach- 
ing on  their  lands.  He  had  long  occupied  the 
regions  beyond  the  mountains.  He  had  crushed 
the  conspiracy  formed  by  Pontiac,  thirty  years  be- 
fore. He  had  taken  possession  of  the  common 
hunting-ground  of  all  the  tribes,  on  the  faith  of 
treaties  they  did  not  acknowledge.  He  was 
now  laying  out  settlements  and  building  forts  in 
the  heart  of  the  country  to  which  all  the  tribes 
had  been  driven,  and  which  now  was  all  they  could 
call  their  own.  And  now  they  asked  that  it  should 
be  guaranteed  to  them,  that  the  boundary  which 
they  had  so  long  asked  for  should  be  drawn,  and 
a  fijQal  end  be  made  to  the  continual  aggressions  of 
the  whites ;  or,  if  not,  they  solemnly  determined  to 
stake  their  all,  against  fearful  odds,  in  defense  of 
their  homes,  their  country  and  the  inheritance  of 
their  children.  Nothing  could  be  more  patriotic 
than  the  position  they  occupied,  and  nothing  could 
be  more  noble  than  the  declarations  of  their 

They  did  not  know  the  strength  of  the  whites, 
and  based  their  success  on  the  victories  already 
gained.  They  hoped,  nay,  were  promised,  aid  from 
the  British,  and  even  the  Spanish  had  held  out  to 
them  assurances  of  help  when  the  hour  of  conflict 

The  Americans  were  not  disposed  to  yield  even 
to  the  confederacy  of  the  tribes  backed  by  the  two 
rival  nations,  forming,  as  Wayne  characterized  it,  a 
"  hydra  of  British,  Spanish  and  Indian  hostility." 
On  the  16th  of  August,  the  commissioners  re- 
ceived the  final  answer  of  the  council.  The  17th, 
they  left  the  mouth  of  the  Detroit  River,  and  the 
23d,  arrived  at  Fort  Erie,  where  they  immediately 

*  Annals  of  the  West. 

dispatched  messengers  to  Gen.  Wayne  to  inform 
him  of  the  issue  of  the  negotiation.  Wayne  had 
spent  the  winter  of  1792-93,  at  Legionville,  in  col- 
lecting and  organizing  his  army.  April  30,  1793, 
the  army  moved  down  the  river  and  encamped  at 
a  point,  called  by  the  soldiers  "  Hobson's  choice," 
because  from  the  extreme  height  of  the  river  they 
were  prevented  from  landing  elsewhere.  Here 
Wayne  was  engaged,  during  the  negotiations  for 
peace,  in  drilling  his  soldiers,  in  cutting  roads,  and 
collecting  suj^plies  for  the  army.  He  was  ready 
for  an  immediate  campaign  in  case  the  council 
failed  in  its  object. 

While  here,  he  sent  a  letter  to  the  Secretarj^  of 
War,  detailing  the  circumstances,  and  suggesting 
the  probable  course  he  should  follow.  He  re- 
mained here  during  the  summer,  and,  when  apprised 
of  the  issue,  saw  it  was  too  late  to  attempt  the 
campaign  then.  He  sent  the  Kentucky  militia 
home,  and,  with  his  regular  soldiers,  went  into 
winter  quarters  at  a  fort  he  built  on  a  tributary 
of  the  Great  Miami.  He  called  the  fort  Green- 
ville. The  present  town  of  Greenville  is  near  the 
site  of  the  fort.  During  the  winter,  he  sent  a  de- 
tachment to  visit  the  scene  of  St.  Clair's  defeat. 
They  found  more  than  six  hundred  skulls,  and 
were  obliged  to  "scrape  the  bones  together  and 
carry  them  out  to  get  a  place  to  make  their  beds." 
They  buried  all  they  could  find.  Wayne  was 
steadily  preparing  his  forces,  so  as  to  have  every- 
thing ready  for  a  sure  blow  when  the  time  came. 
All  his  information  showed  the  faith  in  the  British 
which  still  animated  the  doomed  red  men,  and 
gave  them  a  hope  that  could  end  only  in  defeat. 

The  conduct  of  the  Indians  fully  corroborated 
the  statements  received  by  Gen.  Wayne.  On  the 
30th  of  June,  an  escort  of  ninety  riflemen  and 
fifty  dragoons,  under  command  of  Maj.  3IcMahon, 
was  attacked  under  the  walls  of  Fort  Recovery  by 
a  force  of  more  than  one  thousand  Indians  under 
charge  of  Little  Turtle.  They  were  repulsed  and 
badly  defeated,  and,  the  next  day,  driven  away. 
Their  mode  of  action,  their  arms  and  ammunition, 
all  told  plainly  of  British  aid.  They  also  ex- 
pected to  find  the  cannon  lost  by  St.  Clair  Novem- 
ber 4,  1791,  but  which  the  Americans  had  secured. 
The  26th  of  July,  Gen.  Scott,  with  1,600 
mounted  men  from  Kentucky,  joined  Gen.  Wayne 
at  Fort  Greenville,  and,  two  days  after,  the  legion 
moved  forward.  The  8th  of  August,  the  army 
reached  the  junction  of  the  Auglaize  and  Mau- 
mee,  and  at  once  proceeded  to  erect  Fort  Defiance, 
where  the  waters  meet.   The  Indians  had  abandoned 




their  towns  on  the  approach  of  the  army,  and 
were  congregating  further  northward. 

While  engaged  on  Fort  Defiance,  Wayne 
received  continual  and  full  reports  of  the  Indians — 
of  their  aid  from  Detroit  and  elsewhere;  of  the 
nature  of  the  ground,  and  the  circumstances, 
favorable  or  unfavorable.  From  all  he  could 
learn,  and  considering  the  spirits  of  his  army, 
now  thoroughly  disciplined,  lie  determined  to 
march  forward  and  settle  matters  at  once.  Yet, 
true  to  his  own  instincts,  and  to  the  measures  of 
peace  so  forcibly  taught  by  Washington,  he  sent 
Christopher  Miller,  who  had  been  naturalized 
among  the  Shawanees,  and  taken  prisoner  by 
Wayne's  spies,  as  a  messenger  of  peace,  offering 
terms  of  friendship. 

Unwilling  to  waste  time,  the  troops  began  to 
move  forward  the  15th  of  August,  and  the  next 
day  met  Miller  with  the  message  that  if  the  Amer- 
icans would  wait  ten  days  at  Auglaize  the  Indians 
would  decide  for  peace  or  war.  Wayne  knew  too 
well  the  Indian  character,  and  answered  the  mes- 
sage by  simply  marching  on.  The  18th,  the  legion 
had  advanced  forty-one  miles  from  Auglaize,  and, 
being  near  the  long-looked-for  foe,  began  to  take 
some  measures  for  protection,  should  they  be  at- 
tacked. A  slight  breastwork,  called  Fort  Deposit, 
was  erected,  wherein  most  of  their  heavy  baggage 
was  placed.  They  remained  here,  building  their 
works,  until  the  20th,  when,  storing  their  baggage, 
the  army  began  again  its  march.  After  advancing 
about  five  miles,  they  met  a  large  force  of  the  ene- 
my, two  thousand  strong,  who  fiercely  attacked 
them.  Wayne  was,  however,  prepared,  and  in  the 
short  battle  that  ensued  they  were  routed,  and 
large  numbers  slain.  The  American  loss  was  very 
slight.  The  horde  of  savages  were  put  to  flight, 
leaving  the  Americans  victorious  almost  under 
the  walls  of  the  British  garrison,  under  Maj. 
Campbell.  This  ofiicer  sent  a  letter  to  Gen. 
Wayne,  asking  an  explanation  of  his  conduct  in 
fighting  so  near,  and  in  such  evident  hostility  to 
the  British.  Wayne  replied,  telling  him  he  was 
in  a  country  that  did  not  belong  to  him,  and  one 
he  was  not  authorized  to  hold,  and  also  charKintr 
him  with  aiding  the  Indians.  A  spirited  corre- 
spondence followed,  which  ended  in  the  American 
commander  marching  on,  and  devastating  the  In- 
dian country,  even  burning  IMcKee's  house  and 
stores  under  the  muzzles  of  the  English  guns. 

The  14lh  of  September,  the  army  marched  from 
Fort  Defiance  for  the  IVliami  village  at  the  junc- 
tion of  the  St.  Mary's  and  St.  Joseph  Rivers.     It 

reached  there  on  the  17th,  and  the  next  day  Gen. 
Wayne  selected  a  site  for  a  fort.  The  22d  of  Oc- 
tober, the  fort  was  completed,  and  garrisoned  by  a 
detachment  under  Maj.  Hamtramck,  who  gave  to  it 
the  name  of  Fort  Wayne.  The  l-lth  of  October, 
the  mounted  Kentucky  volunteers,  who  had  be- 
come dissatisfied  and  mutinous,  were  started  to 
Fort  Washington,  where  they  were  immediately 
mustered  out  of  service  and  discharged.  The  28th 
of  October,  the  legion  marched  from  Fort  Wayne 
to  Fort  Greenville,  where  Gen.  Wayne  at  once 
established  his  headquarters. 

The  campaign  had  been  decisive  and  short,  and 
had  taught  the  Indians  a  severe  lesson.  The  Brit- 
ish, too,  had  failed  them  in  their  hour  of  need,  and 
now  they  began  to  see  they  had  a  foe  to  contend 
whose  resources  were  exhaustless.  Under  these 
circumstances,  losing  faith  in  the  English,  and  at 
last  impressed  with  a  respect  for  American  power, 
after  the  defeat  experienced  at  the  hands  of  the 
"Black  Snake,"  the  various  tribes  made  up  their 
minds,  by  degrees,  to  ask  for  peace.  During  the 
winter  and  spring,  they  exchanged  prisoners,  and 
made  ready  to  meet  Gen.  Wayne  at  Greenville,  in 
June,  for  the  purpose  of  forming  a  definite  treaty, 
as  it  had  been  agreed  should  be  done  by  the  pre- 
liminaries of  January  24. 

During  the  month  of  June,  1795,  representa- 
tives of  the  Northwestern  tribes  began  to  gather  at 
Greenville,  and,  the  16th  of  the  month.  Gen.  Wayne 
met  in  council  the  Delawares,  Ottawas,  Pottawato- 
mies  and  Eel  River  Indians,  and  the  conferences, 
which  lasted  till  August  10,  began.  The  21st 
of  June,  Buckongahelas  arrived  ;  the  23d,  Little 
Turtle  and  other  Miamis ;  the  13th  of  July, 
Tarhe  and  other  Wyandot  chiefs  ;  and  the  18th, 
Blue  Jacket,  and  thirteen  Shawanees  and  Massas 
with  twenty  Chippewas. 

Most  of  these,  as  it  appeared  by  their  statements, 
had  been  tampered  with  by  the  English,  especially 
by  McKee,  Girty  and  Brant,  even  after  the  pre- 
liminaries of  January  24,  and  while  IMr.  Jay  was 
perfecting  his  treaty.  They  had,  however,  all  de- 
termined to  make  peace  with  the  "Thirteen  Fires," 
and  although  some  difficulty  as  to  the  ownership  of 
the  lands  to  be  ceded,  at  one  time  seemed  likely  to 
arise,  the  good  sense  of  Wayne  and  the  leading 
chiefs  prevented  it,  and,  the  30th  of  July,  the  treaty 
was  agreed  to  which  should  bury  the  hatchet  for- 
ever. Between  that  day  and  the  3d  of  August, 
it  was  engro.ssed,  and,  having  been  signed  by  the 
various  nations  upon  the  day  last  named,  it  was 
finally  acted  upon  the  7th,  and  the  presents  from 




the  United  States  distributed.  The  basis  of  this 
treaty  was  the  previous  one  made  at  Fort  Harmar. 
The  boundaries  made  at  that  time  were  re-affirmed  ; 
the  whites  were  secured  on  the  lands  now  occu- 
pied by  them  or  secured  by  former  treaties  ;  and 
among  all  the  assembled  nations,  presents,  in  value 
not  less  than  one  thousand  pounds,  were  distributed 
to  each  through  its  representatives,  many  thousands 
in  all.     The  Indians  were  allowed  to  remove  and 

punish  intruders  on  their  lands,  and  were  permitted 
to  hunt  on  the  ceded  lands. 

"  This  great  and  abiding  peace  document  wa.s 
signed  by  the  various  tribes,  and  dated  August  3, 
1795.  It  was  laid  before  the  Senate  December  9, 
and  ratified  the  22d.  So  closed  the  old  Indian 
wars  in  the  West."  * 

*  Aanals  of  the  West." 



WHILE  these  six  years  of  Indian  wars  were 
in  progress,  Kentucky  was  admitted  as  a 
State,  and  Pinckney's  treaty  with  Spain  was  com- 
pleted. This  last  occurrence  was  of  vital  impor- 
tance to  the  West,  as  it  secured  the  free  navigation 
of  the  Mississippi,  charging  only  a  fair  price  for 
the  storage  of  goods  at  Spanish  ports.  This, 
though  not  all  that  the  Americans  wished,  was  a 
great  gain  in  their  favor,  and  did  much  to  stop 
those  agitations  regarding  a  separation  on  the  part 
of  Kentucky.  It  also  quieted  affairs  further 
south  than  Kentucky,  in  the  Georgia  and  South 
Carolina  Territory,  and  put  an  end  to  French 
and  Spanish  intrigue  for  the  Western  Territory. 
The  treaty  was  signed  November  24,  1794. 
Another  treaty  was  concluded  by  Mr.  John  Jay 
between  the  two  governments,  Lord  Greenville 
representing  the  English,  and  Mr.  Jay,  the  Ameri- 
cans. The  negotiations  lasted  from  April  to 
November  19,  1795,  when,  on  that  day,  the  treaty 
was  signed  and  duly  recognized.  It  decided 
effectually  all  the  questions  at  issue,  and  was  the 
signal  for  the  removal  of  the  British  troops  from 
the  Northwestern  outposts.  This  was  effected  as 
soon  as  the  proper  transfers  could  be  made.  The 
second  article  of  the  treaty  provided  that,  "His 
Majesty  will  withdraw  all  his  troops  and  garrisons 
from  all  posts  and  places  within  the  boundary 
lines  assigned  by  the  treaty  of  peace  to  the  United 
States.  This  evacuation  shall  take  place  on  or 
before  the  1st  day  of  June,  1796,  and  all  the 
proper  measures  shall  be  taken,  in  the  interval,  by 
concert,  between  the  Government  of  the  United 
States  and  His  Majesty's  Governor  General  in 
America,   for  settling  the  previous  arrangements 

which  may  be  necessary  respecting  the  delivery 
of  the  said  posts;  the  United  States,  in  the  mean 
time,  at  their  discretion,  extending  their  settle- 
ments to  any  part  within  the  said  boundary  line, 
except  within  the  precincts  or  jurisdiction  of  any 
of  the  said  posts. 

"  All  settlers  and  all  traders  within  the  precincts 
or  jurisdiction  of  the  said  posts  shall  continue  to 
enjoy,  unmolested,  all  their  property  of  every 
kind,  and  shall  be  protected  therein.  They  shall 
be  at  full  liberty  to  remain  there  or  to  remove 
with  all,  or  any  part,  of  their  effects,  or  retain  the 
property  thereof  at  their  discretion ;  such  of  them 
as  shall  continue  to  reside  within  the  said  boundary 
lines,  shall  not  be  compelled  to  become  citizens  of 
the  United  States,  or  take  any  oath  of  allegiance 
to  the  Government  thereof;  but  they  shall  be  at 
full  liberty  so  to  do,  if  they  think  proper;  they 
shall  make  or  declare  their  election  one  year  after 
the  evacuation  aforesaid.  And  all  persons  who 
shall  continue  therein  after  the  expiration  of  the 
said  year,  without  having  declared  their  intention 
of  remaining  subjects  to  His  Britannic  Majesty, 
shall  be  considered  as  having  elected  to  become 
citizens  of  the  United  States." 

The  Indian  war  had  settled  all  fears  from  that 
source ;  the  treaty  with  Great  Britain  had  estab- 
lished the  boundaries  between  the  two  countries 
and  secured  peace,  and  the  treaty  with  Spain  had 
secured  the  privilege  of  navigating  the  IMississippi, 
by  paying  only  a  nominal  sum.  It  had  also  bound 
the  people  of  the  West  together,  and  ended  the 
old  separation  question.  There  was  no  danger 
from  that  now.  Another  difficulty  arose,  however, 
relating  to  the  home  rule,  and  the  organization  of 




the  home  government.  There  were  two  parties  in 
the  country,  known  as  Federalist  and  Anti-Federal- 
ist. One  favored  a  central  government,  whose  au- 
thority should  be  supreme  ;  the  other,  only  a 
compact,  leaving  the  States  supreme.  The  worth- 
lessness  of  the  old  colonial  system  became,  daily, 
mure  apparent.  While  it  existed  no  one  felt  safe. 
There  was  no  prospect  of  paying  the  debt,  and, 
hence,  no  credit.  When  Mr.  Hamilton,  Secretary 
of  the  Treasury,  offered  his  financial  plan  to  the 
country,  favoring  centralization,  it  met,  in  many 
places,  violent  opposition.  Washington  was  strong 
enough  to  carry  it  out,  and  gave  evidence  that  he 
would  do  so.  When,  therefore,  the  excise  law 
passed,  and  taxes  on  whisky  were  collected,  an 
open  revolt  occurred  in  Pennsylvania,  known  as 
the  "Whisky  Insurrection."  It  was  put  down, 
finally,  by  military  power,  and  the  malcontents 
made  to  know  that  the  United  States  was  a  gov- 
ernment, not  a  compact  liable  to  rupture  at  any 
time,  and  by  any  of  its  members.  It  taught  the 
entire  nation  a  lesson.  Centralization  meant  pres- 
ervation. Should  a  "  compact "  form  of  government 
prevail,  then  anarchy  and  ruin,  and  ultimate  sub- 
jection to  some  foreign  power,  met  their  view. 
That  they  had  just  fought  to  dispel,  and  must  it 
all  go  for  naught  ?  The  people  saw  the  rulers 
were  right,  and  gradually,  over  the  West,  spread  a 
spirit  antagonistic  to  State  supremacy.  It  did  not 
revive  till  Jackson's  time,  when  he,  with  an  iron 
hand  and  iron  will,  crushed  out  the  evil  doctrine 
of  State  supremacy.  It  revived  again  in  the  late 
war,  again  to  be  crushed.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that 
ever  thus  will  be  its  fiite.  "  The  Union  is  insepa- 
rable," said  the  Grovernment,  and  the  people  echoed 
the  words. 

During  the  war,  and  while  all  these  events  had 
been  transpiring,  settlements  had  been  taking  place 
upon  the  Ohio,  which,  in  tlieir  influence  ujjon  the 
Northwest,  and  especially  upon  the  State,  as  soon 
as  it  was  created,  were  deeply  felt.  The  Virginia 
and  the  Connecticut  Reserves  were  at  this  time 
peopled,  and,  also,  that  part  of  the  Miami  Valley 
about  Dayton,  which  city  dates  its  origin  from  that 

As  early  as  1787,  the  reserved  lands  of  the  Old 
Dominion  north  of  the  Ohio  were  examined,  and, 
in  August  of  that  year,  entries  were  made.  As 
no  good  title  could  be  obtained  from  Congress  at 
this  time,  the  settlement  practically  ceased  until 
1790,  when  the  prohibition  to  enter  them  was 
withdrawn.  As  soon  as  that  was  done,  surveying 
began   again.     Nathaniel  Massie  was  amons;  the 

foremost  men  in  the  survey  of  this  tract,  and  lo- 
cating the  lands,  laid  off  a  town  about  twelve  miles 
above  Maysville.  The  place  was  called  Manchester, 
and  yet  exists.  From  this  point,  Massie  continued 
through. all  the  Indian  war,  despite  the  danger,  to 
survey  the  surrounding  country,  and  prepare  it  for 

Connecticut  had,  as  has  been  stated,  ceded  her 
lands,  save  a  tract  extending  one  hundred  and 
twenty  miles  beyond  the  western  boundary  of 
Pennsylvania.  Of  this  Connecticut  Reserve,  so 
far  as  the  Indian  title  was  extinguished,  a  survey 
was  ordered  in  October,  1786,  and  an  office  opened 
for  its  disposal.  Part  was  soon  sold,  and,  in  1792, 
half  a  million  of  acres  were  given  to  those  citizens 
of  Connecticut  who  had  lost  property  by  the  acts 
of  the  British  troops  during  the  Revolutionary 
war  at  New  London,  New  Haven  and  elsewhere. 
These  lands  thereby  became  known  as  "  Fire  lands  " 
and  the  "Sufferer's  lands,"  and  were  located  in  the 
western  part  of  the  Reserve.  In  May,  1795,  the 
Connecticut  Legislature  authorized  a  committee  to 
dispose  of  the  remainder  of  the  Reserve.  Before 
autumn  the  committee  sold  it  to  a  company  known 
as  the  Connecticut  Land  Company  for  $1,200,000, 
and  about  the  5th  of  September  quit-claimed  the 
land  to  the  Company.  The  same  day  the  Company 
received  it,  it  sold  3,000,000  acres  to  John  Mor- 
gan, John  Caldwell  and  Jonathan  Brace,  in  trust. 
Upon  these  quit-claim  titles  of  the  land  all  deeds 
in  the  Reserve  are  based.  Surveys  were  com- 
menced in  1796,  and,  by  the  close  of  the  next 
year,  all  the  land  east  of  the  Cuyahoga  was  divided 
into  townships  five  miles  square.  The  agent  of  the 
Connecticut  Land  Company  was  Gen.  Moses  Cleve- 
land, and  in  his  honor  the  leading  city  of  the  Re- 
serve was  named.  That  township  and  five  others 
were  reserved  for  private  sale;  the  balance  were 
disposed  of  by  lottery,  the  first  drawing  occurring 
in  February,  1798. 

Dayton  resulted  from  the  treaty  made  by  Wayne. 
It  came  out  of  the  boundaiy  ascribed  to  Symmes, 
and  for  a  while  all  such  lands  were  not  recognized 
as  sold  by  Congress,  owing  to  the  failure  of 
Symmes  and  his  associates  in  paying  for  them. 
Thereby  there  existed,  for  a  time,  considerable  un- 
easiness regarding  the  title  to  these  lands.  In 
1799,  Congress  was  induced  to  issue  patents  to  the 
actual  settlers,  and  thus  secure  them  in  their  pre- 

Seventeen  days  after  Wayne's  treaty,  St.  Clairs 
Wilkinson,  Jonathan  Dayton  and  Israel  Ludlow 
contracted  with  Symmes  for  the  seventh  and  eighth 




ranges,  between  Mad  River  and  the  Little  Miami. 
Three  settlements  were  to  be  made:  one  at  the 
mouth  of  Mad  lliver,  one  on  the  Little  Miami,  in 
the  seventh  range,  and  another  on  Mad  River.  On 
the  21st  of  September,  1795,  Daniel  C.  Cooper 
started  to  survey  and  mark  out  a  road  in  the  pur- 
chase, and  John  Dunlap  to  run  its  boundaries, 
which  was  completed  before  October  4.  On  No- 
vember 4,  Mr.  Ludlow  laid  oiF  the  town  of  Day- 
ton, which,  like  land  in  the  Connecticut  Reserve, 
was  sold  by  lottery. 

A  gigantic  scheme  to  purchase  eighteen  or 
twenty  million  acres  in  Michigan,  and  then  pro- 
cure a  good  title  from  the  Government — who  alone 
had  such  a  right  to  procure  land — by  giving  mem- 
bers of  CongTcss  an  interest  in  the  investment, 
appeared  shortly  after  Wayne's  treaty.  When 
some  of  the  members  were  approached,  however, 
the  real  spirit  of  the  scheme  appeared,  and,  instead 
of  gaining  ground,  led  to  the  exposure,  resulting 
iu  the  reprimanding  severely  of  Robert  Randall, 
the  principal  mover  in  the  whole  plan,  and  in  its 
speedy  disappearance. 

Another  enterprise,  equally  gigantic,  also  ap- 
peared. It  was,  however,  legitimate,  and  hence 
successful.  On  the  20th  of  February,  1795,  the 
North  American  Land  Company  was  formed  in 
Philadelphia,  under  the  management  of  such  pat- 
riots as  Robert  Morris,  John  Nicholson  and  James 
Greenleaf.  This  Company  purchased  large  tracts 
in  the  West,  which  it  disposed  of  to  actual  settlers, 
and  thereby  aided  greatly  in  populating  that  part 
of  the  country. 

Before  the  close  of  1795,  the  Governor  of  the 
Territory,  and  his  Judges,  published  sixty-four 
statutes.  Thirty-four  of  these  were  adopted  at 
Cincinnati  during  June,  July  and  August  of  that 
year.  They  were  known  as  the  Maxwell  code, 
from  the  name  of  the  publisher,  but  were  passed 
by  Governor  St.  Clair  and  Judges  Symmes  and 
Turner.  Among  them  was  that  which  provided 
that  the  common  law  of  England,  and  all  its  stat- 
utes, made  previous  to  the  fourth  year  of  James 
the  First,  should  be  in  full  force  within  the  Terri- 
tory. "  Of  the  system  as  a  whole,"  says  Mr.  Case, 
"  with  its  many  imperfections,  it  may  be  doubted 
that  any  colony,  at  so  early  a  period  after  its  first 
establishment,  ever  had  one  so  good  and  applicable 
to  all." 

The  Union  had  now  safely  passed  through  its 
most  critical  period  after  the  close  of  the  war  of 
independence.  The  danger  from  an  irruption  of 
its  own  members ;  of  a  war  or  alliance  of  its  West- 

ern portion  with  France  and  Spain,  and  many 
other  perplexing  questions,  were  now  effectually 
settled,  and  the  population  of  the  Territory  began 
rapidly  to  increase.  Before  the  close  of  the  year 
17 96,  the  Northwest  contained  over  five  thousand 
inhabitants,  the  requisite  number  to  entitle  it  to 
one  representative  iu  the  national  Congress. 

Western  Pennsylvania  also,  despite  the  various 
conflicting  claims  regarding  the  land  titles  in  that 
part  of  the  State,  began  rapidly  to  fill  with  emigrants. 
The  "Triangle"  and  the  " Struck  District  "  were 
surveyed  and  put  upon  the  market  under  the  act 
of  1792.  Treaties  and  purchases  from  the  various 
Indian  tribes,  obtained  control  of  the  remainder  of 
the  lands  in  that  part  of  the  State,  and,  by  1796, 
the  State  owned  all  the  land  within  its  boundaries. 
Towns  were  laid  off,  land  put  upon  the  market,  so 
that  by  the  year  1800,  the  western  part  of  the 
Keystone  State  was  divided  into  eight  counties,  viz.. 
Beaver,  Butler,  Mercer,  Crawford,  Erie,  Warren, 
Venango  and  Armstrong. 

The  ordinance  relative  to  the  survey  and  dis- 
posal of  lands  in  the  Northwest  Territory  has 
already  been  given.  It  was  adhered  to,  save  in 
minor  cases,  where  necessity  required  a  slight 
change.  The  reservations  were  recognized  by 
Congi'ess,  and  the  titles  to  them  all  confirmed  to 
the  grantees.  Thus,  Clarke  and  his  men,  the 
Connecticut  Reserve,  the  Refugee  lands,  the 
French  inhabitants,  and  all  others  holding  patents 
to  land  from  colonial  or  foreign  governments,  were 
all  confirmed  in  their  rights  and  protected  in  their 

Before  the  close  of  1796,  the  upper  North- 
western posts  were  all  vacated  by  the  British, 
under  the  terms  of  Mr.  Jay's  treaty.  Wayne  at 
once  transferred  his  headquarters  to  Detroit,  where 
a  county  was  named  for  him,  including  the  north- 
western part  of  Ohio,  the  northeast  of  Indiana, 
and  the  whole  of  Michigan. 

The  occupation  of  the  Territory  by  the  Ameri- 
cans gave  additional  impulse  to  emigration,  and  a 
better  feeling  of  security  to  emigrants,  who  fol- 
lowed closely  upon  the  path  of  the  army.  Na- 
thaniel Masf-ie,  who  has  already  been  noticed  as 
the  founder  of  Manchester,  laid  out  the  town  of 
Chillicothe,  on  the  Scioto,  in  1796.  Before  the 
close  of  the  year,  it  contained  several  stores, 
shops,  a  tavern,  and  was  well  populated.  With 
the  increase  of  settlement  and  the  security  guar- 
anteed by  the  treaty  of  Greenville,  the  arts  of 
civilized  life  began  to  appear,  and  their  influence 
upon  pioneers,  especially  those  born  on  the  frontier, 



-rf 5) 


HISTOEY    or    OHIO. 

began  to  manifest  itself.  Better  dwellings,  schools, 
churches,  dress  and  manners  prevailed.  Life 
began  to  assume  a  reality,  and  lost  much  of 
that  recklessness  engendered  by  the  habits  of  a 
frontier  life. 

Cleveland,  Cincinnati,  the  Miami,  the  Mus- 
kingum and  the  Scioto  Valleys  were  filling  with 
people.  Cincinnati  had  more  than  one  hundred 
log  cabins,  twelve  or  fifteen  frame  houses  and  a 
population  of  more  than  six  hundred  persons.  In 
1796,  the  first  house  of  worship  for  the  Presby- 
terians in  that  city  was  built. 

Before  the  close  of  the  same  year,  ManchcvSter 
contained  over  thirty  families ;  emigrants  from 
Virginia  were  going  up  all  the  valleys  from  the 
Ohio;  and  Ebenezer  Zane  had  opened  a  bridle- 
path from  the  Ohio  River,  at  Wheeling,  across  the 
country,  by  Chillicothe,  to  Limestone,  Ky.  The 
next  year,  the  United  States  mail,  for  the  first 
time,  traversed  this  route  to  the  West.  Zane  was 
given  a  section  of  land  for  his  path.  The  popu- 
lation of  the  Territory,  estimated  at  from  five  to 
eight  thousand,  was  chiefly  distributed  in  lower 
valleys,  bordering  on  the  Ohio  River.  The  French 
still  occupied  the  Illinois  country,  and  were  the 
principal  inhabitants  about  Detroit. 

South  of  the  Ohio  River,  Kentucky  was  pro- 
gressing favorably,  while  the  ''  Southwestern  Ter- 
ritory," ceded  to  the  United  States  by  North 
Carolina  in  1790,  had  so  rapidly  populated  that, 
in  1793,  a  Territorial  form  of  government  was 
allowed.  The  ordinance  of  1787,  save  the  clause 
prohibiting  slavery,  was  adopted,  and  the  Territory 
named  Tennessee.  On  June  6,  179(3,  the  Terri- 
tory contained  more  than  seventy-five  thousand 
inhabitants,  and  was  admitted  into  the  Union  as  a 
State.  Four  years  after,  the  census  showed  a 
population  of  105,002  souls,  including  13,584 
slaves  and  persons  of  color.  The  same  year 
Tennessee  became  a  State,  Samuel  Jackson  and 
Jonathan  Sharpless  erected  the  Redstone  Paper 
Mill,  four  miles  east  of  Brownsville,  it  being  the 
first  manufactory  of  the  kind  west  of  the  Alle- 

In  the  month  of  December,  1796,  Gen.  Wayne, 
who  had  done  so  much  for  the  development  of  the 
West,  while  on  his  way  from  Detroit  to  Philadel- 
phia, was  attacked  with  sickness  and  died  in  a 
cabin  near  Erie,  in  the  north  part  of  Pennsylvania, 
lie  was  nearly  fifty-one  years  old,  and   was  one  of 

the  bravest  officers  in  the  Revolutionary  war,  and 
one  of  America's  truest  patriots.  In  1809,  his 
remains  were  removed  Irom  Erie,  by  his  sou,  Col. 
Isaac  Wayne,  to  the  Radnor  churchyard,  near  the 
place  of  his  birth,  and  an  elegant  monument  erected 
on  his  tomb  by  the  Pennsylvania  Cincinnati  So- 

After  the  death  of  Wayne,  Gen.  Wilkinson  was 
appointed  to  the  command  of  the  Western  anny. 
While  he  was  in  command,  Carondelet,  the  Spanish 
governcjr  of  West  Florida  and  Louisiana,  made  one 
more  effort  to  separate  the  Union,  and  set  up  either 
an  independent  government  in  the  West,  or,  Avliat 
was  more  in  accord  with  his  wishes,  effect  a 
union  with  the  Spanish  nation.  In  June,  1797, 
he  sent  Power  again  into  the  Northwest  and  into 
Kentucky  to  sound  the  existing  feeling.  Now, 
however,  they  were  not  easily  won  over.  The 
home  government  was  a  certainty,  the  breaches  had 
been  healed,  and  Power  was  compelled  to  abandon 
the  mission ,  not,  however,  until  he  had  received  a 
severe  reprimand  from  many  who  saw  through  his 
plan,  and  openly  exposed  it.  His  mission  closed 
the  eff'orts  of  the  Spanish  authorities  to  attempt 
the  dismemljerment  of  the  Union,  and  showed 
them  the  coming  downfall  of  their  power  in  Amer- 
ica. They  wei'e  obliged  to  surrender  the  posts 
claimed  by  the  United  States  under  the  treaty  of 
1795,  and  not  many  years  after,  sold  their  Amer- 
ican possessions  to  the  United  States,  rather  than 
see  a  rival  European  power  attain  control  over  them. 

On  the  7th  of  April,  1798,  Congress  passed  an 
act,  appointing  Winthrop  Sargent,  Secretary  of  the 
Northwest  Territory,  Governor  of  the  Territory  of 
tlie  INIississippi,  formed  the  same  day.  In  1801, 
the  boundary  between  America  and  the  Spanish  pos- 
sessions was  definitely  fixed.  The  Spanish  retired 
from  the  disputed  territory,  and  henceforward  their 
attempts  to  dissolve  the  American  Union  ceased. 
The  seat  of  the  Mississippi  Territory  was  fixed  at 
Loftus  Heights,  six  miles  north  of  the  thirty-first 
degree  of  latitude. 

The  appointment  of  Sargent  to  the  charge  of  the 
Southwest  Territory,  led  to  the  choice  of  William 
Henry  Harrison,  who  had  been  aid-de-camp  to 
Gen.  Wayne  in  1794,  and  whose  cliaracter  stood 
very  high  among  the  people  of  the  West,  to  the 
Secretaryship  of  the  Northwest,  which  place  he  held 
until  appointed  to  represent  that  Territory  in  Con- 

_< f) 





THE  ordinance  of  1787  provided  that  as  soon 
as  there  were  5,000  persons  in  the  Territory, 
it  was  entitled  to  a  representative  assembly.  On 
October  29,  1798,  Governor  St.  Clair  gave  notice 
by  proclamation,  that  the  required  population  ex- 
isted, and  directed  that  an  election  be  held  on  the 
third  Monday  in  December,  to  choose  representa- 
tives. These  representatives  were  required,  when 
assembled,  to  nominate  ten  persons,  whose  names 
were  sent  to  the  President  of  the  United  States, 
who  selected  five,  and  with  the  advice  and  consent 
of  the  Senate,  appointed  them  for  the  legislative 
council.  In  this  mode  the  Northwest  passed  into 
the  second  grade  of  a  Territorial  government. 

The  representatives,  elected  under  the  proclama- 
tion of  St.  Clair,  met  in  Cincinnati,  January  22, 
1799,  and  under  the  provisions  of  the  ordinance 
of  1787,  nominated  ten  persons,  whose  names  were 
sent  to  the  President.  On  the  2d  of  March,  he 
selected  from  the  list  of  candidates,  the  names  of 
Jacob  Burnet,  James  Findlay,  Henry  Vander- 
burgh, Robert  Oliver  and  David  Vance.  The 
next  day  the  Senate  confirmed  their  nomination, 
and  the  first  legislative  council  of  the  Northwest 
Territory  was  a  reality. 

The  Territorial  Legislature  met  again  at  Cincin- 
nati, September  16,  but,  for  want  of  a  quorum, 
was  not  organized  until  the  24th  of  that  month. 
The  House  of  Representatives  consisted  of  nine- 
teen members,  of  whom  seven  were  from  Hamilton 
County,  four  from  Ross — erected  by  St.  Clair  in 
1798;  three  from  Wayne — erected  in  1796;  two 
from  Adams — erected  in  1797;  one  from  Jeifer- 
son — erected  in  1797  ;  one  from  Washington — 
erected  in  1788 ;  and  one  from  Knox — Indiana 
Territory.  None  seem  to  have  been  present  from 
St.  Clair  County  (Illinois  Territory). 

After  the  organization  of  the  Legislature,  Gov- 
ernor St.  Clair  addressed  the  two  houses  in  the  Rep- 
resentatives' Chamber,  recommending  such  meas- 
ures as,  in  his  judgment,  were  suited  to  the  con- 
dition of  the  country  and  would  advance  the  safety 
and  prosperity  of  the  people. 

The  Legislature  continued  in  session  till  the  19th 
of  December,  when,  having  finished  their  business, 
they  were  prorogued  by  the  Governor,  by  their 
own  request,  till  the  first  Monday  in  November, 
1800.  This  being  the  first  session,  there  was,  of 
necessity,  a  gTeat  deal  of  business  to  do.  The 
transition  from  a  colonial  to  a  semi-independent 
form  of  government,  called  for  a  general  revision 
as  well  as  a  considerable  enlargement  of  the  stat- 
ute-book. Some  of  the  adopted  laws  were  re- 
pealed, many  others  altered  and  amended,  and  a 
long  list  of  new  ones  added  to  the  code.  New 
offices  were  to  be  created  and  filled,  the  duties  at- 
tached to  thcai  prescribed,  and  a  plan  of  ways  and 
means  devised  to  meet  the  increased  expenditures, 
occasioned  by  the  change  which  had  now  occurred. 

As  Mr.  Burnet  was  the  principal  lawyer  in  the 
Council,  much  of  the  revision,  and  putting  the  laws 
into  proper  legal  form,  devolved  upon  him.  He 
seems  to  have  been  well  fitted  for  the  place,  and 
to  have  performed  the  laborious  task  in  an  excel- 
lent manner. 

The  whole  number  of  acts  passed  and  approved 
by  the  Governor,  was  thirty-seven.  The  most  im- 
portant related  to  the  militia,  the  administration  of 
justice,  and  to  taxation.  During  the  session,  a  bill 
authorizing  a  lottery  was  passed  by  the  council, 
but  rejected  by  the  LegisUiture,  thus  interdicting 
this  demoralizing  feature  of  the  disposal  of  lands 
or  for  other  purposes.  The  example  has  always  been 
followed  by  subsequent  legislatures,  thus  honorably 
characterizing  the  Assembly  of  Ohio,  in  this  re- 
spect, an  example  Kentucky  and  several  other 
States  might  well  emulate. 

Before  the  Assembly  adjourned,  they  issued  a 
congratulatory  address  to  the  people,  enjoining 
them  to  "  Inculcate  the  principles  of  humanity, 
benevolence,  honesty  and  ])unctuality  in  dealing, 
sincerity  and  charity,  and  all  the  social  afiections." 
At  the  same  time,  they  issued  an  address  to  the 
President,  expressing  entire  confidence  in  the  wis- 
dom and  purity  of  his  government,  and  their 
warm    attachment  to  the   American  Constitution. 




The  vote  on  this  address  proved,  however,  that  the 
differences  of  opinion  agitating  the  Eastern  States 
had  penetrated  the  West.  Eleven  Representatives 
voted  for  it,  and  five  against  it. 

One  of  the  important  duties  that  devolved  on 
this  Legislature,  was  the  election  of  a  delegate  to 
Congress.  As  soon  as  the  Governor's  proclama- 
tion made  its  appearance,  the  election  of  a  person 
to  fill  that  position  excited  general  attention.  Be- 
fore the  meeting  of  the  Legislature  public  opinion 
had  settled  down  on  William  Henry  Harrison,  and 
Arthur  St.  Clair,  Jr.,  who  eventually  were  the  only 
candidates.  On  the  3d  of  October,  the  two  houses 
met  and  proceeded  to  a  choice.  Eleven  votes  were 
cast  for  Harrison,  and  ten  for  St.  Clair.  The  Leg- 
islature prescribed  the  form  of  a  certificate  of  the 
election,  which  was  given  to  Harrison,  who  at  once 
resigned  his  office  as  Secretary  of  the  Territory, 
proceeded  to  Philadelphia,  and  took  his  seat.  Con- 
gress being  then  in  session. 

"  Though  he  represented  the  Territory  but  one 
year,  "  says  Judge  Burnett,  in  his  notes,  "  he  ob- 
tained some  important  advantages  for  his  constitu- 
ents. He  introduced  a  resolution  to  sub-divide 
the  surveys  of  the  public  lands,  and  to  offer  them 
for  sale  in  smaller  tracts  ;  he  succeeded  in  getting 
that  measure  through  both  houses,  in  opposition  to 
the  intei-est  of  speculators,  who  were,  and  who 
wished  to  be,  the  retailers  of  the  land  to  the  poorer 
classes  of  the  community.  His  proposition  be- 
came a  law,  and  was  hailed  as  the  most  beneficent 
act  that  Congress  had  ever  done  for  the  Territory. 
It  put  in  the  power  of  every  industrious  man,  how- 
ever poor,  to  become  a  freeholder,  and  to  lay  a 
foundation  for  the  future  support  and  comfort  of 
his  family.  At  the  same  session,  he  obtained  a 
liberal  extension  of  time  for  the  pre-emptioners  in 
the  northern  part  of  the  Miami  purchase,  which 
enabled  them  to  secure  their  farms,  and  eventually 
to  become  independent,  and  even  wealthy." 

The  first  session,  as  has  been  noticed,  closed 
December  19.  Gov.  St.  Clair  took  occasion  to 
enumerate  in  his  speech  at  the  close  of  the  session, 
eleven  acts,  to  which  he  saw  fit  to  apply  his  veto. 
These  he  had  not,  however,  returned  to  the  Assem- 
bly, and  thereby  saved  a  long  struggle  between  the 
executive  and  legislative  branches  of  the  Territory. 
Of  the  eleven  acts  enumerated,  six  related  to  the 
formation  of  new  counties.  These  were  mainly 
disproved  by  St  Clair,  as  he  always  sturdily  main- 
tained that  the  power  to  erect  new  counties  was 
vested  alone  in  the  Executive.  This  free  exercise 
of  the  veto  power,  especially  in  relation  to  new 

counties,  and  his  controversy  with  the  Legislature, 
tended  only  to  strengthen  the  popular  discontent 
regarding  the  Governor,  who  was  never  fully  able 
to  regain  the  standing  he  held  before  his  in- 
glorious defeat  in  his  campaign  against  the  Indians. 

While  this  was  being  agitated,  another  question 
came  into  prominence.  Ultimately,  it  settled  the 
powers  of  the  two  branches  of  the  government, 
and  caused  the  removal  of  St.  Clair,  then  very 
distasteful  to  the  people.  The  opening  of  the 
present  century  brought  it  fully  before  the 
people,  who  began  to  agitate  it  in  all  their 

The  great  extent  of  the  Territory  made  the 
operations  of  government  extremely  uncertain, 
and  the  power  of  the  courts  practically  worthless. 
Its  division  was,  therefore,  deemed  best,  and  a 
committee  was  appointed  by  Congress  to  inquire 
into  the  matter.  This  committee,  the  3d  of 
March,  1800,  reported  upon  the  subject  that,  "In 
the  three  western  counties,  there  has  been  but 
one  court  having  cognizance  of  crimes  in  five 
years.  The  immunity  which  offenders  experience, 
attracts,  as  to  an  asylum,  the  most  vile  and  aban- 
doned criminals,  and,  at  the  same  time,  deters 
useful  and  virtuous  citizens  from  making  settle- 
ments in  such  society.  The  extreme  necessity  of 
judiciary  attention  and  assistance  is  experienced 
in  civil  as  well  as  criminal  cases.  The  supplying 
to  vacant  places  such  necessary  officers  as  may  be 
wanted,  such  as  clerks,  recorders  and  others  of 
like  kind,  is,  from  the  impossibility  of  correct 
notice  and  information,  utterly  neglected.  This 
Territory  is  exposed  as  a  frontier  to  foreign  nations, 
whose  agents  can  find  sufficient  interest  in  exciting 
or  fomenting  insurrection  and  discontent,  as 
thereby  they  can  more  easily  divert  a  valuable 
trade  in  furs  from  the  United  States,  and  also  have 
a  part  thereof  on  which  they  border,  which  feels 
so  little  the  cherishing  hand  of  their  proper  gov- 
ernment, or  so  little  dreads  its  energy,  as  to  render 
their  attachment  perfectly  uncertain  and  am- 

"  The  committee  would  further  suggest,  that 
the  law  of  the  3d  of  March,  1791,  granting  land 
to  certain  persons  in  the  western  part  of  said  Ter- 
ritory, and  directing  the  laying-out  of  the  same, 
remains  unexecuted;  that  great  discontent,  in 
consequence  of  such  neglect,  is  excited  in  those 
who  are  interested  in  the  provisions  of  said  laws, 
which  require  the  immediate  attention  of  this 
Legislature.  To  minister  a  remedy  to  these  evils, 
it  occurs  to  this  committee,  that  it  is  expedient 





that  a  division  of  said  Territory  into  two  distinct 
and  separate  governments  should  be  made  ;  and 
that  such  division  be  made  by  a  Una  beginning  at 
the  mouth  of  the  great  Miami  River,  running 
directly  north  until  it  intersects  the  boundary 
between  the  United  States  and  Canada."  * 

The  recommendations  of  the  committee  were 
favorably  received  by  Congress,  and,  the  7th 
of  jMay,  an  act  was  passed  dividing  the  Ter- 
ritory. The  main  provisions  of  the  act  are  as 
follows : 

"  That,  from  and  after  the  4th  of  July  next, 
all  that  part  of  the  territory  of  the  United  States 
northwest  of  the  Ohio  River,  which  lies  to  the 
westward  of  a  line  beginning  at  the  Ohio,  opposite 
to  the  mouth  of  the  Kentucky  River,  and  running 
thence  to  Fort  Recovery,  and  thence  north  until 
it  intersects  the  territorial  line  between  the  United 
States  and  Canada,  shall,  for  the  purpose  of  tem- 
porary government,  constitute  a  separate  Territory, 
and  be  called  the  Indiana  Territory. 

"There  shall  be  established  within  the  said  Ter- 
ritory a  government,  in  all  respects  similar  to  that 
provided  by  the  ordinance  of  Congress  passed  July 
13,  1797."  t 

The  act  further  provided  for  representatives,  and 
for  the  establishment  of  an  assembly,  on  the  same 
plan  as  that  in  force  in  the  Northwest,  stipulating 
that  until  the  number  of  inhabitants  reached  five 
thousand,  the  whole  number  of  representatives  to 
the  Greneral  Assembly  should  not  be  less  than  seven, 
nor  more  than  nine ;  apportioned  by  the  Governor 
among  the  several  counties  in  the  new  Terri- 

The  act  further  provided  that  "  nothing  in  the 
act  should  be  so  construed,  so  as  in  any  manner 
to  affect  the  government  now  in  force  in  the  terri- 
tory of  the  United  States  northwest  of  the  Ohio 
River,  further  than  to  prohibit  the  exercise  thereof 
within  the  Indiana  Territory,  from  and  after  the 
aforesaid  4th  of  July  next. 

"  Whenever  that  part  of  the  territory  of  the 
United  States,  which  lies  to  the  eastward  of  a  line 
beginning  at  the  mouth  of  the  Great  Miami  River, 
and  running  thence  due  north  to  the  territorial 
line  between  the  United  States  and  Canada,  shall 
be  erected  into  an  independent  State,  and  admitted 
into  the  Union  on  an  equal  footing  with  the  orig- 
inal States ;  thenceforth  said  line  shall  become  and 
remain  permanently,  the  boundary  line  between 
such  State  and  the  Indiana  Territory." 

*AniPri'-an  State  Papers. 
fLand  Laws. 

It  was  further  enacted,  "  that,  until  it  shall  be 
otherwise  enacted  by  the  legislatures  of  the  said 
tei'ritories,  respectively,  Chillicothe,  on  the  Scioto 
River,  shall  be  the  seat  of  government  of  the  ter- 
ritory of  the  United  States  northwest  of  the  Ohio 
River;  and  that  St.  Vincent's,  on  the  Wabash 
River,  shall  be  the  seat  of  government  for  the 
Indiana  Territory."  * 

St.  Clair  was  continued  as  Governor  of  the  old 
Territory,  and  William  Henry  Harrison  appointed 
Governor  of  the  new. 

Connecticut,  in  ceding  her  territory  in  the  West 
to  the  Genei'al  Government,  reserved  a  portion, 
known  as  the  Connecticut  Reserve.  When  she 
afterward  disposed  of  her  claim  in  the  manner 
narrated,  the  citizens  found  themselves  without  any 
government  on  which  to  lean  for  support.  At  that 
time,  settlements  had  begun  in  thirty-five  of  the 
townships  into  which  the  Reserve  had  been  divided  ; 
one  thousand  persons  had  established  homes  there  ; 
mills  had  been  built,  and  over  seven  hundred  miles 
of  roads  opened.  In  1800,  the  settlers  petitioned 
for  acceptance  into  the  Union,  as  a  part  of  the 
Northwest ;  and,  the  mother  State  releasing  her  judi- 
ciary claims.  Congress  accepted  the  ti-ust,  and 
granted  the  request.  In  December,  of  that  year, 
the  population  had  so  increased  that  the  county  of 
Trumbull  was  erected,  including  the  Reserve. 
Soon  after,  a  large  number  of  settlers  came  from 
Pennsylvania,  from  which  State  they  had  been 
driven  by  the  dispute  concerning  land  titles  in  its 
western  part.  Unwilling  to  cultivate  land  to 
which  they  could  only  get  a  doubtful  deed,  they 
abandoned  it,  and  came  where  the  titles  were 

Congress  having  made  Chillicothe  the  capital  of 
the  Northwest  Territory,  as  it  now  existed,  on  the 
3d  of  November  the  General  Assembly  met  at  that 
place.  Gov.  St.  Clair  had  been  made  to  feel  the 
odium  cast  upon  his  previous  acts,  and,  at  the  open- 
ing of  this  session,  expressed,  in  strong  terms,  his 
disapprobation  of  the  censure  cast  upon  him.  He 
had  endeavored  to  do  his  duty  in  all  cases,  he  said, 
and  yet  held  the  confidence  of  the  President  and 
Congress.  He  still  held  the  office,  notwithstanding 
the  strong  dislike  against  him. 

At  the  second  session  of  the  Assembly,  at  Chil- 
licothe, held  in  the  autumn  of  1801,  so  much  out- 
spoken enmity  wa-s  expressed,  and  so  much  abuse 
heaped  upon  the  Governor  and  the  Assembly,  that 
a  law  was  passed,  removing  the  capital  to  Cincinnati 

*  Land  Laws. 




again.  It  was  not  destined,  however,  that  the 
Territorial  Assembly  should  meet  again  anywhere. 
The  unpopularity  of  the  Governor  caused  many  to 
long  for  a  State  government,  where  they  could 
choose  their  own  rulers.  The  unpopularity  of  St. 
Clair  arose  partly  from  the  feeling  connected  with 
his  defeat ;  in  part  from  his  being  connected  with 
the  Federal  party,  fast  falling  into  disrepute;  and, 
in  part,  from  his  assuming  powers  which  most 
thought  he  had  no  right  to  exercise,  especially  the 
power  of  subdividing  the  counties  of  the  Terri- 

The  opposition,  though  powerful  out  of  the 
Assembly,  was  in  the  minority  there.  During  the 
month  of  December,  1801,  it  was  forced  to  protest 
against  a  measure  brought  forward  in  the  Council, 
for  changing  the  ordinance  of  1787  in  such  a  man- 
ner as  to  make  the  Scioto,  and  a  line  drawn  from 
the  intersection  of  that  I'iver  and  the  Indian 
boundary  to  the  western  extremity  of  the  Reserve, 
the  limits  of  the  most  eastern  State,  to  be  formed 
from  the  Territory.  Had  this  change  been  made, 
the  formation  of  a  State  government  beyond  the 
Ohio  would  have  been  long  delayed.  Against  it, 
IleprcsentativesWortliington,Langham,  Darlington, 
Massie,  Dunlavy  and  Morrow,  recorded  their  pro- 
test. Not  content  with  this,  they  sent  Thomas 
Worthington,  who  obtained  a  leave  of  absence,  to 
the  seat  of  government,  on  behalf  of  the  objectors, 
there  to  protest,  before  Congress,  against  the  pro- 
posed boundary.  While  Worthington  was  on  his 
way,  Massie  presented,  the  4th  of  January,  1802, 
a  resolution  for  choosing  a  committee  to  address 
Congress  in  respect  to  the  proposed  State  govern- 
ment. This,  the  next  day,  the  House  refused  to 
do,  by  a  vote  of  twelve  to  five.  An  attempt 
was  next  made  to  procure  a  census  of  the  Ter- 
ritory, and  an  act  for  that  purpose  passed  the 
House,  but  the  Council  postponed  the  considera- 
tion of  it  until  the  next  session,  which  would  com- 
mence at  Cincinnati,  the  fourth  iMonday  of  No- 

Meanwhile,  Worthington  pursued  the  ends  of 
his  mission,  vising  his  influence  to  effect  that  organ- 
ization, "which,  terminating  the  influence  of  tyr- 
anny," was  to  "meliorate  the  circumstances  of  thou- 
sands, by  freeing  them  from  the  domination  of  a 
despotic  chief"  His  efforts  wore  siiccessful,  and, 
the  -Ith  of  March,  a  report  was  made  to  the 
House  in  favor  of  authorizing  a  State  convention. 
This  report  was  based  on  the  assumption  that  there 
were  now  over  sixty  thousand  inhabitants  in  the 
proposed  boundaries,  estimating  that  emigration  had 

increased  the  census  of  1800,  which  gave  the  Ter- 
ritory forty-five  thousand  inhabitants,  to  that  num- 
ber. The  convention  was  to  ascertain  whether  it 
were  expedient  to  form  such  a  government,  and  to 
prepare  a  constitution  if  such  organization  were 
deemed  best.  In  the  formation  of  the  State,  a 
change  in  the  boundaries  was  proposed,  by  which 
all  the  territory  north  of  a  line  drawn  due  east 
from  the  head  of  Lake  Michigan  to  Lake  Ei'ie  was 
to  be  excluded  from  the  new  government  about  to 
be  called  into  existence. 

The  committee  appointed  by  Congress  to  report 
upon  the  feasibility  of  forming  the  State,  suggested 
that  Congress  reserve  out  of  every  township  sections 
numbered  8,  11,  26  and  29.  for  their  own  use,  and 
that  Section  16  be  reserved  for  the  maintenance 
of  schools.  The  committee  also  suggested,  that, 
"religion,  education  and  morality  being  necessary 
to  the  good  government  and  happiness  of  mankind, 
schools  and  the  means  of  education  shall  be  forever 

Various  other  recommendations  were  given  by 
the  committee,  in  accordance  with  which,  Congress, 
April  30,  passed  the  resolution  authorizing  the 
calling  of  a  convention.  As  tliis  accorded  with 
the  feelings  of  the  majority  of  the  inhabitants  of  the 
Northwest,  no  opposition  was  experienced ;  even 
the  Legislature  giving  way  to  this  embryo  gov- 
ernment, and  failing  to  assemble  according  to  ad- 

The  convention  met  the  1st  of  November.  Its 
aiembers  were  generally  Jeffersonian  in  their  na- 
tional politics,  and  had  been  opposed  to  the  change 
of  boundaries  proposed  the  year  before.  Before 
proceeding  to  business.  Gov.  St.  Clair  proposed  to 
address  them  in  his  official  character.  This  propo- 
sition was  resisted  by  several  of  the  members;  but, 
after  a  motion,  it  was  agreed  to  allow  him  to  speak 
to  them  as  a  citizen.  St.  Clair  did  so,  advising 
the  postponement  of  a  State  government  until  the 
people  of  the  original  eastern  division  were  plainly 
entitled  to  demand  it,  and  were  not  subject  to  be 
bovind  by  conditi(ms.  This  advice,  given  as  it  was, 
caused  Jefferson  instantly  to  remove  St.  Clair,  at 
which  time  his  office  ceased.*  "When  the  vote 
was  taken,"  says  Judge  Burnet,  "upon  doing  what 

*  After  thiH,  St.  Clair  returned  to  his  old  home  in  the  Ligonier 
Valley,  Pennsylviinia,  where  ho  lived  with  his  children  in  alnio-st 
abject  poverty.  He  had  lost,  money  in  his  jmblic  life,  as  he  gave 
close  attention  to  public  affairs,  to  the  detriment  of  his  own  business. 
He  presented  a  claim  to  Congress,  afterward,  for  supplies  furnished 
to  the  army,  but  the  cbiira  was  outlawed.  After  trying  in  vain  to 
get  the  claim  allowed,  he  returned  to  his  home.  Pennsylvania, 
le!jrning  of  his  distress,  granted  him  an  annuity  of  $.350,  afterward 
raised  to  S'>'^0.  He  lived  to  enjoy  this  but  a  short  time,  his  death 
occurring  August  31,  1818.     He  was  eighty-four  years  of  age. 





he  advised  them  not  to  do,  but  one  of  thirty-three 
(Ephraim  Cutler,  of  Washington  County)  voted 
with  the  Grovernor." 

On  one  point  only  were  the  proposed  boundaries 
of  the  new  State  altered. 

"  To  every  person  who  has  attended  to  this  sub- 
ject, and  who  has  consulted  the  maps  of  the  West- 
ern country  extant  at  the  time  the  ordinance  of 
1787  was  passed,  Lake  Michigan  was  believed  to 
bo,  and  was  represented  by  all  the  maps  of  that 
day  as  being,  very  far  north  of  the  position  which 
it  has  since  been  ascertained  to  occupy.  I  have 
seen  the  map  in  the  Department  of  State  which 
was  before  the  committee  of  Congress  who  framed 
and  reported  the  ordinance  for  the  government  of 
the  Territory.  On  that  map,  the  southern  bound- 
ary of  Michigan  was  represented  as  being  above 
the  forty-second  degree  of  north  latitude.  And 
there  was  a  pencil  line,  said  to  have  been  made  by 
the  committee,  passing  through  the  southern  bend 
of  the  lake  to  the  Canada  line,  which  struck  the 
strait  not  far  below  the  town  of  Detroit.  The 
line  was  manifestly  intended  by  the  committee 
and  by  Congress  to  be  the  northern  boundary  of 
our  State;  and,  on  the  principles  by  which  courts 
of  chancery  construe  contracts,  accompanied  by 
plats,  it  would  seem  that  the  map,  and  the  line 
referred  to,  should  be  conclusive  evidence  of  our 
boundary,  without  reference  to  the  real  position  of 
the  lakes. 

"When  the  convention  sat,  in  1802,  the  under- 
derstanding  was,  that  the  old  maps  were  nearly 
correct,  and  that  the  line,  as  defined  in  the  ordi- 
nance, would  terminate  at  some  point  on  the  strait 
above  the  Maumee  Bay.  While  the  convention 
was  in  session,  a  man  who  had  hunted  many  years 
on  Lake  Michigan,  and  was  well  acquainted  with 
its  position,  happened  to  be  in  Chillicothe,  and,  in 
conversation  with  one  of  the  members,  told  him 
that  the  lake  extended  much  farther  south  than 
was  generally  supposed,  and  that  a  map  of  the 
country  which  he  had  seen,  placed  its  southern 
bend  many  miles  north  of  its  true  position.  This 
information  excited  some  uneasiness,  and  induced 
the  convention  to  modify  the  clause  describing  the 
north  boundary  of  the  new  State,  so  as  to  guard 
against  its  being  depressed  below  the  most  north- 
ern cape  of  the  Maumee  Bay."* 

With  this  change  and  some  extension  of  the 
school  and  road  donations,  the  convention  agreed 
to  the  proposal  of  Congress,  and,  November  29, 

*  Historical  Transactions  of  Ohio, — Judof,  Burnett. 

their  agreement  was  ratified  and  signed,  as  was 
also  the  constitution  of  the  State  of  Ohio — so 
named  from  its  river,  called  by  the  Shawanees  Ohio, 
meaning  beautiful — forming  its  southern  bound- 
ary. Of  this  nothing  need  be  said,  save  that  it 
bore  the  marks  of  true  democratic  feeling — of  full 
faith  in  the  people.  By  them,  however,  it  was 
never  voted  for.  It  stood  firm  until  1852,  when 
it  was  superseded  by  the  present  one,  made  neces- 
sary by  the  advance  of  time. 

The  General  Assembly  was  required  to  meet  at 
Chillicothe,  the  first  Tuesday  of  March,  1803. 
Tins  change  left  the  territory  northwest  of  the 
Ohio  River,  not  included  in  the  new  State,  in  the 
Territories  of  Indiana  and  Michigan.  Subse- 
quently, in  181G,  Indiana  was  made  a  State,  and 
confined  to  her  present  limits.  Illinois  was  made 
a  Territory  then,  including  Wisconsin.  In  1818, 
it  became  a  State,  and  Wisconsin  a  Territory  at- 
tached to  Michigan.  This  latter  was  made  a  State 
in  1837,  and  Wisconsin  a  separate  Territory,  which, 
in  1847,  was  made  a  State.  Minnesota  was  made 
a  Territory  the  same  year,  and  a  State  in  1857, 
and  the  five  contemplated  States  of  the  territory 
were  complete. 

Preceding  pages  have  shown  how  the  territory 
north  of  the  Ohio  E-iver  was  peopled  by  the 
French  and  English,  and  how  it  came  under  the 
rule  of  the  American  people.  The  war  of  the 
Revolution  closed  in  1783,  and  left  all  America  in 
the  hands  of  a  new  nation.  That  nation  brought 
a  change.  Before  the  war,  various  attempts  had 
been  made  by  residents  in  New  England  to  people 
the  country  west  of  the  Alleghanies.  Land  com- 
panies were  formed,  principal  among  which  were 
the  Ohio  Company,  and  the  company  of  which 
John  Cleves  Symmes  was  the  agent  and  chief 
owner.  Large  tracts  of  land  on  the  Scioto  and 
on  the  Ohio  were  entered.  The  Ohio  Company 
were  the  first  to  make  a  settlement.  It  was  or- 
ganized in  the  autumn  of  1787,  November  27. 
They  made  arrangements  for  a  party  of  forty-seven 
men  to  set  out  for  the  West  under  the  supervision  of 
Gen.  Rufus  Putnam,  Superintendent  of  the  Com- 
pany. Early  in  the  winter  they  advanced  to  the 
Youghiogheny  River,  and  there  built  a  strong  boat, 
which  they  named  "Mayflower."  It  was  built  by 
Capt.  Jonathan  Devol,  the  first  ship-builder  in  the 
West,  and,  when  completed,  was  placed  under  his 
command.  The  boat  was  launched  x\pril  2,  1788, 
and  the  band  of  pioneers,  like  the  Pilgrim  Fathers, 
began  their  voyage.  The  7th  of  the  month, 
they  arrived  at   the  mouth  of  the  Muskingum, 



their  destination,  opposite  Fort  Harmar,*  erected 
in  the  autumn  of  1785,  by  a  detachment  of 
United  States  troops,  under  command  of  Maj. 
John  Doughty,  and,  at  the  date  of  the  Mayflower's 
arrival  in  possession  of  a  company  of  soldiers. 
Under  the  protection  of  these  troops,  the  little  band 
of  men  began  their  labor  of  laying  out  a  town, 
and  commenced  to  erect  houses  for  their  own  and 
subsequent  emigrants'  occupation.  The  names  of 
these  pioneers  of  Ohio,  as  far  as  can  now  be 
learned,  are  as  follows: 

Gen.  Putnam,  Return  Jonathan  Meigs,  Win- 
throp  Sargeant  (Secretary  of  the  Territory ),  Judges 
Parsons  and  Varnum,  Capt.  Dana,  Capt.  Jonathan 
Devol,  Joseph  Barker,  Col.  Battelle,  Maj.  Tyler, 
Dr.  True,  Capt.  Wm.  Gray,  Capt.  Lunt,  the 
Bridges,  Ebenezer  and  Thomas  Cory,  Andrew  Mc- 
Clurc,  Wm.  Mason,  Thomas  Lord,  Wm.  Gridley, 
Gilbert  Devol,  Moody  Russels,  Deavens,  Oakes, 
Wright,  Clough,  Green,  Shipman,  Dorance,  the 
Masons,  and  others,  whose  names  are  now  be- 
yond recall. 

On  the  19th  of  July,  the  first  boat  of  families 
arrived,  after  a  nine-weeks  journey  on  the  way. 
They  had  traveled  in  their  wagons  as  f\ir  as  Wheel- 
ing, where  they  built  large  flat-boats,  into  which 
they  loaded  their  efiects,  including  their  cattle,  and 
thence  passed  down  the  Ohio  to  their  destination. 
The  families  were  those  of  Gen.  Tupper,  Col. 
Ichabod  Nye,  Col.  Cushing,  Maj.  Coburn,  and 
Maj.  Goodale.  In  these  titles  the  reader  will  ob- 
serve the  preponderance  of  military  distinction. 
Many  of  the  founders  of  the  colony  had  served 
with  much  valor  in  the  war  for  freedom,  and  were 
well  prepared  for  a  life  in  the  wilderness. 

They  began  at  once  the  construction  of  houses 
from  the  forests  about  the  confluence  of  the  rivers, 
guarding  their  stock  by  day  and  penning  it  by 
night.  Wolves,  bears  and  Indians  were  all  about 
them,  and,  here  in  the  remote  wilderness,  they 
were  obliged  to  always  be  on  their  guard.  From 
the  ground  where  they  obtained  the  timber  to  erect 
their  houses,  they  soon  produced  a  few  vegetables, 
and  when  the  families  arrived  in  August,  they 
were  able  to  set  before  them  food  raised  for  the 

♦The  outlines  of  Fort  Harmar  formed  a  regular  pentagon, 
embracing  within  the  area  about  three-fourths  of  an  acre.  Its 
walls  were  formed  of  large  horizontal  timbers,  and  the  bastions 
of  large  uprighttimberaaboutfourteen  feet  in  height,  fastened  to  each 
other  by  strips  of  timber,  tree-nailed  into  each  picket.  In  the  rear 
of  the  fort  Maj.  Doughty  laid  out  fine  gardens.  It  continued  to  be 
occupied  by  United  States  troops  until  September  1700,  when 
they  were  ordered  to  Cincinnati.  A  company,  under  Capt.  Haskell, 
continued  to  raako  the  fort  their  headquarters  during  the  Indian 
war,  occasionally  assisting  the  colonists  at  Marietta,  Belpre  and 
Waterford  against  the  Indians.  When  not  needed  by  the  troops, 
the  fort  was  used  by  the  people  of  Marietta. 

first  time  by  the  hand  of  American  citizens  in  the 
Ohio  Valley.  One  of  those  who  came  in  August, 
was  Mr.  Thomas  Guthrie,  a  settler  in  one  of  the 
western  counties  of  Pennsylvania,  who  brought  a 
bushel  of  wheat,  which  he  sowed  on  a  plat  of 
ground  cleared  by  himself,  and  from  which  that 
fall  he  procured  a  small  crop  of  wheat,  the  first 
grown  in  the  State  of  Ohio. 

The  Marietta  settlement  was  the  only  one  made 
that  summer  in  the  Territory.  From  their  arrival 
until  October,  when  Governor  St.  Clair  came,  they 
were  busily  employed  making  houses,  and  prepar- 
ing for  the  winter.  The  little  colony,  of  which 
Washington  wrote  so  favorably,  met  on  the  2d  day 
of  July,  to  name  their  newborn  city  and  its  pub- 
lic sqares.  Until  now  it  had  been  known  as  "  The 
Muskingum"  simply,  but  on  that  day  the  name 
Marietta  was  formally  given  to  it,  in  honor  of  Ma- 
rie Antoinette.  The  4th  of  July,  an  ovation  was 
held,  and  an  oration  delivered  by  James  M.  Var- 
num, who,  with  S.  H.  Parsons  and  John  Arm- 
strong, had  been  appointed  Judges  of  the  Terri- 
tory. Thus,  in  the  heart  of  the  wilderness, 
miles  away  from  any  kindred  post,  in  the  forests 
of  the  Great  West,  was  the  Tree  of  Liberty  watered 
and  given  a  hearty  growth. 

On  the  morning  of  the  9th  of  July,  Governor 
St.  Clair  arrived,  and  the  colony  began  to  assume 
form.  The  ordinance  of  1787  had  provided  for 
a  form  of  government  under  the  Governor  and 
the  three  Judges,  and  this  form  was  at  once  put 
into  force.  The  25th,  the  first  law  relating  to  the 
militia  was  published,  and  the  next  day  the  Gov- 
ernor's proclamation  appeared,  creating  all  the 
country  that  had  been  ceded  by  the  Indians,  east 
of  the  Scioto  River,  into  the  county  of  Washing- 
ton, and  the  civil  machinery  was  in  motion.  From 
that  time  forward,  this,  the  pioneer  settlement  in 
Ohio,  went  on  prosperously.  The  2d  of  Septem- 
ber, the  first  court  in  the  Territory  was  held,  but 
as  it  related  to  the  Territory,  a  narrative  of  its  pro- 
ceedings will  be  found  in  the  history  of  that  part 
of  the  country,  and  need  not  be  repeated  here. 

The  15th  of  July,  Gov.  St.  Clair  had  published 
the  ordinance  of  1787,  and  the  commissions  of 
himself  and  the  three  Judges.  He  also  assembled 
the  people  of  the  settlement,  and  explained  to 
them  the  ordinance  in  a  speech  of  considerable 
length.  Three  days  after,  he  sent  a  notice  to  the 
Judges,  calling  their  attention  to  the  subject  of 
organizing  the  militia.  Instead  of  attending  to 
this  important  matter,  and  thus  providing  for  their 
safety  should  trouble  with  the   Indians  arise,  the 



Judges  did  not  even  reply  to  the  Governor's  letter, 
but  sent  him  what  they  called  a  "project"  of  a 
law  for  dividing  real  estate.  The  bill  was  so 
loosely  drawn  that  St.  Clair  immediately  rejected 
it,  and  set  about  organizing  the  militia  himself. 
He  divided  the  militia  into  two  classes,  "Senior" 
and  "Junior,"  and  organized  them  by  appointing 
their  officers. 

In  the  Senior  Class,  Nathan  Cushing  was  ap- 
pointed Captain;  George  Ingersol,  Lieutenant, 
and  James  Backus,  Ensign. 

In  the  Junior  Class,  Nathan  Groodale  and  Charles 
Knowls  were  made  Captains ;  Watson  Casey  and 
Samuel  Stebbins,  Lieutenants,  and  Joseph  Lincoln 
and  Arnold  Colt,  Ensigns. 

The  Governor  next  erected  the  Courts  of  Pro- 
bate and  Quarter  Sessions,  and  proceeded  to  ap- 
point civil  officers.  Rufus  Putnam,  Benjamin 
Tupper  and  Winthrop  Sargeant  were  made  Jus- 
tices of  the  Peace.  The  30th  of  August,  the  day 
the  Court  of  Quarter  Sessions  was  appointed, 
Archibald  Cary,  Isaac  Pierce  and  Thomas  Lord 
were  also  appointed  Justices,  and  given  power  to 
hold  this  court.  They  were,  in  fact.  Judges  of  a 
Court  of  Common  Pleas.  Return  Jonathan  Meigs 
was  appointed  Clerk  of  this  Court  of  Quarter 
Sessions.  Ebenezer  Sproat  was  appointed  Sheriff  of 
Wa.shington  County,  and  also  Colonel  of  the  militia; 
William  Callis,  Clerk  of  the  Supreme  Court; 
Rufus  Putnam,  Judge  of  the  Probate  Court,  and 
R.  J.  Meigs,  Jr.,  Clerk.  Following  these  appoint- 
ments, setting  the  machinery  of  government  in 
motion,  St.  Clair  ordered  that  the  25th  of  Decem- 
ber be  kept  as  a  day  of  thanksgiving  by  the  infant 
colony  for  its  safe  and  propitious  beginning. 

During  the  fall  and  winter,  the  settlement  was 
daily  increased  by  emigrants,  so  much  so,  that  the 
greatest  difficulty  was  experienced  in  finding  them 
lodging.  During  the  coldest  part  of  the  winter, 
when  ice  covered  the  river,  and  prevented  navi- 
gation, a  delay  in  arrivals  was  experienced,  only  to 
be  broken  as  soon  as  the  river  opened  to  the  beams 
of  a  spring  sun.  While  locked  in  the  winter's 
embrace,  the  colonists  amused  themselves  in  vari- 
ous ways,  dancing  being  one  of  the  most  promi- 
nent. At  Christmas,  a  grand  ball  was  held,  at 
which  there  were  fifteen  ladies,  "whose  grace," 
says  a  narrator,  "equaled  any  in  the  East." 
Though  isolated  in  the  wilderness,  they  knew  a 
brilliant  prospect  lay  before  them,  and  lived  on  in 
a  joyous  hope  for  the  future. 

Soon  after  their  arrival,  the  settlers  began  the 
erection  of  a   stockade  fort  (Campus    Martius), 

which  occupied  their  time  until  the  winter  cf 
1791.  During  the  interval,  fortunately,  no  hos- 
tilities from  the  Indians  were  experienced,  though 
they  were  abundant,  and  were  frequent  visitors  to 
the  settlement. 

From  a  communication  in  the  American  Pioneer, 
by  Dr.  S.  P.  Hildreth,  the  following  description  of 
Campus  Martius  is  derived.  As  it  will  apply,  in 
a  measure,  to  many  early  structures  for  defense  in 
the  West,  it  is  given  entire : 

"  The  fort  was  made  in  the  form  of  a  regular 
parallelogram,  the  sides  of  each  being  180  feet. 
At  each  corner  was  erected  a  strong  block-house, 
surmounted  by  a  tower,  and  a  sentry  box.  These 
houses  were  twenty  feet  square  below  and  twenty- 
four  feet  square  above,  and  projected  six  feet  be- 
yond the  walls  of  the  fort.  The  intermediate  walls 
were  made  up  with  dwelling-houses,  made  of  wood, 
whose  ends  were  whip-sawed  into  timbers  four 
inches  thick,  and  of  the  requisite  width  and  length. 
These  were  laid  up  similar  to  the  structure  of  log 
houses,  with  the  ends  nicely  dove-tailed  together. 
The  whole  were  two  stories  high ,  and  covered  with 
shingle  roofs.  Convenient  chimneys  were  erected 
of  bricks,  for  cooking,  and  warming  the  rooms.  A 
number  of  the  dwellings  were  built  and  owned  by 
individuals  who  had  families.  In  the  west  and 
south  fronts  were  strong  gateways ;  and  over  the 
one  in  the  center  of  the  front  looking  to  the  Mus- 
kingum River,  was  a  belfry.  The  chamber  beneath 
was  occupied  by  Winthrop  Sargeant,  as  an  office, 
he  being  Secretary  to  the  Governor,  and  perform- 
ing the  duties  of  the  office  during  St.  Clair's  ab- 
sence. This  room  projected  over  the  gateway, like 
a  block-house,  and  was  intended  for  the  protection 
of  the  gate  beneath,  in  time  of  an  assault.  At 
the  outer  corner  of  each  block-house  was  erected  a 
bastion,  standing  on  four  stout  timbers.  The  floor 
of  the  bastion  was  a  little  above  the  lower  story  of 
the  block -house.  They  were  square,  and  built  up 
to  the  height  of  a  man's  head,  so  that,  when  he 
looked  over,  he  stepped  on  a  narrow  platform  or 
"  banquet "  running  around  the  sides  of  the  bulwark. 
Port-holes  were  made,  for  musketry  as  well  as  for 
artillery,  a  single  piece  of  which  was  mounted  in 
the  southwest  and  northeast  bastions.  In  these, 
the  sentries  were  regularly  posted  every  night,  as 
more  convenient  than  the  towers  ;  a  door  leading 
into  them  from  the  upper  story  of  the  block-houses. 
The  lower  room  of  the  southwest  block-house  was 
occupied  as  a  guard-house. 

"  Running  from  corner  to  corner  of  the  block- 
houses was  a  row  of  palisades,  sloping  outward. 





and  resting  on  stout  rails.  Twenty  feet  in  advance 
of  these,  was  a  row  of  very  strong  and  large  pick- 
ets, set  upright  in  the  earth.  Gateways  through 
these,  admitted  the  inmates  of  the  garrison.  A 
few  feet  beyond  the  row  of  outer  palisades  was 
placed  a  row  of  abattis,  made  from  the  tops  and 
branches  of  trees,  sharpened  and  pointing  outward, 
so  that  it  would  have  been  very  difficult  for  an 
enemy  to  have  penetrated  within  their  outworks. 
The  dwelling-houses  occupied  a  space  from  fifteen 
to  thirty  feet  each,  and  were  sufficient  for  the  ac- 
commodation of  forty  or  fifty  families,  and  did 
actually  contain  from  two  hundred  to  three  hun- 
dred persons  during  the  Indian  war. 

"  Before  the  Indians  commenced  hostilities,  the 
block-houses  were  occupied  as  follows :  The  south- 
west one,  by  the  family  of  Gov.  St.  Clair ;  the 
northeast  one  as  an  office  fur  the  Directors  of  the 
Company.  The  area  within  the  walls  was  one 
hundred  and  forty-four  feet  square,  and  afi'orded  a 
fine  parade  ground.  In  the  center,  was  a  well 
eighty  feet  in  depth,  for  the  supply  of  water  to  the 
inhabitants,  in  case  of  a  siege.  A  large  sun-dial 
stood  for  many  years  in  the  square,  placed  on  a 
handsome  post,  and  gave  note  of  the  march  of 

"  After  the  war  commenced,  a  regular  military 
corps  was  organized,  and  a  guard  constantly  kept 
night  and  day.  The  whole  establishment  formed 
a  very  strong  work,  and  reflected  great  credit  on 
the  head  that  planned  it.  It  was  in  a  manner  im- 
pregnable to  the  attacks  of  Indians,  and  none 
but  a  regular  army  with  cannon  could  have  reduced 
it.     The  Indians  possessed  no  such  an  armament. 

"  The  garrison  stood  on  the  verge  of  that  beauti- 
ful plain  overlooking  the  Muskingum,  on  which 
are  seated  those  celebrated  remains  of  antiquity, 
erected  probably  for  a  similar  purpose — the  defense 
of  the  inhabitants.  The  ground  descends  into  shal- 
low ravines  on  the  north  and  south  sides ;  on  the 
west  is  an  abrupt  descent  to  the  river  bottoms  or 
alluvium,  and  the  east  passed  out  to  a  level  plain. 
On  this,  the  ground  was  cleared  of  trees  beyond 
the  reach  of  rifle  shots,  so  as  to  affiird  no  shelter 
to  a  hidden  foe.  Extensive  fields  of  corn  were 
grown  in  the  midst  of  the  standing  girdled  trees  be- 
yond, in  after  years.  The  front  wall  of  palisades 
was  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  yards  from  the 
Muskingum  River.  The  ajipearance  of  the  fort 
from  without  was  imposing,  at  a  little  distance  re- 
sembling the  military  castles  of  the  feudal  ages. 
Between  the  outer  palisades  and  the  river  were 
laid  out  neat  gardens  for  the  use  of  Gov.  St.  Clair 

and  his  Secretary,  with  the  officers  of  the  Com- 

"  Opposite  the  fort,  on  the  shore  of  the  river, 
was  built  a  substantial  timber  wharf,  at  which  was 
moored  a  fine  cedar  barge  for  twelve  rowers,  built 
by  Capt.  Jonathan  Devol,  for  Gen.  Putnam ;  a 
number  of  pii'ogues,  and  the  light  canoes  of  the 
country  ;  and  last,  not  least,  the  Mayflower,  or 
'  Adventure  Galley,'  in  which  the  first  detach- 
ments of  colonists  were  transported  from  the  shores 
of  the  '  Yohiogany '  to  the  banks  of  the  Muskingum. 
In  these,  especially  the  canoes,  during  the  war, 
most  of  the  communications  were  carried  on  between 
the  settlements  of  the  Company  and  the  more  re- 
mote towns  above  on  the  Ohio  River.  Traveling 
by  land  was  very  hazardous  to  any  but  the  rangers 
or  spies.  There  were  no  roads,  nor  bridges  across 
the  creeks,  and,  for  many  years  after  the  war  had 
ceased,  the  traveling  was  nearly  all  done  by  canoes 
on  the  river." 

Thus  the  first  settlement  of  Ohio  provided  for 
its  safety  and  comfort,  and  provided  also  for  that 
of  emigrants  who  came  to  share  the  toils  of  the 

The  next  spring,  the  influx  of  emigration  was 
so  great  that  other  settlements  were  determined, 
and  hence  arose  the  colonies  of  Belpre,  Waterford 
and  Duck  Creek,  where  they  began  to  clear  land,  sow 
and  plant  crops,  and  build  houses  and  stockades. 
At  Belpre  (French  for  "beautiful  meadow"),  were 
built  three  stockades,  the  upper,  lower  and  middle, 
the  last  of  which  was  called  "  Farmers'  Castle," 
and  stood  on  the  banks  of  the  Ohio,  nearly  oppo- 
site an  island,  afterward  famous  in  Western  history 
as  Blennerhasset's  Island,  the  scene  of  Burr's  con- 
spiracy. Among  the  persons  settling  at  the  upper 
stockade,  were  Capts.  Dana  and  Stone,  Col.  Bent, 
William  Browning,  Judge  Foster,  John  Rowse, 
Israel  Stone  and  a  Mr.  Keppel.  At  the  Farmers' 
Castle,  were  Cols.  Gushing  and  Fisher,  Maj.  Has- 
kell, Aaron  Waldo  Putnam,  Mr.  Sparhawk,  and, 
it  is  believed,  George  and  Israel  Putnam,  Jr.  At 
the  lower,  were  Maj.  Goodale,  Col.  Rice,  Esquire 
Pierce,  Judge  Israel  Loring,  Deacon  Miles,  Maj. 
Bradford  and  Mr.  Goodenow.  In  the  summer  of 
1789,  Col.  Ichabod  Nye  and  some  others,  built  a 
block-house  at  Newberry,  below  Belpre.  Col.  Nye 
sold  his  lot  there  to  Aaron  W.  Clough,  who,  with 
Stephen  Guthrie,  Joseph  Leavins,  Joel  Oakes, 
]^]leazer  Curtis,  JVIr.  Denham  J.  Littleton  and  Mr. 
Brown,  was  located  at  that  place. 

"Every  exertion  possible,"  says  Dr.  Hildreth, 
who  has  preserved  the  above  names  and  incidents, 



"for  men  in  these  circumstances,  was  made  to  se- 
cure food  for  future  difficulties.  Col.  Oliver,  3Iuj. 
Hatfield  White  and  John  Dod<z;e,  of  the  Water- 
ford  settlement,  began  mills  oa  Wolf  Creek,  about 
three  miles  from  the  fort,  and  got  them  running; 
and  these,  the  first  mills  in  Ohio,  were  never  de- 
stroyed during  the  subsequent  Indian  war,  though 
the  proprietors  removed  their  faniiles  to  the  fort 
at  Marietta.  Col.  E.  Sproat  and  Enoch  Shep- 
herd began  mills  on  Duck  Creek,  three  miles  from 
Marietta,  from  the  completion  of  which  they  were 
driven  by  the  Indian  war.  Thomas  Stanley  be- 
gan mills  farther  up,  near  the  Duck  Creek  settle- 
ment. These  were  likewise  unfinished.  The  Ohio 
Company  built  a  large  horse  mill  near  Campus 
Martius,  and  soon  after  a  floating  mill." 

The  autumn  before  the  settlements  at  Belpre, 
Duck  Creek  and  Waterford,  were  made,  a  colony 
was  planted  near  the  mouth  of  the  Little  IMiami 
River,  on  a  tract  of  ten  thousand  acres,  purchased 
from  Sy mines  by  Maj.  Benjamin  Stites.  In  the  pre- 
ceding pages  may  be  found  a  history  of  Symmes' 
purchase.  This  colony  may  be  counted  the  second 
settlement  in  the  State.  Soon  after  the  colony  at 
Marietta  was  founded,  steps  were  taken  to  occupy 
separate  portions  of  Judge  Symmes'  purchase,  be- 
tween the  Miami  Rivers.  Three  parties  were 
formed  for  this  purpose,  but,  owing  to  various 
delays,  chiefly  in  getting  the  present  colony  stead- 
fast and  safe  from  future  encroachments  by  the 
savages,  they  did  not  get  started  till  late  in  the  fall. 
The  first  of  these  parties,  consisting  of  fifteen  or 
twenty  men,  led  by  31  aj.  Stites,  landed  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Little  Miami  in  November,  1788, 
and,  constructing  a  log  fort,  began  to  lay  out  a 
village,  called  by  them  Columbia.  It  soon  grew 
into  prominence,  and,  before  winter  had  thoroughly 
set  in,  they  were  well  prepared  for  a  fi-ontier  life. 
In  the  party  were  Cols.  Spencer  and  Brown,  Majs. 
Gauo  and  Kibbey,  Judges  Goforth  and  Foster, 
Rev.  John  Smith,  Francis  Dunlavy,  Capt.  Flina, 
Jacob  White,  John  Riley,  and  Mr.  Hubbell. 

All  these  were  men  of  energy  and  enterprise, 
and,  with  their  comrades,  were  more  numerous 
than  either  of  the  other  parties,  who  commenced 
their  settlements  below  them  on  the  Ohio.  This 
village  was  also,  at  first,  more  flourishing;  and,  for 
two  or  three  years,  contained  more  inhabitants 
than  any  other  in  the  Miami  purchase. 

The  second  IMiami  party  was  formed  at  Lime- 
stone, under  Matthias  Denham  and  Robert  Pat- 
terson, and  consisted  of  twelve  or  fifteen  persons. 
They  landed  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Ohio,  oppo- 

site the  mouth  of  the  Licking  River,  the  24th  of 

December,  1788.  They  intended  to  establish  a 
station  and  lay  out  a  town  on  a  plan  prepared  at 
Limestone.  Some  statements  affirm  that  the  town 
was  to  be  called  "  L-vs-aati-vilk-,'^  by  a  romantic 
school-teacher  named  Filson.  However,  be  this  as 
it  may,  Mr,  Filson  was,  unfortunately  for  himself, 
not  long  after,  slain  by  the  Indians,  and,  with  him 
probably,  the  name  disappeared.  He  was  to  have 
one-third  interest  in  the  proposed  city,  which, 
when  his  death  occurred,  was  transferred  to  Israel 
Ludlow,  and  a  new  plan  of  a  city  adopted.  Israel 
Ludlow  surveyed  the  proposed  town,  lots  were 
principally  donated  to  settlers  upon  certain  condi- 
tions as  to  settlement  and  improvement,  and  the 
embryo  city  named  Cincinnati.  Gov.  St.  Clair 
very  likely  had  something  to  do  with  the  naming 
of  the  village,  and,  by  some,  it  is  asserted  that  he 
changed  the  name  from  Losantiville  to  Cincinnati, 
when  he  created  the  county  of  Hamilton  the  en- 
suing winter.  Tlie  original  purchase  of  the  city'.'j 
site  was  made  by  Mr.  Denham.  It  included  about 
eight  hundred  acres,  for  which  he  paid  5  shillings 
per  acre  in  Continental  certificates,  then  worth,  in 
specie,  about  5  shillings  per  pound,  gross  weight. 
Evidently,  the  original  site  was  a  good  investment, 
could  Mr.  Denham  have  lived  long  enough  to  see 
its  present  condition. 

The  third  party  of  settlers  for  the  Miami  pur- 
chase, were  under  the  care  of  Judge  Symmes, 
himself  They  left  Limestone,  January  20,  1789, 
and  were  much  delayed  on  their  downward  jour- 
ney by  the  ice  in  the  river.  They  reached  the 
'•  Bend,''  as  it  was  then  known,  early  in  February. 
The  Judge  had  intended  to  found  a  city  here, 
which,  in  time,  would  be  the  rival  of  the  Atlantic 
cities.  As  each  of  the  three  settlements  aspired 
to  the  same  position,  no  little  rivalry  soon  mani- 
fested itself  The  Judge  named  liis  proposed  city 
North  Bend,  from  the  fact  that  it  was  the  most 
northern  bend  in  the  Ohio  below  the  mouth  of  the 
Great  Kanawha.  These  three  settlements  ante- 
dated, a  few  months,  those  made  near  Marietta, 
already  described.  They  arose  so  soon  after,  partly 
fi-om  the  extreme  desire  of  Judge  Symmes  to  settle 
his  purchase,  and  induce  emigration  here  instead 
of  on  the  Ohio  Company's  purchase.  The  Judge 
labored  earnestly  for  this  purpose  and  to  further 
secure  him  in  his  title  to  the  land  he  had  acquired, 
all  of  which  he  had  so  far  been  unable  to  retain, 
owing  to  his  inability  to  meet  his  payments. 

All  these  emigrants  came  down  the  river  in  the 
flat-boats  of  the  day,  rude  affairs,  sometimes  called 




"  Arks,"  and  then  the  only  safe  mode  of  travel  in 
the  West. 

Judge  Symmcs  found  he  must  provide  for  the 
safety  of  the  settlers  on  his  purchase,  and,  after 
earnestly  soliciting  Gen.  Harmar,  commander  of 
the  Western  posts,  succeeded  in  obtaining  a  de- 
tachment of  forty-eight  men,  under  Capt.  Kearsey, 
to  protect  the  improvements  just  commencing  on 
the  Miami.  This  detachment  reached  Limestone 
in  December,  1788.  Part  was  at  once  sent  for- 
ward to  guard  Maj.  Stites  and  his  pioneers.  Judge 
Symmes  and  his  party  started  in  January,  and, 
about  February  2,  reached  Columbia,  where  the 
Captain  expected  to  find  a  fort  erected  for  his  use 
and  shelter.  The  flood  on  the  river,  however,  de- 
feated his  purpose,  and,  as  he  was  unprepared  to 
erect  another,  he  determined  to  go  on  down  to  the 
garrison  at  the  falls  at  Louisville.  Judge  Symmes 
was  strenuously  opposed  to  his  conduct,  as  it  left 
the  colonies  unguarded,  but,  all  to  no  purpose;  the 
Captain  and  his  command,  went  to  Louisville  early 
in  March,  and  left  the  Judge  and  his  settlement 
to  protect  themselves.  Judge  Symmes  immedi- 
ately sent  a  strong  letter  to  Maj.  Willis,  command- 
ing at  the  Falls,  complaining  of  the  conduct 
of  Capt.  Kearsey,  representing  the  exposed  situ- 
ation of  the  Miami  settlements,  stating  the  indi- 
cations of  hostility  manifested  by  the  Indians, 
and  requesting  a  guard  to  be  sent  to  the  Bend. 
This  request  was  at  once  granted,  and  Ensign 
Luce,  with  seventeen  or  eighteen  soldiers,  sent. 
They  were  at  the  settlement  but  a  short  time, 
when  they  were  attacked  by  Indians,  and  one  of 
their  number  killed,  and  four  or  five  wounded. 
They  repulsed  the  savages  and  saved  the  set- 

The  site  of  Symmes  City,  for  such  he  designed  it 
should  ultimately  be  called,  was  above  the  reach  of 
water,  and  sufficiently  level  to  admit  of  a  conven- 
ient settlement.  The  city  laid  out  by  Symmes 
was  truly  magnificent  on  paper,  and  promised  in 
the  future  to  fulfill  his  most  ardent  hopes.  The 
plat  included  the  village,  and  extended  across  the 
peninsula  between  the  Ohio  and  Miami  Rivers. 
Each  settler  on  this  plat  was  promised  a  lot  if  he 
would  improve  it,  and  in  conformity  to  the  stipu- 
lation, Judge  Symmes  soon  found  a  large  number 
of  persons  applying  for  residence.  As  the  number 
of  these  adventurers  increased,  in  consequence  of 
this  provision  and  the  protection  of  the  military, 
the  Judge  was  induced  to  lay  out  another  village 
six  or  seven  miles  up  the  river,  which  he  called 
South  Bend,  where  he  disposed  of  some  donation 

lots,  but  the  project  failing,  the  village  site  was  de- 
serted, and  converted  into  a  farm. 

During  all  the  time  these  various  events  wei-e 
transpiring,  but  little  trouble  was  experienced  with 
the  Indians.  They  were  not  yet  disposed  to  evince 
hostile  feelings.  This  would  have  been  their  time, 
but,  not  realizing  the  true  intent  of  the  whites  until 
it  was  too  late  to  conquer  them,  they  allowed  them 
to  become  prepared  to  withstand  a  warfare,  and  in 
the  end  were  obliged  to  suff'er  their  hunting-grounds 
to  be  taken  from  them,  and  made  the  homes  of  a 
race  destined  to  entirely  supersede  them  in  the 
New  World. 

By  the  means  sketched  in  the  foregoing  pages, 
were  the  three  settlements  on  the  Miami  made.  By 
the  time  those  adjacent  to  Marietta  were  well  estab- 
lished, these  were  firmly  fixed,  each  one  striving  to 
become  the  rival  city  all  felt  sure  was  to  arise.  For 
a  time  it  was  a  matter  of  doubt  which  of  the  rivals, 
Columbia,  North  Bend  or  Cincinnati,  would  event- 
ually become  the  chief  seat  of  business. 

In  the  beginning,  Columbia,  the  eldest  of  the 
three,  took  the  lead,  both  in  number  of  its  in- 
habitants and  the  convenience  and  appearance  of 
its  dwellings.  For  a  time  it  was  a  flourishing  place, 
and  many  believed  it  would  become  the  great  busi- 
ness town  of  the  Miami  country.  That  apparent 
fact,  however,  lasted  but  a  short  time.  The  garri- 
son was  moved  to  Cincinnati,  Fort  Washington 
built  there,  and  in  spite  of  all  that  Maj.  Stites,  or 
Judge  Symmes  could  do,  that  place  became  the 
metropolis.  Fort  Washington,  the  most  extensive 
garrison  in  the  West,  was  built  by  Maj.  Doughty, 
in  the  summer  of  1789,  and  from  that  time  the 
growth  and  future  greatness  of  Cincinnati  were 

The  first  house  in  the  city  was  built  on  Front 
street,  east  of  and  near  Main  street.  It  was 
simply  a  strong  log  cabin,  and  was  erected  of  the 
forest  trees  cleared  away  from  the  ground  on  which 
it  stood.  The  lower  part  of  the  town  was  covered 
with  sycamore  and  maple  trees,  and  the  upper  with 
beech  and  oak.  Through  this  dense  forest  the 
streets  were  laid  out,  and  their  cornel's  marked  on 
the  trees. 

The  settlements  on  the  Miami  had  become 
sufficiently  numerous  to  warrant  a  separate  county, 
and,  in  January,  171H),  Gov.  St.  Clair  and  his 
Secretary  arrived  in  Cincinnati,  and  organized  the 
county  of  Hamilton,  so  named  in  honor  of  the 
illustrious  statesman  by  that  name.  It  included 
all  the  country  north  of  the  Ohio,  between  the 
Miamis,  as  far  as  a  line  running  "  due  east  from  the 




Standing  Stone  forks  "  of  Big  Miami  to  its  inter- 
section with  the  Little  Miami.  The  erection  of 
the  new  county,  and  the  appointment  of  Cincin- 
nati to  be  the  seat  of  justice,  gave  the  town  a  fresh 
impulse,  and  aided  greatly  in  its  growth. 

Through  the  summer,  but  little  interruption  in 
the  growth  of  the  settlements  occurred.  The 
Indians  had  permitted  the  erection  of  defensive 
works  in  their  midst,  and  could  not  now  destroy 
them.  They  were  also  engaged  in  traffic  with  the 
whites,  and,  though  they  evinced  signs  of  discon- 
tent at  their  settlement  and  occupation  of  the 
country,  yet  did  not  openly  attack  them.  The 
truth  was,  they  saw  plainly  the  whites  were  always 
prepared,  and  no  opportunity  was  given  them  to 
plunder  and  destroy.  The  Indian  would  not 
attack  unless  success  was  almost  sure.  An  oppor- 
tunity, unfortunately,  came,  and  with  it  the  hor- 
rors of  an  Indian  war. 

In  the  autumn  of  1790,  a  company  of  thirty- 
six  men  went  from  Marietta  to  a  place  on  the 
Muskingum  known  as  the  Big  Bottom.  Here 
they  built  a  block-house,  on  the  east  bank  of  the 
river,  four  miles  above  the  mouth  of  Meigs  Creek. 
They  were  chiefly  young,  single  men,  but  little 
ac((uainted  with  Indian  warfare  or  military  rules. 
The  savages  had  given  signs  that  an  attack  on  the 
settlement  was  meditated,  and  several  of  the  know- 
ing ones  at  the  strongholds  strenuously  opposed 
any  new  settlements  that  fall,  advising  their  post- 
ponement until  the  next  spring,  when  the  question 
of  peace  or  war  would  probably  be  settled.  Even 
Gren.  Putnam  and  the  Directors  of  the  Ohio  Com- 
pany advised  the  postponement  of  the  settlement 
until  the  next  spring. 

The  young  men  were  impatient  and  restless,  and 
declared  themselves  able  to  protect  their  fort 
against  any  number  of  assailants.  They  might 
have  easily  done  so,  had  they  taken  the  necessary 
precautions ;  but,  after  they  had  erected  a  rude 
block-house  of  unchinked  logs,  they  began  to  pass 
the  time  iu  various  pursuits ;  setting  no  guard,  and 
taking  no  precautionary  measures,  they  left  them- 
selves an  easy  prey  to  any  hostile  savages  that 
might  choose  to  come  and  attack  them. 

About  twenty  rods  from  the  block-house,  and  a 
little  back  from  the  bank  of  the  river,  two  men, 
Francis  and  Isaac  Choate,  members  of  the  com- 
pany, had  erected  a  cabin,  and  commenced  clearing 
lots.  Thomas  Shaw,  a  hired  laborer,  and  James 
Patten,  another  of  the  a.ssociates,  lived  with  them. 
About  the  same  distance  below  the  block-house 
was   an    old  "Tomahawk    Improvement"   and    a 

small  cabin,  which  two  men,  Asa  and  Eleazur 
BuUard,  had  fitted  up  and  occupied.  The  Indian 
war-path,  from  Sandusky  to  the  mouth  of  the 
Muskingum,  passed  along  the  opposite  shore  of 
the  river. 

"  The  Indians,  who,  during  the  summer,"  says 
Dr.  Hildreth,  "  had  been  hunting  and  loitering 
about  the  Wolf  Creek  and  Plaiufield  settlements, 
holding  frequent  and  friendly  intercourse  with  the 
settlers,  selling  them  venison  and  bear's  meat  in  ex- 
change for  green  corn  and  vegetables,  had  with- 
drawn and  gone  up  the  river,  early  in  the  au- 
tumn, to  their  towns,  preparatory  to  going  into 
winter  quarters.  They  very  seldom  entered  on 
any  warlike  expeditions  during  the  cold  weather. 
But  they  had  watched  the  gradual  encroach- 
ment of  the  whites  and  planned  an  expedition 
against  them.  They  saw  them  in  fancied  security 
in  their  cabins,  and  thought  their  capture  an  easy 
task.  It  is  said  they  were  not  aware  of  the  Big 
Bottom  settlement  until  they  came  in  sight  of  it, 
on  the  opposite  shore  of  the  river,  in  the  afternoon. 
From  a  high  hill  opposite  the  garrison,  they  had  a 
view  of  all  that  part  of  the  bottom,  and  could  see 
how  the  men  were  occupied  and  what  was  doing 
about  the  block-house.  It  was  not  protected  with 
palisades  or  pickets,  and  none  of  the  men  were 
aware  or  prepared  for  an  attack.  Having  laid 
their  plans,  about  twilight  they  crossed  the  river 
above  the  garrison,  on  the  ice,  and  divided  their 
men  into  two  parties — the  larger  one  to  attack  the 
block-house,  the  smaller  one  to  capture  the  cabins. 
As  the  Indians  cautiously  approached  the  cabin 
they  found  the  inmates  at  supper.  Part  entered, 
addressed  the  whites  in  a  friendly  manner,  but 
soon  manifesting  their  designs,  made  them  all  pris- 
oners, tieing  tbem  with  leather  thongs  they  found 
in  the  cabin." 

At  the  block-house  the  attack  was  far  different. 
A  stout  Mohawk  suddenly  burst  open  the  door, 
the  first  intimation  the  inmates  had  of  the  pres- 
ence of  the  foe,  and  while  he  held  it  open  his 
comrades  shot  down  those  that  were  within.  Rush- 
ing in,  the  deadly  tomahawk  completed  the  on- 
slaught. In  the  assault,  one  of  the  savages  was 
struck  by  the  wife  of  Isaac  Woods,  with  an  ax, 
but  only  slightly  injured.  The  heroic  woman  was 
immediately  slain.  All  the  men  but  two  were 
slain  before  they  had  time  to  secure  their  arms, 
thereby  paying  for  their  failure  to  properly  secure 
themselves,  with  their  lives.  The  two  excepted 
were  John  Stacy  and  his  brother  Philip,  a  lad  six- 
teen years   of  age.     John   escaped    to   the   roof, 




where  he  was  shot  by  the  Indians,  while  begging 
for  his  Ufe.  The  firing  at  the  block-house  alarmed 
the  Bullards  in  their  cabin,  and  hastily  barring  the 
door,  and  securing  their  arms  and  ammunition,  they 
fled  to  the  woods,  and  escaped.  After  the  slaughter 
was  over,  the  Indians  began  to  collect  the  plunder, 
and  in  doing  so  discovered  the  lad  Philip  Stacy. 
They  were  about  to  dispatch  him,  but  his  entrea- 
ties softened  the  heart  of  one  of  the  chiefs,  who 
took  him  as  a  captive  with  the  intention  of  adopt- 
ing him  into  his  family.  The  savages  then  piled 
the  dead  bodies  on  the  floor,  covered  them  with 
other  portions  of  it  not  needed  for  that  purpose, 
and  set  fire  to  the  whole.  The  building,  being 
made  of  green  logs,  did  not  burn,  the  flames  con- , 
suming  only  the  floors  and  roof,  leaving  the  walls 

There  were  twelve  persons  killed  in  this  attack, 
all  of  whom  were  in  the  prime  of  life,  and  valuable 
aid  to  the  settlements.  They  were  well  provided 
with  arms,  and  had  they  taken  the  necessary  pre- 
cautions, always  pressed  upon  them  when  visited 
by  the  older  ones  from  Marietta,  they  need  not 
have  suffered  so  terrible  a  fate. 

The  Indians,  exultant  over  their  horrible  victory, 
went  on  to  Wolf's  mills,  but  here  they  found  the 
people  prepared,  and,  after  reconnoitering  the  place, 
made  their  retreat,  at  early  dawn,  to  the  great  re- 
lief of  the  inhabitants.  Their  number  was  never 
definitely  known. 

The  news  reached  IMarietta  and  its  adjacent 
settlements  soon  after  the  massacre  occurred,  and 
struck  terror  and  dismay  into  the  hearts  of  all. 
Many  had  brothers  and  sons  in  the  ill-fated  party, 
and  mourned  their  loss.  Neither  did  they  know 
what  place  would  fall  next.  The  Indian  hostilities 
had  begun,  and  they  could  only  hope  for  peace 
when  the  savages  were  eff"ectually  conquered. 

The  next  day,  Capt.  Ptogers  led  a  party  of  men 
over  to  the  Big  Bottom.  It  was,  indeed,  a  melan- 
choly sight  to  the  poor  borderers,  as  they  knew  not 
now  how  soon  the  same  fate  might  befall  them- 
selves. The  fire  had  so  disfigured  their  comrades 
that  but  two,  Ezra  Putnam  and  William  Jones, 
were  recognized.  As  the  ground  was  frozen  out- 
side, a  hole  was  dug  in  the  earth  underneath  the 
block-house  floor,  and  the  bodies  consigned  to  one 
grave.  No  further  attempt  was  made  to  settle 
here  till  after  the  peace  of  1795. 

The  outbreak  of  Indian  hostilities  put  a  check 
on  further  settlements.  Those  that  were  estab- 
lished were  put  in  a  more  active  state  of  defense, 
and  every  preparation  made  that  could  be   made 

for  the  impending  crisis  all  felt  sure  must  come. 
Either  the  Indians  must  go,  or  the  whites  must 
retreat.  A  few  hardy  and  adventurous  persons 
ventured  out  into  the  woods  and  made  settle- 
ments, but  even  these  were  at  the  imminent  risk 
of  their  lives,  many  of  them  perishing  in  the 

The  Indian  war  that  followed  is  given  fully  in 
preceding  pages.  It  may  be  briefly  sketched  by 
stating  that  the  first  campaign,  under  Gen  Ilar- 
mar,  ended  in  the  defeat  of  his  army  at  the  Indian 
villages  on  the  Miami  of  the  lake,  and  the  rapid 
retreat  to  Fort  Washington.  St.  Clair  v/as  next 
commissioned  to  lead  an  army  of  nearly  three  thou- 
sand men,  but  these  were  furiously  attacked  at 
break  of  day,  on  the  morning  of  November  4, 
1791,  and  utterly  defeated.  Indian  outrages 
sprung  out  anew  after  each  defeat,  and  the  borders 
were  in  a  continual  state  of  alarm.  The  most  ter- 
rible sufi"erings  were  endured  by  prisoners  in  the 
hands  of  the  savage  foe,  who  thought  to  annihilate 
the  whites. 

The  army  was  at  once  re-organized.  Gen.  An- 
thony Wayne  put  in  command  by  Washington, 
and  a  vigorous  campaign  inaugurated.  Though 
the  savages  had  been  given  great  aid  by  the  Brit- 
ish, in  direct  violation  of  the  treaty  of  1783,  Gen. 
Wayne  pursued  them  so  vigorously  that  they  could 
not  withstand  his  army,  and,  the  l^Oth  of  August, 
1794,  defeated  them,  and  utterly  annihilated  their 
forces,  breaking  up  their  camps,  and  laying  waste 
their  country,  in  some  places  under  the  guns  of 
the  British  forts.  The  victory  showed  them  the 
hopelessness  of  contending  against  the  whites,  and 
led  their  chiefs  to  sue  for  peace.  The  British,  as 
at  former  times,  deserted  them,  and  they  were  again 
alone,  contending  against  an  invincible  foe.  A 
grand  council  was  held  at  Greenville  the  3d  day 
of  August,  1795,  where  eleven  of  the  most  power- 
ful chiefs  made  peace  with  Gen.  Wayne  on  terms 
of  his  own  dictation.  The  boundary  established 
by  the  old  treaty  of  Fort  Mcintosh  was  confirmed, 
and  extended  westward  from  Loramie's  to  Fort 
Recovery,  and  thence  southwest  to  the  mouth  of 
the  Kentucky  River.  He  also  purchased  all  the 
territory  not  before  ceded,  within  certain  limits, 
comprehending,  in  all,  about  four-fifths  of  the  State 
of  Ohio.  The  line  was  long  known  as  "  The  Green- 
ville Treaty  line."  Upon  these,  and  a  few  other 
minor  conditions,  the  United  States  received  the 
Indians  under  their  protection,  gave  them  a  large 
number  of  presents,  and  practically  closed  the  war 
with  the  savages. 




The  only  settlement  of  any  consequence  made  dur- 
ing the  Indian  war,  was  that  on  the  plat  of  Hamilton, 
laid  out  by  Israel  Ludlow  in  December,  1794.  Soon 
after,  Darius  C.  Orcutt,  John  Green,  William  Mc- 
Clennan,  John  Sutherland,Jolin  Torrence,  Benjamin 
F.Randolph,  Benjamin  Davis,  Isaac  Wiles,  Andrew 
Christy  and  William  Hubert,  located  here.  The 
town  was  laid  out  under  the  name  of  Fairfield,  but 
was  known  only  a  short  time  by  that  name.  Until 
1801,  all  the  lands  on  the  west  side  of  the  Great 
Miami  were  owned  by  the  General  Government ; 
hence,  vintil  after  that  date,  no  improvements  were 
made  there.  A  single  log  cabin  stood  there  until 
the  sale  of  lands  in  April,  1801,  when  a  company 
purchased  the  site  of  Rossville,  and,  in  March, 
180-1,  laid  out  that  town,  and,  before  a  year  had 
passed,  the  town  and  country  about  it  was  well 

The  close  of  the  war,  in  1795,  insured  peace, 
and,  from  that  date,  Hamilton  and  that  part  of  the 
Miami  Valley  grew  remarkably  fast.  In  1803, 
Butler  County  was  formed,  and  Hamilton  made 
the  county  seat. 

On  the  site  of  Hamilton,  St.  Clair  built  Fort 
Hamilton  in  1791.  For  some  time  it  was  under 
the  command  of  Maj.  Rudolph,  a  cruel,  arbitrary 
man,  who  was  displaceSHBy  Gen.  Wayne,  and  who, 
it  is  said,  perished  ignobly  on  the  high  seas,  at  the 
hands  of  some  Algerine  pirates,  a  fitting  end  to  a 
man  who  caused,  more  than  once,  the  death  of 
men  under  his  control  for  minor  offenses. 

On  the  return  of  peace,  no  part  of  Ohio  grew 
more  rapidly  than  the  Miami  Valley,  especially 
that  part  comprised  in  Butler  County. 

While  the  war  with  the  Indians  continued,  but 
little  extension  of  settlements  was  made  in  the 
State.  It  was  too  perilous,  and  the  settlers  pre- 
ferred the  security  of  the  block-house  or  to  engage 
with  the  army.  Still,  however,  a  few  bold  spirits 
ventured  away  from  the  settled  parts  of  the  Terri- 
tory, and  began  life  in  the  wilderness.  In  tracing 
the  histories  of  these  settlements,  attention  will  be 
paid  to  the  order  in  which  they  were  made.  They 
will  be  given  somewhat  in  detail  until  the  war  of 
1812,  after  which  time  they  become  too  numerous 
to  follow. 

The  settlements  made  in  Washington — Marietta 
and  adjacent  colonies — and  Hamilton  Counties 
have  already  been  given.  The  settlement  at  Gal- 
lia is  also  noted,  hence,  the  narration  can  be  re- 
sumed where  it  ends  prior  to  the  Indian  war  of 
1795.  Before  this  war  occurred,  there  were  three 
small  settlements  made,   however,  in  addition  to 

those  in  Washington  and  Hamilton  Counties. 
They  were  in  what  are  now  Adams,  Belmont  and 
Morgan  Counties.  They  were  block-house  settle- 
ments, and  were  in  a  continual  state  of  defense. 
The  first  of  these,  Adams,  was  settled  in  the  winter 
of  1790-91  by  Gen.  Nathaniel  Massie,  near  where 
Manchester  now  is.  Gen.  Massie  determined  to 
settle  here  in  the  Virginia  Military  Tract— in  the 
winter  of  1790,  and  sent  notice  throughout  Ken- 
tucky and  other  Western  settlements  that  he  would 
give  to  each  of  the  first  twenty-five  families  who 
would  settle  in  the  town  he  proposed  laying  out, 
one  in-lot,  one  out-lot  and  one  hundred  acres  of 
land.  Such  liberal  terms  were  soon  accepted,  and 
in  a  short  time  thirty  families  were  ready  to  go 
with  him.  After  various  consultations  with  his 
friends,  the  bottom  on  the  Ohio  River,  opposite 
the  lower  of  the  Three  Islands,  was  selected  as 
the  most  eligible  spot.  Here  Massie  fixed  his  sta- 
tion, and  laid  off  into  lots  a  town,  now  called 
iManchester.  The  little  confederacy,  with  Massie 
at  the  helm,  went  to  work  with  spirit.  Cabins 
were  raised,  and  by  the  middle  of  March, 
1791,  the  whole  town  was  inclosed  with  strong 
pickets,  with  block-houses  at  each  angle  for  de- 

This  was  the  first  settlement  in  the  bounds  of 
the  Virginia  District,  and  the  fourth  one  in  the 
State.  Although  in  the  midst  of  a  savage  foe, 
now  inflamed  with  war,  and  in  the  midst  of  a 
cruel  conflict,  the  settlement  at  Manchester  suf- 
fered less  than  any  of  its  cotemporaries.  This 
was,  no  doubt,  due  to  the  watchful  care  of  its  in- 
habitants, who  were  inured  to  the  rigors  of  a  front- 
ier life,  and  who  well  knew  the  danger  about  them. 
"  These  were  the  Beasleys,  Stouts,  Washburns, 
Ledoms,  Edgingtons,  Denings,  Ellisons,  Utts, 
McKcnzies,  Wades,  and  others,  who  were  fully 
equal  to  the  Indians  in  all  the  savage  arts  and 
stratagems  of  border  war." 

As  soon  as  they  had  completed  preparations  for 
defense,  the  whole  population  went  to  work  and 
cleared  the  lowest  of  the  Three  Islands,  and  jilanted 
it  in  corn.  The  soil  of  the  island  was  very  rich, 
and  produced  abundantly.  The  woods  supplied  an 
abundance  of  game,  while  the  river  furnished  a 
variety  of  excellent  fish.  The  inhabitants  thus 
found  their  simple  wants  fully  supplied.  Their 
nearest  neighbors  in  the  new  Territory  were  at 
Columbia,  and  at  the  French  settlement  at  Gallip- 
olis;  but  with  these,  owing  to  the  state  of  the 
country  and  the  Indian  war,  they  could  hold  little, 
if  any,  intercourse. 




The  station  being  established,  Massie  continued 
to  make  locations  and  surveys.  Great  precautions 
were  necessary  to  avoid  the  Indians,  and  even  the 
closest  vigilance  did  not  always  avail,  as  the  ever- 
watchful  foe  was  always  ready  to  spring  upon  tlie 
settlement,  could  an  unguarded  moment  be  ob- 
served. During  one  of  the  spring  months.  Gen. 
Massie,  Israel  Donalson,  William  Lytle  and  James 
Little,  while  out  on  a  survey,  were  surprised,  and 
Mr.  Donalson  captured,  the  others  escaping  at 
great  peril.  Mr.  Donalson  escaped  during  the 
march  to  the  Indian  town,  and  made  his  way  to 
the  town  of  Cincinnati,  after  suffering  great  hard- 
ships, anc\  almost  perishing  from  hunger.  In  the 
spring  of  1793,  the  settlers  at  Manchester  com- 
menced clearing  the  out-lots  of  the  town.  While 
doing  so,  an  incident  occurred,  which  shows  the 
danger  to  which  they  were  daily  exposed.  It  is 
thus  related  in  Howe's  Collections  : 

"  Mr.  Andrew  Ellison,  one  of  the  settlers, 
cleared  an  out-lot  immediately  adjoining  the  fort. 
He  had  completed  the  cutting  of  the  timber,  rolled 
the  logs  together,  and  set  them  on  fire.  The  next 
morning,  before  daybreak,  Mr.  Ellison  opened  one 
of  the  gates  of  the  fort,  and  went  out  to  throw  his 
logs  together.  By  the  time  he  had  finished  the 
job,  a  number  of  the  heaps  blazed  up  brightly,  and, 
as  he  was  passing  from  one  to  the  other,  he  ob- 
served, by  the  light  of  the  fires,  three  men  walking 
briskly  toward  him.  This  did  not  alarm  him  in 
the  least,  although,  he  said,  they  were  dark-skinned 
fellows ;  yet  he  concluded  they  were  the  Wades, 
whose  complexions  were  very  dark,  going  early  to 
hunt.  He  continued  to  right  his  log-heaps,  until 
one  of  the  fellows  seized  him  by  the  arms,  calling 
out,  in  broken  English,  '  How  do  ?  how  do  ?  '  He 
instantly  looked  in  their  faces,  and,  to  his  surprise 
and  horror,  found  himself  in  the  clutches  of  three 
Indians.     To  resist  was  useless. 

"  The  Indians  quickly  moved  off  with  him  in 
the  direction  of  Paint  Creek.  When  breakfast 
was  ready,  Mrs.  Ellison  sent  one  of  her  children 
to  ask  its  father  home ;  but  he  could  not  be  found 
at  the  log-heaps.  His  absence  created  no  immedi- 
ate alarm,  as  it  was  thought  he  might  have  started 
to  hunt,  after  completing  his  work.  Dinner-time 
arrived,  and,  Ellison  not  returning,  the  family 
became  uneasy,  and  began  to  suspect  some  acci- 
dent had  happened  to  him.  His  gun-rack  was 
examined,  and  there  hung  his  rifles  and  his  pouch. 
Gen.  Massie  raised  a  party,  made  a  circuit  around 
the  place,  finding,  after  some  search,  the  trails  of 
four  men,  one  of  whom  had  on  shoes;  and  the 

fact  that  Mr.  Ellison  was  a  prisoner  now  became 
apparent.  As  it  was  almost  night  at  the  time  the 
trail  was  discovered,  the  party  returned  to  the 
station.  Early  the  next  morning,  preparations 
were  made  by  Gen.  Massie  and  his  friends  to  con- 
tinue the  search.  In  doing  this,  they  found  great 
difiiculty,  as  it  was  so  early  in  the  spring  that  the 
vegetation  was  not  grovrn  sufficiently  to  show 
plainly  the  trail  made  by  the  savages,  who  took 
the  precaution  to  keep  on  high  and  dry  ground, 
where  their  feet  would  make  little  or  no  impres- 
sion. The  party  were,  however,  as  unerring  as  a 
pack  of  hounds,  and  followed  the  trail  to  Paint 
Creek,  when  they  found  the  Indians  gained  so 
fast  on  them  that  pursuit  was  useless. 

"The  Indians  took  their  prisoner  to  Upper 
Sandusky,  where  he  was  compelled  to  run  the 
gantlet.  As  he  was  a  large,  and  not  very  active, 
man,  he  received  a  severe  flogging.  He  was  then 
taken  to  Lower  Sandusky,  and  again  compelled  to 
run  the  gantlet.  He  was  then  taken  to  Detroit, 
where  he  was  ransomed  by  a  British  officer  for 
^100.  The  officer  proved  a  good  friend  to  him. 
He  sent  him  to  Montreal,  whence  he  returned 
home  before  the  close  of  the  summer,  much  to  the 
joy  of  his  family  and  friends,  whose  feehngs  can 
only  be  imagined." 

"Another  incident  occurred  about  this  time," 
says  the  same  volume,  "which  so  aptly  illustrates 
the  danger  of  frontier  life,  that  it  well  deserves  a 
place  in  the  history  of  the  settlements  in  Ohio. 
John  and  Asahel  Edgington,  with  a  comrade, 
started  out  on  a  hunting  expedition  toward  Brush 
Creek.  They  camped  out  six  miles  in  a  northeast 
direction  from  where  West  Union  now  stands,  and 
near  the  site  of  Treber's  tavern,  on  the  road  from 
Chillicothe  to  JMaysville.  They  had  good  success 
in  hunting,  killing  a  number  of  deer  and  bears. 
Of  the  deer  killed,  they  saved  the  skins  and  hams 
alone.  They  fleeced  the  bears ;  that  is,  they  cut 
off  all  the  meat  which  adhered  to  the  hide,  with- 
out skinning,  and  left  the  bones  as  a  skeleton. 
They  hung  up  the  proceeds  of  their  hunt,  on  a  scaf- 
fold out  of  the  reach  of  wolves  and  other  wild  ani- 
mals, and  returned  to  Manchester  for  pack-horses. 
No  one  returned  to  the  camp  with  the  Edgingtons. 
As  it  was  late  in  December,  few  apprehended  dan- 
ger, as  the  winter  season  was  usually  a  time  of  re- 
pose from  Indian  incursions.  When  the  Edgingtons 
arrived  at  their  camp,  they  alighted  from  their 
horses  and  were  preparing  to  start  a  fire,  when  a 
platoon  of  Indians  fired  upon  them  at  a  distance 
of    not    more  than   twenty    paces.       They    had 





evidently  found  the  results  of  the  white  men's  labor, 
and  expected  they  would  return  for  it,  and  pre- 
pared to  waylay  them.  Asahel  Edgington  fell 
dead.  John  was  more  fortunate.  The  sharp 
crack  of  the  rifles,  and  the  horrible  yells  of  the 
savages  as  they  leaped  from  their  place  of  ambush, 
frightened  the  horses,  who  took  the  track  for 
home  at  full  speed.  John  was  very  active  on  foot, 
and  now  an  opportunity  offered  which  required  his 
utmost  speed.  The  moment  the  Indians  leaped 
from  their  hiding-place,  they  threw  down  their 
guns  and  took  after  him,  yelling  with  all  their 
power.  Edgington  did  not  run  a  booty  race.  For 
about  a  mile,  the  savages  stepped  in  his  tracks  al- 
most before  the  bending  grass  could  rise.  The 
uplifted  tomahawk  was  frequently  so  near  his  head 
that  he  thought  he  felt  its  edge.  He  exerted 
himself  to  his  utmost,  while  the  Indians  strove 
with  all  their  might  to  catch  him.  Finally,  he  be- 
gan to  gain  on  his  pursuers,  and,  after  a  long  race, 
distanced  them  and  made  his  escape,  safely  reach- 
ing home.  This,  truly,  was  a  most  fearful  and 
well-contested  race.  The  big  Shawanee  chief,  Capt. 
John,  who  headed  the  Indians  on  this  occasion, 
after  peace  was  made,  in  narrating  the  particulars, 
said,  "The  white  man  who  ran  away  was  a  smart 
fellow.  The  white  man  run ;  and  I  run.  He  run 
and  run ;  at  last,  the  white  man  run  clear  off  from 

The  settlement,  despite  its  dangers,  prospered, 
and  after  the  close  of  the  war  continued  to  grow 
rapidly.  In  two  years  afler  peace  was  declared, 
Adams  County  was  erected  by  proclamation  of 
Gov.  St.  Clair,  the  next  year  court  was  held,  and 
in  1804,  West  Union  was  made  the  county  seat. 

During  the  war,  a  settlement  was  commenced 
near  the  present  town  of  Bridgeport,  in  Belmont 
County,  by  Capt.  Joseph  Belmont,  a  noted  Dela- 
ware Revolutionary  officer,  who,  because  his  State 
could  furnish  only  one  company,  could  rise  no 
higher  than  Captain  of  that  company,  and  hence 
always  maintained  that  grade.  He  settled  on  a 
beautiful  knoll  near  the  present  county  seat,  but 
erelong  suffered  from  a  night  attack  by  the  In- 
dians, who,  though  unable  to  drive  him  and  his 
companions  from  the  cabin  or  conquer  them, 
wounded  some  of  them  badly,  one  or  two  mortally, 
and  caused  the  Captain  to  leave  the  frontier  and 
return  to  Newark,  Del.  The  attack  was  made 
in  the  spring  of  1791,  and  a  short  time  after, 
the  Captain,  having  provided  for  the  safety  of  his 
family,  accepted  a  commission  in  St.  Clair's  army, 
and  lost  his  life  at  the  defeat  of  the  General  in 

November.  Shortly  after  the  Captain  settled,  a 
fort,  called  Dillie's  Fort,  was  built  on  the  Ohio, 
opposite  the  mouth  of  Grave  Creek.  About  two 
hundred  and  fifty  yards  below  this  fort,  an  old 
man,  named  Tato,  was  shot  d(jwn  at  his  cabin  door 
by  the  Indians,  just  as  he  was  in  the  act  of  entering 
the  house.  His  body  was  pulled  in  by  his  daugh- 
ter-in-law and  grandson,  who  made  an  heroic  de- 
fense. They  were  overpowered,  the  woman  slain, 
and  the  boy  badly  wounded.  He,  however,  man- 
aged to  secrete  himself  and  afterward  escaped  to 
the  fort.  The  Indians,  twelve  or  thirteen  in  num- 
ber, went  off  unmolested,  though  the  men  in  the 
fort  saw  the  whole  transaction  and  could  have 
punished  them.  Why  they  did  not  was  never 

On  Captina  Creek  in  this  same  county,  occurred, 
in  May,  1794,  the  "battle  of  Captina,"  a  fa- 
mous local  skirmish  between  some  Virginians  from 
Fort  Baker,  and  a  party  of  Indians.  Though  the 
Indians  largely  outnumbered  the  whites,  they  were 
severely  punished,  and  compelled  to  abandon  the 
contest,  losing  several  of  their  bravest  warriors. 

These  were  the  only  settlements  made  until 
1795,  the  close  of  the  war.  Even  these,  as  it  will 
be  observed  from  the  foregoing  pages,  were  tem- 
porary in  all  cases  save  one,  and  were  maintained 
at  a  great  risk,  and  the  loss  of  many  valuable  lives. 
They  were  made  in  the  beginning  of  the  war,and  such 
were  their  experiences  that  further  attempts  were 
abandoned  until  the  treaty  of  Greenville  was  made, 
or  until  the  prospects  for  peace  and  safety  were 

No  sooner,  however,  had  the  prospect  of  quiet 
been  established,  than  a  revival  of  emigration  be- 
gan. Before  the  war  it  had  been  large,  now  it 
was  largely  increased. 

Wayne's  treaty  of  peace  with  the  Indians  was 
made  at  Greenville,  in  what  is  now  Darke  County, 
the  3d  of  August,  1795.  The  number  of  Indians 
present  was  estimated  at  1,300,  divided  among  the 
principal  nations  as  follows :  180  Wyandots,  381 
Delawares,  143  Shawanees,  45  Ottawas,  46  Chip- 
pewas,  240  Fottawatomies,  73  Miamis  and  Eel 
River,  12  Weas  and  Piankeshaws,  and  10  Kicka- 
poos  and  Kaskaskias.  The  principal  chiefs  were 
Tarhe,  Buckongahelas,  Black  Hoof,  Blue  Jacket 
and  Little  Turtle.  Most  of  them  had  been  tam- 
pered with  by  the  British  agents  and  traders,  but 
all  had  been  so  thoroughly  chastised  by  Wayne,  and 
found  that  the  British  only  used  them  as  tools, 
that  they  were  quite  anxious  to  make  peace  with 
the  "  Thirteen  Fires."    By  the  treaty,  former  ones 



were  established,  the  boundary  lines  confirmed  and 
enlarged,  an  exchange  and  delivery  of  prisoners 
effected,  and  permanent  peace  assured. 

In  the  latter  part  of  September,  after  the  treaty 
of  Greenville,  Mr.  Bedell,  from  New  Jersey, 
selected  a  site  for  a  home  in  what  is  now  Warren 
County,  at  a  place  since  known  as  "  Bedell's  Sta- 
lion,"  about  a  mile  south  of  Union  Village.  Here 
he  erected  a  block-house,  as  a  defense  against  the 
Indians,  among  whom  were  many  renegades  as 
among  the  whites,  who  would  not  respect  the 
terms  of  the  treaty.  Whether  Mr.  Bedell  was 
alone  that  fall,  or  whether  he  was  joined  by  others, 
is  not  now  accurately  known.  However  that  may 
be,  he  was  not  long  left  to  himself;  for,  ere  a  year 
had  elapsed,  quite  a  number  of  settlements  were 
made  in  this  part  of  the  Territory.  Soon  after 
his  settlement  was  made.  Gen.  David  Sutton,  Capt. 
Nathan  Kelley  and  others  began  pioneer  life  at 
Deerfield,  in  the  same  locality,  and,  before  three 
yeai's  had  gone  by,  a  large  number  of  New  Jersey 
people  were  established  in  their  homes;  and,  in 
18U3,  the  county  was  formed  from  Hamilton. 
Among  the  early  settlers  at  Deerfield,  was  Capt. 
Robert  Benham,  who,  with  a  companion,  in  1779, 
sustained  themselves  many  days  when  the  Captain 
had  lost  the  use  of  his  legs,  and  his  companion 
his  arms,  from  musket-balls  fired  by  the  hands  of 
the  Indians.  They  were  with  a  large  party  com- 
manded by  Maj.  Rodgers,  and  were  furiously 
attacked  by  an  immense  number  of  savages,  and 
all  but  a  few  slain.  The  event  happened  during 
the  war  of  the  Revolution,  before  any  attempt 
was  made  to  settle  the  Northwest  Territory.  The 
party  were  going  down  the  Ohio,  probably  to  the 
falls,  and  were  attacked  when  near  the  site  of 
Cincinnati.  As  mentioned,  these  two  men  sus- 
tained each  other  many  days,  the  one  having  per- 
fect legs  doing  the  necessary  walking,  carrying  his 
comrade  to  water,  driving  up  game  for  him  to 
shoot,  and  any  other  duties  necessary;  while  the 
one  who  had  the  use  of  his  arms  could  dress  his 
companion's  and  his  own  wounds,  kill  and  cook 
the  game,  and  perform  his  share.  They  were 
rescued,  finally,  by  a  flat-boat,  whose  occupants, 
for  awhile,  passed  them,  fearing  a  decoy,  but, 
becoming  convinced  that  such  was  not  the  case, 
took  them  on  down  to  Louisville,  where  they  were 
nursed  into  perfect  health. 

A  settlement  was  made  near  the  present  town  of 
Lebanon,  the  county  seat  of  Warren  County,  in 
the  spring  of  1796,  by  Henry  Taylor,  who  built  a 
mill   one  mile  west  of  the  town  site,   on   Turtle 

Creek.  Soon  after,  he  was  joined  by  Ichabod 
Corwin,  John  Osbourn,  Jacob  Vorhees,  Samuel 
Shaw,  Daniel  Bonte  and  a  Mr.  Manning.  When 
Lebanon  was  laid  out,  in  1803,  the  two-story  log 
house  built  in  1797  by  Ichabod  Corwin  was  the 
only  building  on  the  plat.  It  was  occupied  by 
Ephraim  Hathaway  as  a  tavern.  He  had  a  black 
horse  painted  on  an  immense  board  for  a  sign,  and 
continued  in  business  here  till  1810.  The  same 
year  the  town  was  laid  out,  a  store  was  opened  by 
John  Huston,  and,  from  that  date,  the  growth  of 
the  county  was  very  pro.sperous.  Three  years 
after,  the  Western  Star  was  established  by 
Judge  John  McLain,  and  the  current  news  of 
the  day  given  in  weekly  editions.  It  was  one  of 
the  first  newspapers  established  in  the  Territory, 
outside  of  Cincinnati. 

As  has  been  mentioned,  the  opening  of  naviga- 
tion in  the  spring  of  179(5  brought  a  great  flood 
of  emigration  to  the  Territory.  The  little  settle- 
ment made  by  Mr.  Bedell,  in  the  autumn  of  1795, 
was  about  the  only  one  made  that  fall ;  others  made 
preparations,  and  many  selected  sites,  but  did  not 
settle  till  the  following  spring.  That  spring,  colo- 
nies were  planted  in  what  are  now  Montgomery, 
Hoss,  Madison,  Mahoning,  Trumbull,  Ashtabula 
and  Cuyahoga  Counties,  while  preparations  were 
in  turn  made  to  occupy  additional  territory  that 
will  hereafter  be  noticed. 

The  settlement  made  in  Montgomery  County 
was  begun  early  in  the  spring  of  1796.  As  early 
as  1788,  the  land  on  which  Dayton  now  stands  was 
selected  by  some  gentlemen,  who  designed  laying- 
out  a  town  to  be  named  Venice.  They  agreed 
with  Judge  Symmes,  whose  contract  covered  the 
place,  for  the  purchase  of  the  lands.  The  Indian 
war  which  broke  out  at  this  time  prevented  an 
extension  of  settlements  from  the  immediate 
neighborhood  of  the  parent  colonies,  and  the  proj- 
ect was  abandoned  by  the  purchasers.  Soon  after 
the  treaty  of  1795,  a  new  company,  composed  of 
Gens.  Jonathan  Dayton,  Arthur  St.  Clair,  James 
Wilkinson,  and  Col.  Israel  Ludlow,  purchased  the 
land  between  the  Miamis,  around  the  mouth  of 
Mad  River,  of  Judge  Symmes,  and,  the  4th  of 
November,  laid  out  the  town.  Arrangements  were 
made  for  its  settlement  the  ensuing  spring,  and 
donations  of  lots,  with  other  privileges,  were  offered 
to  actual  settlers.  Forty-six  persons  entered  into 
engagements  to  remove  from  Cincinnati  to  Day- 
ton, but  during  the  winter  most  of  them  scat- 
tered in  different  directions,  and  only  nineteen  ful- 
filled   their    contracts.     The     first    families    who 




made  a  permanent  residence  here,  arrived  on  the 
first  day  of  April,  1796,  and  at  once  set  about 
establishing  homes.  Judge  Symmes,  however, 
becoming  unable  soon  after  to  pay  for  his  purchase, 
the  land  reverted  to  the  United  States,  and  the  set- 
tlers in  and  about  Dayton  found  themselves  with- 
out titles  to  their  lands.  Congress,  however,  came 
to  the  aid  of  all  such  persons,  wherever  they  had 
purchased  land  of  Symmes,  and  passed  a  pre-emp- 
tion law,  under  which  they  could  enter  their  lands 
at  the  regular  government  price.  Some  of  the  set- 
tlers entered  their  lands,  and  obtained  titles  directly 
from  the  United  States  ;  others  made  arrangements 
with  Daniel  C.  Cooper  to  receive  their  deeds  from 
him,  and  he  entered  the  residue  of  the  town  lands. 
He  had  been  the  surveyor  and  agent  of  the  first 
company  of  proprietors,  and  they  assigned  to  him 
certain  of  their  rights  of  pre-emption,  by  which  he 
became  the  titular  owner  of  the  land. 

When  the  State  government  was  organized  in 
1803,  Dayton  was  made  the  seat  of  justice  for 
Montgomery  County,  erected  the  same  year.  At 
that  time,  owing  to  the  title  question,  only  five 
families  resided  in  the  place,  the  other  settlers  hav- 
ing gone  to  farms  in  the  vicinity,  or  to  other 
parts  of  the  country.  The  increase  of  the  town 
was  gradual  until  the  war  of  1812,  when  its 
growth  was  more  rapid  until  1820,  when  it  was 
again  checked  by  the  general  depression  of  busi- 
ness. It  revived  in  1827,  at  the  commencement 
of  the  Miami  Canal,  and  since  then  its  growth  has 
always  been  prosperous.  It  is  now  one  of  the 
best  cities  in  Ohio.  The  first  canal  boats  fi-om 
Cincinnati  arrived  at  Dayton  January  25,  1829, 
and  the  first  one  from  Lake  Erie  the  24th  of 
June,  1845.  In  1825,  a  weekly  line  of  stages 
was  established  between  Columbus  and  Cincinnati, 
via  Dayton.  One  day  was  occupied  in  coming 
from  Cincinnati  to  Dayton. 

On  the  18th  of  September,  1808,  the  Dayton 
Repertory  was  established  by  William  McClureand 
George  Smith.  It  was  printed  on  a  foolscap  sheet. 
Soon  after,  it  was  enlarged  and  changed  from  a 
weekly  to  a  daily,  and,  ere  long,  found  a  number 
of  competitors  in  the  field. 

In  the  lower  part  of  Miamisburg,  in  this  county, 
are  the  remains  of  ancient  works,  scattered  about 
over  the  bottom.  About  a  mile  and  a  quarter 
southeast  of  the  village,  on  an  elevation  more  than 
one  hundred  feet  above  the  level  of  the  Miami, 
is  the  largest  mound  in  the  Northern  States,  ex- 
cepting the  mammoth  mound  at  Grave  Creek,  on 
the  Ohio,  below  Wheeling,  which  it  nearly  equals 

in  dimensions.  It  is  about  eight  hundred  feet 
around  the  base,  and  rises  to  a  height  of  nearly 
seventy  feet.  When  first  known  it  was  covered 
with  forest  trees,  whose  size  evidenced  great  age. 
The  Indians  could  give  no  account  of  the  mound. 
Excavations  revealed  bones  and  charred  earth, 
but  what  was  its  use,  will  always  remain  a  con- 

One  of  the  most  important  early  settlements 
was  made  cotemporary  with  that  of  Dayton,  in 
what  is  now  Ross  County.  The  same  spring, 
1796,  quite  a  colony  came  to  the  banks  of  the 
Scioto  River,  and,  near  the  mouth  of  Paint  Creek, 
began  to  plant  a  crop  of  corn  on  the  bottom.  The 
site  had  been  selected  as  early  as  1792,  by  Col. 
Nathaniel  Massie*  and  others,  who  were  so  de- 
lighted with  the  country,  and  gave  such  glowing 
descriptions  of  it  on  their  return — which  accounts 
soon  circulated  through  Kentucky — that  portions 
of  the  Presbyterian  congregations  of  Caneridge  and 
Concord,  in  Bourbon  County,  under  Rev.  Robert 
W.  Finley,  determined  to  emigrate  thither  in  a 
body.  They  were,  in  a  measure,  induced  to  take 
this  step  by  their  dislike  to  slavery,  and  a  desire 
for  freedom  from  its  baleful  influences  and  the  un- 
certainty that  existed  regarding  the  validity  of  the 
land  titles  in  that  State.  The  Rev.  Finley,  as  a 
preliminary  step,  liberated  his  slaves,  and  addressed 
to  Col.  Massie  a  letter  of  inquiry,  in  December, 
1794,  regarding  the  land  on  the  Scioto,  of  which 
he  and  his  people  had  heard  such  glowing  ac- 

"The  letter  induced  Col.  Massie  to  visit  Mr. 
Finley  in  the  ensuing  March.  A  large  concourse 
of  people,  who  wished  to  engage  in  the  enterprise, 
assembled  on  the  occasion,  and  fixed  on  a  day  to 
meet  at  the  Three  Islands,  in  Manchester,  and 
proceed  on  an  exploring  expedition.  Mr.  Finley 
also  wrote  to  his  friends  in  Western   Pennsylvania 

*  Nathaniel  Massie  was  born  in  Gfoochland  County,  Va.,  Decem- 
ber 28, 17G3.  In  1780,  he  engaged,  for  a  short  time,  in  the  Kevolu- 
tionary  war.  In  1783,  he  left  for  Kentucliy,  where  he  acted  as  a 
surveyor.  He  was  afterward  made  a  Government  surveyor,  and 
labored  much  in  that  capacity  for  early  Ohio  proprietors,  being  paiil 
in  lands,  the  amounts  graded  by  the  danger  attached  to  the  surv.y. 
In  1791,  he  established  the  settlement  at  Manchester,  and  a  year  or 
two  after,  continued  liis  surveys  up  the  Scioto.  Here  he  was  con- 
tinually in  great  danger  from  the  Iiuiians,  but  knew  well  how  to 
guard  against  them,  and  thus  jireserved  himself.  In  1790,  he  estab- 
lished the  Cbillicotho  settlement,  and  made  bis  home  in  the  Scioto 
Valley,  being  now  an  extensive  land  owner  by  reason  of  his  long 
surveying  service.  In  18(l7,  he  and  Return  J.  Meigs  were  compet- 
itors for  the  office  of  Governor  of  Ohio.  Meigs  was  elected,  but 
Massie  contested  his  eligibility  to  the  office,  on  the  grounds  of  his 
absence  from  the  State  and  insuflnciency  of  time  as  a  resident,  as 
required  by  the  Constitution.  Meigs  was  declared  inelicible  by  the 
General  Assembly,  and  Massie  declared  Governor.  He,  however, 
renigned  the  office  at  once,  not  desiring  it.  He  waa  often  Repre- 
Bentative  afterward.     He  died  November  13,  1813. 



informing  tliem  of  the  time  and  place  of  rendez- 

"  About  sixty  men  met,  according  to  appoint- 
ment, who  were  divided  into  three  companies, 
under  Massie,  Finley  and  Falenash.  They  pro- 
ceeded on  their  route,  without  interruption,  until 
they  struck  the  falls  of  Paint  Creek.  Proceeding 
a  short  distance  down  that  stream,  they  suddenly 
found  themselves  in  the  vicinity  of  some  Indians 
who  had  encamped  at  a  place,  since  called  Reeve's 
Crossing,  near  the  present  town  of  Bainbridge. 
The  Indians  were  of  those  who  had  refused  to 
attend  Wayne's  treaty,  and  it  was  determined  to 
give  them  battle,  it  being  too  late  to  retreat  with 
safety.  The  Indians,  on  being  attacked,  soon  fled 
with  the  loss  of  two  killed  and  several  wounded. 
One  of  the  whites  only,  Joshua  Robinson,  was 
mortally  wounded,  and,  during  the  action,  a  Mr. 
Armstrong,  a  prisoner  among  the  savages,  escaped 
to  his  own  people.  The  whites  gathered  all  their 
plunder  and  retreated  as  far  as  Scioto  Brush 
Creek,  where  they  were,  according  to  expectation, 
attacked  early  the  next  morning.  Again  the  In- 
dians were  defeated.  Only  one  man  among  the 
whites,  Allen  Gilfillan,  was  wounded.  The  party 
of  whites  continued  their  retreat,  the  next  day 
reached  Manchester,  and  separated  for  their  homes. 

"  After  Wayne's  treaty,  Col.  Massie  and  several 
of  the  old  explorers  again  met  at  the  house  of 
Rev.  Finley,  formed  a  company,  and  agreed  to 
make  a  settlement  in  the  ensuing  spring  (1796), 
and  raise  a  crop  of  corn  at  the  mouth  of  Paint 
Creek.  According  to  agreement,  they  met  at  Man- 
chester about  the  first  of  April,  to  the  number  of 
forty  and  upward,  from  Mason  and  Bourbon 
Counties.  Among  them  were  Joseph  McCoy, 
Benjamin  and  William  Rodgers,  David  Shelby, 
James  Harrod,  Henry,  Bazil  and  Reuben  Abrams, 
William  Jamison,  James  Crawford,  Samuel,  An- 
thony and  Robert  Smith,  Thomas  Dick,  William 
and  James  Kerr,  George  and  James  Kilgrove, 
John  Brown,  Samuel  and  Robert  Templeton,  Fer- 
guson Moore,  William  Nicholson  and  James  B. 
Finley,  later  a  prominent  local  Methodist  minister. 
On  starting,  they  divided  into  two  companies,  one 
of  which  struck  across  the  country,  while  the 
other  came  on  in  pirogues.  The  first  arrived 
earliest  on  the  spot  of  their  intended  settlement, 
and  had  commenced  erecting  log  huts  above  the 
mouth  of  Paint  Creek,  at  the  'Prairie  Station,' 
before  the  others  had  come  on  by  water.  About 
three  hundred  acres  of  the  prairie  were  cultivated 
in  corn  that  season. 

"  In  August,  of  this  year — 1796 — Chillicothe* 
was  laid  out  by  Col.  Massie  in  a  dense  forest.  He 
gave  a  lot  to  each  of  the  first  settlers,  and,  by  the 
beginning  of  winter,  about  twenty  cabins  were 
erected.  Not  long  after,  a  ferry  was  established 
across  the  Scioto,  at  the  north  end  of  Walnut 
street.  The  opening  of  Zane's  trace  produced  a 
great  change  in  travel  westward,  it  having  pre- 
viously been  along  the  Ohio  in  keel-boats  or  canoes, 
or  by  land,  over  the  Cumberland  Mountains, 
through  Crab  Orchard,  in  Kentucky. 

"  The  emigrants  brought  corn-meal  in  their  pi- 
rogues, and  after  that  was  gone,  their  principal 
meal,  until  the  next  summer,  was  that  pounded  in 
hominy  mortars,  which  meal,  when  made  into 
bi'ead,  and  anointed  with  bear's-oil,  was  quite  pal- 

"  When  the  settlers  first  came,  whisky  was  S-4.50 
per  gallon;  but,  in  the  spring  of  1797,  when  the 
keel-boats  began  to  run,  the  Monongahela  whisky- 
makers,  having  found  a  good  market  for  their  fire- 
water, rushed  it  in,  in  such  quantities,  that  the 
cabins  were  crowded  with  it,  and  it  soon  fell  to  50 
cents.  Men,  women  and  children,  with  some  excep- 
tions, drank  it  freely,  and  many  who  had  been 
respectable  and  temperate  became  inebriates. 
Many  of  Wayne's  soldiers  and  camp-women  settled 
in  the  town,  so  that,  for  a  time,  it  became  a  town 
of  drunkards  and  a  sink  of  corruption.  There 
was,  however,  a  little  leaven,  which,  in  a  few 
months,  began  to  develop  itself 

'•  In  the  spring  of  1797,  one  Brannon  stole  a 
great  coat,  handkerchief  and  shirt.  He  and  his 
wife  absconded,  were  pursued,  caught  and  brought 
back.  Samuel  Smith  was  appointed  Judge,  a 
jury  impanneled,  one  attorney  appointed  by  the 
Judge  to  manage  the  prosecution,  and  another  the 
defense ;  witnesses  were  examined,  the  case  argued, 
and  the  evidence  summed  up  by  the  Judge.  The 
jury,  having  retired  a  few  moments,  returned  with 
a  verdict  of  guilty,  and  that  the  culprit  be  sen- 
tenced according  to  the  discretion  of  the  Judge. 
'The  Judge  soon  announced  that  the  criminal 
should  have  ten  lashes  on  his  naked  back,  or  that 
he  should  sit  on  a  bare  pack-saddle  on  his  pony, 
and  that  his  wife,  who  was  supposed  to  have  had 
some  agency  in  the  theft,  should  lead  the  pony  to 
every  house  in  the  village,  and  proclaim,  'This  is 

♦Chillicothe  appears  to  have  been  a  favorite  name  among  the 
Indians,  as  many  localities  were  known  by  that  name.  Col.  John 
Johnston  says  :  "Chillicothe  is  the  name  of  one  of  the  principal 
tribes  of  the  Shawanees.  They  would  say,  Chil-i-cotheotany,  i.  e., 
Chillicothe  town.  The  Wyandots  would  say,  for  Chillicothe  town, 
Tat-a-ra-ra,  Do-tia,  or  town  at  the  leaning  of  the  bank." 




Brannon,  who  stole  the  great  coat,  handkerchief 
and  shirt ; '  and  that  James  B.  Finley,  afterward 
Chaplain  in  the  State  Penitentiary,  should  see  the 
sentence  faithfully  carried  out.  Brannon  chose 
the  latter  sentence,  and  the  ceremony  was  faith- 
fully performed  by  his  wife  in  the  presence  of 
every  cabin,  under  Mr.  Finley 's  care,  after  which 
the  couple  made  off.  This  was  rather  rude,  but 
effective  j  urisprudence. 

"  Dr.  Edward  Tiffin  and  Mr.  Thomas  Worth- 
ington,  of  Berkley  County,  Va.,  were  brothers-in-law, 
and  being  moved  by  abolition  principles,  liberated 
their  slaves,  intending  to  remove  into  the  Ter- 
ritory. For  this  purpose,  Mr.  Worthington  visited 
Chillicothe  in  the  autumn  of  1797,  and  purchased 
several  in  and  out  lots  of  the  town.  On  one  of  the 
former,  he  erected  a  two-story  frame  house,  the 
first  of  the  kind  in  the  village.  On  his  return, 
having  purchased  a  part  of  a  farm,  on  which  his 
family  long  afterward  resided,  and  another  at  the 
north  fork  of  Paint  Creek,  he  contracted  with  Mr. 
Joseph  Yates,  a  millwright,  and  Mr.  George  Haines, 
a  blacksmith,  to  come  out  with  him  the  following 
winter  or  spring,  and  erect  for  him  a  grist  and  saw 
mill  on  his  north-fork  tract.  The  summer,  fall 
and  following  winter  of  that  year  were  marked  by 
a  rush  of  emigration,  which  spead  over  the  high 
bank  prairie,  Pea-pea,  Westfall  and  a  few  miles 
up  Paint  and  Deer  Creeks. 

"  Nearly  all  the  first  settlers  were  either  regular 
members,  or  had  been  raised  in  the  Presbyterian 
Church.  Toward  the  fall  of  1797,  the  leaven  of 
piety  retained  by  a  portion  of  the  first  settlers  be- 
gan to  diffuse  itself  through  the  mass,  and  a  large 
log  meeting-house  was  erected  near  the  old  grave- 
yard, and  Rev.  William  Speer,  from  Pennsylvania, 
took  charge.  The  sleepers  at  first  served  as  seats  for 
hearers,  and  a  split-log  table  was  used  as  a  pulpit. 
Mr.  Speer  was  a  gentlemanly,  moral  man,  tall  and 
cadaverous  in  person,  and  wore  the  cocked  hat  of 
the  Revolutionary  era. 

"  Thomas  Jones  arrived  in  February,  1798, 
bringing  with  him  the  first  load  of  bar-iron  in  the 
Scioto  Valley,  and  about  the  same  time  Maj.  Eli?, 
Langham,  an  officer  of  the  Revolution,  arrived.  Dr. 
Tiffin,  and  his  brother,  Joseph,  arrived  the  same 
month  from  Virginia  and  opened  a  store  not  far 
from  the  log  meeting-house.  A  store  had  been 
opened  previously  by  John  McDougal.  The  17th 
of  April,  the  families  of  Col.  Worthington  and 
Dr.  Tiffin  arrived,  at  which  time  the  first  marriage 
in  the  Scioto  Valley  was  celebrated.  The  parties 
were  George  Kilgore  and  Elizabeth  Cochran.    The 

ponies  of  the  attendants  were  hitched  to  the  trees 
along  the  streets,  which  were  not  then  cleared  out, 
nearly  the  whole  town  being  a  wilderness.  Joseph 
Yates,  George  Haines,  and  two  or  three  others, 
arrived  with  the  families  of  Tiffin  and  Worthing- 
ton. On  their  arrival  there  were  but  four  shingled 
roofs  in  town,  on  one  of  which  the  shingles 
were  fastened  with  pegs.  Col.  Worthington's 
house  was  the  only  one  having  glass  windows.  The 
sash  of  the  hotel  windows  was  filled  with  greased 

"  Col.  Worthington  was  appointed  by  Gen.  Ru- 
fus  Putnam,  Surveyor  General  of  the  Northwest 
Territory,  surveyor  of  a  large  district  of  Congress 
lands,  on  the  east  side  of  the  Scioto,  and  INIaj. 
Langham  and  a  Mr.  Matthews,  were  appointed  to 
survey  the  residue  of  the  lands  which  afterward 
composed  the  Chillicothe  land  district. 

"The  same  season,  settlements  were  made  about 
the  Walnut  Plains  by  Samuel  McCulloh  and 
others;  Springer,  Osbourn,  Dyer,  and  Thomas  and 
Elijah  Chenowith,  on  Darly  Creek;  Lamberts  and 
others  on  Sippo ;  on  Foster's  Bottom,  the  Fosters. 
Samuel  Davis  and  others,  while  the  following  fam- 
ilies settled  in  and  about  Chillicothe:  John  Crouse, 
William  Keys,  William  Lamb,  John  Carlisle,  John 
McLanberg,  William  Chandless,  the  Stoctons, 
Greggs,  Bates  and  some  others. 

"Dr.  Tiffin  and  his  wife  were  the  first  Metho- 
dists in  the  Scioto  Valley.  He  was  a  local  preacher. 
In  the  fall,  Worthington's  grist  and  saw  mills  on 
the  north  fork  of  Paint  Creek  were  finished,  the 
first  mills  worthy  the  name  in  the  valley. 

"  Chillicothe  was  the  point  from  which  the  set- 
tlements diverged.  In  May,  1799,  a  post  office 
was  established  here,  and  Joseph  Tiffin  made  Post- 
master. Mr.  Tiffin  and  Thomas  Gregg  opened 
taverns;  the  first,  under  the  sign  of  Gen.  Anthony 
Wayne,  was  at  the  corner  of  Water  and  Walnut 
streets;  and  the  last,  under  the  sign  of  the  'Green 
Tree,'  was  on  the  corner  of  Paint  and  Water 
streets.  In  1801,  Nathaniel  Willis  moved  in  and 
established  the  Scioto  Gazette,  probably,  the  sec- 
ond paper  in  the  Territory."* 

In  1800,  the  seat  of  government  of  the  North- 
west Territory  was  removed,  by  law  of  Congress, 
from  Cincinnati  to  Chillicothe.  The  sessions  of 
the  Territorial  Assembly  for  that  and  the  nest 
year  were  held  in  a  small  two-story,  hewed-log 
house,  erected  in  1798,  by  Bazil  Abrams.  A  wing 
was  added   to  the  main    part,  of    two  stories   in 

*  Recollections  of  Hon.  Thomas  Scott,  of  Chillicothe — Howe's 
"Annals  of  Ohio. 




height.  In  the  lower  room  of  this  wing,  Col. 
Thomas  Gibson,  Auditor  of  the  Territory,  kept 
his  office,  and  in  the  upper  room  a  small  family 
lived.  In  the  upper  room  of  the  main  building 
a  billiard  table  was  kept.  It  was  also  made  a  re- 
sort of  gamblers  and  disreputable  characters.  The 
lower  room  was  used  by  the  Legislature,  and  as  a 
cqurt  room,  a  church  or  a  school.  In  the 
war  of  1812,  the  building  was  a  rendezvous  and 
barracks  for  soldiers,  and,  in  IS-IO,  was  pulled 

The  old  State  House  was  commenced  in  1800, 
and  finished  the  next  year  for  the  accommodation 
of  the  Legislature  and  the  courts.  It  is  said  to 
be  the  first  public  stone  edifice  erected  in  the  Ter- 
ritory. Alaj.  William  Rutledge,  a  Revolutionary 
soldier,  did  the  mason  work,  and  William  Guthrie, 
the  carpenter.  In  1801 ,  the  Territorial  Legislature 
held  their  first  session  in  it.  In  it  was  also  held 
the  Constitutional  Convention  of  Ohio,  which  be- 
gan its  sessions  the  first  Monday  in  November, 
1802.  In  March,  1803,  the  first  State  Legislature 
met  in  the  house,  and  continued  their  sessions  here 
until  1810.  The  sessions  of  1810-11,  and  1811- 
12,  were  held  in  Zanesville,  and  from  there  re- 
moved back  to  Chiliicothe  and  held  in  the  old 
State  House  till  1816,  when  Columbus  became  the 
permanent  capital  of  the  State. 

INIaking  Chiliicothe  the  State  capital  did  much 
to  enhance  its  growth.  It  was  incorporated  in 
1802,  and  a  town  council  elected.  In  1807,  the 
town  had  fourteen  stores,  six  hotels,  two  newspa- 
pers, .  two  churches — both  brick  buildings — and 
over  two  hundred  dwellings.  The  removal  of  the 
capital  to  Columbus  checked  its  growth  a  little,  still, 
being  in  an  excellent  country,  rapidly  filling  with 
settlers,  the  town  has  always  remained  a  prominent 
trading  center. 

During  the  war  of  1812,  Chiliicothe  was  made 
a  rendezvous  for  United  States  soldiers,  and  a 
prison  established,  in  which  many  British  prison- 
ers were  confined.  At  one  time,  a  conspiracy  for 
escape  was  discovered  just  in  time  to  prevent  it. 
The  plan  was  for  the  prisoners  to  disarm  the 
guard,  proceed  to  jail,  release  the  officers,  burn  the 
town,  and  escape  to  Canada.  The  plot  was  fortu- 
nately disclosed  by  two  senior  British  officers,  upon 
which,  as  a  measure  of  security,  the  officers  and 
chief  conspirators  were  sent  to  the  penitentiary 
at  Frankfort,  Kentucky. 

Two  or  three  miles  northwest  of  Chiliicothe,  on 
a  beautiful  elevation,  commanding  an  extensive 
view  of  the  valley  of  the  Scioto,  Thomas  Worth-- 

ington,*  one  of  the  most  prominent  and  influential 
men  of  his  day,  afterward  Governor  of  the  State, 
in  1806,  erected  a  large  stone  mansion,  the  wonder 
of  the  valley  in  its  time.  It  was  the  most  elegant 
mansion  in  the  West,  crowds  coming  to  see  it 
when  it  "was  completed.  Gov.  Worthington  named 
the  place  Adena,  "  Paradise  " — a  name  not  then 
considered  hyperbolical.  The  large  panes  of  glass, 
and  the  novelty  of  papered  walls  especially  attracted 
attention.  Its  architect  was  the  elder  Latrobe,  of 
Washington  City,  from  which  place  most  of  the 
workmen  came.  The  glass  was  made  in  Pitts- 
burgh, and  the  fireplace  fronts  in  Philadelphia,  the 
latter  costing  seven  dollars  per  hundred  pounds  for 
transportation.  The  mansion,  built  as  it  was,  cost 
nearly  double  the  expense  of  such  structures  now. 
Adena  was  the  home  of  the  Governor  till  his  death, 
in  1827. 

Near  Adena,  in  a  beautiful  situation,  is  Fruit 
Hill,  the  seat  of  Gen.  Duncan  McArthur,!  and 
later  of  ex-Gov.  William  Allen.  Like  Adena,  Fruit 
Hill  is  one  of  the  noted  places  in  the  Scioto  Val- 
ley. Many  of  Ohio's  best  men  dwelt  in  the  valley ; 
men  who  have  been  an  honor  and  ornament  to  the 
State  and  nation. 

Another  settlement,  begun  soon  after  the  treaty 
of  peace  in  1795,  was  that  made  on  the  Licking 
River,  about  four  miles  below  the  present  city  of 
Nev/ark,  in  Licking  County.  In  the  fall  of  1798, 
John  RatlifF  and  Elias  Hughes,  while  prospecting 
on  this  stream,  found  some  old  Indian  cornfields, 
and  determined  to  locate.  They  were  from  West- 
ern Virginia,  and  were  true  pioneers,  living  mainly 
by  hunting,  leaving  the  cultivation  of  their  small 
cornfields  to  their  wives,  much  after  the  style  of 

*  Gov.  Worthington  was  born  in  Jefferson  County,  Va.,  about  the 
yearl70'J.  He  sytiU-din  Oliio  in  17;i8.  He  was  a  firm  believer  in 
liberty  and  came  to  the  Territory  al'tiT  liberating  his  slaves.  He  was 
oiie  of  the  niosi  eflicifiit  men  of  his  day;  was  a  member  of  the 
Constitutional  Convention,  and  was  sent  on  an  important  mission 
to  Congress  relative  to  the  admiosion  of  Ohio  to  the  Union.  He 
was  afterward  a  Senator  to  Congress,  and  then  Governor.  On 
the  expiration  of  his  guSernatorial  term,  he  was  appointed  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Board  of  Public  Works,  in  which  cajiacity  ho  did  umch 
to  advance  the  canals  and  ral roads,  and  other  public  improve- 
ments.    He  remained  in  this  office  till  his  death. 

t  Gen.  Mc.\rthur  was  born  in  Dutchess  County,  N.  T.,  in  1772. 
When  eight  years  of  age,  his  father  removed  to  ApVesteru  Pennsyl- 
vania. When  eighteen  years  of  age,  he  served  in  Harmar's 
campaign.  In  1792,  he  was  a  very  elficient  soldier  among  the  front- 
iersmen, and  gained  their  ajiprobation  by  liis  bravery.  In  1793,  he 
was  connected  with  Gen.  jlassie,  and  afterward  was  engaged  in 
land  speculations  and  became  very  wealthy.  He  was  made  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Legislature,  in  1805  ;  in  1800,  a  Colonel,  and  in  1808,  a 
Major  Ganeral  of  the  militia.  In  this  capacity  he  was  in  Hull's 
surrender  at  Detroit.  On  his  return  he  was  elected  to  Congress, 
and  in  1813  commissioned  Brigadier  General.  He  was  one  of  the 
most  efticient  officers  in  the  war  of  1812,  and  held  many  important 
posts.  After  the  war,  he  was  again  sent  to  the  Legislature  ;  in  1822 
to  Congress,  ar]d  in  1830  elected  Governor  of  the  State.  By  an  un- 
fortunate accident  in  1830,  he  was  maimed  for  life,  and  gradually 
declined  till  death  came  a  few  years  after. 




their  dusky  neighbors.  They  were  both  inveterate 
Indian-haters,  and  never  allowed  an  opportunity  to 
pass  without  carrying  out  their  hatred.  For  this, 
they  were  apprehended  after  the  treaty;  but, 
though  it  was  clearly  proven  they  had  murdered 
some  iuolFensive  Indians,  the  state  of  feeling  was 
such  that  they  were  allowed  to  go  unpunished. 

A  short  time  after  their  settlement,  others  joined 
them,  and,  in  a  few  years,  quite  a  colony  had 
gathered  on  the  banks  of  the  Licking.  In  1802, 
Newark  was  laid  out,  and,  in  three  or  four  years, 
there  were  twenty  or  thirty  families,  several  stores 
and  one  or  two  hotels. 

The  settlement  of  G-ranville  Township,  in  this 
county,  is  rather  an  important  epoch  in  the  history 
of  this  part  of  the  State.  From  a  sketch  pub- 
lished by  Rev.  Jacob  Little  in  18-48,  in  Howe's 
Collections,  the  subjoined  statements  are  taken: 

"In  1804,  a  company  was  formed  at  Granville, 
Mass.,  with  the  intention  of  making  a  settlement 
in  Ohio.  This,  called  the  Scioto  Company,  was 
the  third  of  that  name  which  effected  settlemen1;g 
in  Ohio.  The  project  met  with  great  favor,  and 
much  enthusiasm  was  elicited,  in  illustration  of 
which  a  song  was  composed  and  sung  to  the 
tune  of  '  Pleasant  Ohio '  by  the  young  people  in 
the  house  and  at  labor  in  the  field.  We  annex 
two  stanzas,  which  are  more  curious  than  poetical: 

"'When  rambling  o'er  these  mountains 

And  rocks  where  ivies  grow 
Thick  as  the  hairs  upon  your  head, 

"Mongst  which  you  cannot  go — 
Great  storms  of   snow,    cold  winds  that  blow, 

We  scarce  can  undergo — 
Says  I,  my  boys,  we'll  leave  this  place 

For  the  pleasant  Ohio. 

"  <Our  precious  friends  that  stay  behind. 

We're  sorry  now  to  leave; 
But  if  they'll  stay  and  break  their  shins, 

For  them  we'll  never  grieve. 
Adieu,  my  friends! — Come  on,  my  dears, 

This  journey  we'll  forego. 
And  settle  Licking  Creek, 

In  yonder  Ohio.'  " 

"  The  Scioto  Company  consisted  of  one  hundred 
and  fourteen  proprietors,  who  made  a  purchase  of 
twenty-eight  thousand  acres.  In  the  autumn  of 
1805,  two  hundred  and  thirty-four  persons,  mostly 
from  East  Granville,  Mass.,  came  on  to  the  pur- 
chase. Although  they  had  been  forty-two  days  on 
the  road,  their  first  business,  on  their  arrival,  hav- 
ing organized  a  church  before  they  left  the  East, 
was  to  hear  a  sermon.     The  first  tree  cut  was  that 

by  which  public  worship  was  held,  which  stood 
just  in  front  of  the  Presbyterian  church. 

On  the  first  Sabbath,  November  16,  although 
only  about  a  dozen  trees  had  been  felled,  they  held 
divine  service,  both  forenoon  and  afternoon,  on 
that  spot.  The  novelty  of  worshiping  in  the 
woods,  the  forest  extending  hundreds  of  miles  each 
way  ;  the  hardships  of  the  journey,  the  winter  set- 
ting in,  the  thoughts  of  home,  with  all  the  friends 
and  privileges  left  behind,  and  the  impression  that 
such  must  be  the  accommodations  of  anew  country, 
all  rushed  on  their  minds,  and  made  this  a  day  of 
varied  interest.  When  they  began  to  sing,  the 
echo  of  their  voices  among  the  trees  was  so  differ- 
ent from  what  it  was  in  the  beautiful  meeting- 
house they  had  left,  that  they  could  no  longer 
restrain  their  tears.  They  ivept  when  they  remem- 
bered Zion.  The  voices  of  part  of  the  choir  were, 
for  a  season,  suppressed  with  emotion. 

"An  incident  occurred,  which  many  said  Mrs. 
Sigourney  should  have  put  into  verse.  Deacon 
Theophilus  Reese,  a  Welsh  Baptist,  had,  two  or 
three  years  before,  built  a  cabin,  a  mile  and  a  half 
north,  and  lived  all  this  time  without  public  wor- 
ship. He  had  lost  his  cattle,  and,  hearing  a  low- 
ing of  the  oxen  belonging  to  the  Company,  set  out 
toward  them.  As  he  ascended  the  hills  overlook- 
ing the  town  plot,  he  heard  the  singing  of  the 
choir.  The  reverberation  of  the  sound  from  hill- 
tops and  trees,  threw  the  good  man  into  a  serious 
dilemma.  The  music  at  first  seemed  to  be  behind, 
then  in  the  tree-tops,  or  in  the  clouds.  He  stopped, 
till,  by  accurate  listening,  he  caught  the  direction 
of  the  sound ;  went  on  and  passing  the  brow  of 
the  hill,  he  saw  the  audience  sitting  on  the 
level  below.  He  went  home  and  told  his  wife  that 
'  the  promise  of  God  is  a  bond  ' ;  a  Welsh  proverb, 
signifying  that  we  have  security,  equal  to  a  bond, 
that  religion  will  prevail  everywhere.  He  said : 
'  These  must  be  good  people.  I  am  not  afraid  to 
go  among  them.'  Though  he  could  not  under- 
stand English,  he  constantly  attended  the  reading 
meeting.  Hearing  the  music  on  that  occasion 
made  such  an  impression  on  his  mind  that,  when 
he  became  old  and  met  the  first  settlers,  he  would 
always  tell  over  this  story.  The  first  cabin  built 
was  that  in  which  they  worshiped  succeeding 
Sabbaths,  and,  before  the  close  of  the  winter,  they 
had  a  schoolhouse  and  a  school.  That  church,  in 
forty  years,  received  more  than  one  thousand  per- 
sons into  its  membership. 

"Elder  Jones,  in  1806,  preached  the  first  ser- 
mon  in   the   log   church.     The    Welsh    Baptist 





Church  was  organized  in  the  cabin  of  David 
Thomas,  Septen^^ber  4,  1808.  April  21,  1827, 
the  Grranville  members  were  organized  into  the 
Granville  Church,  and  the  corner-stone  of  their 
house  of  worship  laid  September  21,  1829.  In 
the  fall  of  1810,  the  first  Methodist  sermon  was 
preached  here,  and,  soon  after,  a  class  organized. 
In  1824,  a  church  was  built.  An  Episcopal 
church  was  organized  in  May,  1827,  and  a 
church  consecrated  in  1888.  In  1849,  there 
were  in  this  township  405  families,  of  whom  214 
sustain  family  worship ;  1431  persons  over  four- 
teen years  of  age,  of  whom  over  800  belong  to 
church.  The  town  had  150  families,  of  whom  80 
have  family  worship.  In  1846,  the  township 
furnished  70  school  teachers,  of  whom  62  prayed 
in  school.  In  1846,  the  township  took  621  peri- 
odical papers,  besides  three  small  monthlies.  The 
first  temperance  society  west  of  the  mountains  was 
organized  July  15,  1828,  in  this  township;  and, 
in  1831,  the  Congregational  Church  passed  a  by- 
law to  accept  no  member  who  trafficked  in  or  used 
ardent  spirits." 

It  is  said,  not  a  settlement  in  the  entire  West 
could  present  so  moral  and  upright  a  view  as  that 
of  Granville  Township;  and  nowhere  could  so 
perfect  and  orderly  a  set  of  people  be  found. 
Surely,  the  fact  is  argument  enough  in  favor  of 
the  religion  of  Jesus. 

The  narrative  of  Mr.  Little  also  states  that, 
when  Granville  was  first  settled,  it  was  supposed 
that  Worthington  would  be  the  capital  of  Ohio, 
between  which  and  Zanesville,  Granville  would 
make  a  great  half-way  town.  At  this  time,  wild 
animals,  snakes  and  Indians  abounded,  and  many 
are  the  marvelous  stories  preserved  regarding  the 
destruction  of  the  animals  and  reptiles  —  the 
Indians  being  bound  by  their  treaty  to  remain 
peaceful.  Space  forbids  their  repetition  here. 
Suffice  it  to  say  that,  as  the  whites  increased,  the 
Indians,  animals  and  snakes  disappeared,  until 
now  one  is  as  much  a  curiosity  as  the  other. 

The  remaining  settlement  in  the  southwest- 
ern parts  of  Ohio,  made  immediately  after  the 
treaty — fall  of  1795  or  year  of  1796 — was  in 
what  is  now  Madison  County,  about  a  mile  north 
of  where  the  village  of  Amity  now  stands,  on  the 
banks  of  the  Big  Darby.  This  stream  received  its 
name  from  the  Indians,  from  a  Wyandot  chief, 
named  Darby,  who  for  a  long  time  resided  upon  it, 
near  the  Union  County  line.  In  the  fall  of  1795, 
Benj  amin  Springer  came  from  Kentucky  and  selected 
some  land  on  the  banks  of  the  Big  Darby,  cleared 

the  ground,  built  a  cabin,  and  returned  for  his 
family.  The  next  spring,  he  brought  them  out, 
and  began  his  life  here.  The  same  summer  he  was 
joined  by  William  Lapin,  Joshua  and  James  Ew- 
ing  and  one  or  two  others. 

When  Springer  came,  he  found  a  white  man 
named  Jonathan  Alder,  who  for  fifteen  years  had 
been  a  captive  among  the  Indians,  and  who  could 
not  speak  a  word  of  English,  living  with  an  Indian 
woman  on  the  banks  of  Big  Darby.  He  had  been 
exchanged  at  Wayne's  treaty,  and,  neglecting  to 
profit  by  the  treaty,  was  still  living  in  the  Indian 
style.  When  the  whites  became  numerous  about 
him  his  desire  to  find  his  relatives,  and  adopt  the 
ways  of  the  whites,  led  him  to  discard  his  squaw — 
giving  her  an  unusual  allowance — learn  the  English 
language,  engage  in  agricultural  pursuits,  and  be- 
come again  civihzed.  Fortunately,  he  could  remem- 
ber enough  of  the  names  of  some  of  his  parents' 
neighbors,  so  that  the  identity  of  his  relatives  and 
friends  was  easily  established,  and  Alder  became  a 
most  useful  citizen.  He  was  very  influential  with 
the  Indians,  and  induced  many  of  them  to  remain 
neutral  during  the  war  of  1812.  It  is  stated  that 
in  1800,  Mr.  Ewing  brought  four  sheep  into  the  com- 
munity. They  were  strange  animals  to  the  Indians. 
One  day  when  an  Indian  hunter  and  his  dog  were 
passing,  the  latter  caught  a  sheep,  and  was  shot  by 
Mr.  Ewing.  The  Indian  would  have  shot  Ewing  in 
retaliation,  had  not  Alder,  who  was  fortunately 
present,  with  much  difficulty  prevailed  upon  him 
to  refrain. 

While  the  southern  and  southwestern  parts  of 
the  State  were  filling  with  settlers,  assured  of  safety 
by  Wayne's  victories,  the  northern  and  eastern 
parts  became  likewise  the  theater  of  activities. 
Ever  since  the  French  had  explored  the  southern 
shores  of  the  lake,  and  English  traders  had  car- 
ried goods  thither,  it  was  expected  one  day  to  be 
a  valuable  part  of  the  West.  It  will  be  remem- 
bered that  Connecticut  had  ceded  a  large  tract  of 
land  to  the  General  Government,  and  as  soon  as 
the  cession  was  confirmed,  and  land  titles  became 
assured,  settlers  flocked  thither.  Even  before  that 
time,  hardy  adventurers  had  explored  some  of  the 
country,  and  pronounced  it  a  "goodly  land," 
ready  for  the  hand  of  enterprise. 

The  first  settlement  in  the  Western  Reserve, 
and,  indeed,  in  the  northern  part  of  the  State,  was 
made  at  the  mouth  of  Conneaut*  Creek,  in  Ash- 
tabula County,  on  the  4th  of  July,  1796.     That 

'Conneaut,  in  the  Seneca  language,  signifiea  "many  fish." 




day,  the  first  surveying  party  landed  at  the  mouth 
of  this  creek,  and,  ou  its  eastern  bank,  near  the 
lake  shore,  in  tin  cups,  pledged — as  they  drank  the 
limpid  waters  of  the  lake — their  country's  welfare, 
with  the  ordnance  accompaniment  of  two  or  three 
fowling-pieces,  discharging  the  required  national 

The  whole  party,  on  this  occasion,  numbered 
fifty-two  persons,  of  whom  two  were  females  (Mrs. 
Stiles  and  Mrs.  Gunn)  and  a  child,  and  all  deserve 
a  lusting  place  in  the  history  of  the  State. 

The  next  day,  they  began  the  erection  of  a  large 
log  building  on  the  sandy  beach  on  the  east  side 
of  the  stream.  When  done,  it  was  named  "  Stow 
Castle,"  after  one  of  the  party.  It  was  the  dwell- 
ing, storehouse  and  general  habitation  of  all  the 
pioneers.  The  party  made  this  their  headquar- 
ters part  of  the  summer,  and  continued  busily 
engaged  in  the  survey  of  the  Reserve.  James 
Kingsbury,  afterward  Judge,  arrived  soon  after 
the  party  began  work,  and,  with  his  family,  was 
the  first  to  remain  here  during  the  winter  follow- 
ing, the  rest  returning  to  the  East,  or  going  south- 
ward. Through  the  winter,  Mr.  Kingsbury's 
family  suffered  greatly  for  provisions,  so  much  so, 
that,  during  the  absence  of  the  head  of  the  family 
in  New  York  for  provisions,  one  child,  born  in  his 
absence,  died,  and  the  mother,  reduced  by  her  suf- 
ferings and  solitude,  was  only  saved  by  the  timely 
arrival  of  the  husband  and  father  with  a  sack  of 
flour  he  had  carried,  many  weary  miles,  on  his 
back.  He  remained  here  but  a  short  time,  re- 
moving to  Cleveland,  which  was  laid  out  that  same 
fall.  In  the  spring  of  1798,  Alexander  Harper, 
William  McFarland  and  Ezra  Gregory,  with  their 
flimilies,  started  from  Harpersfield,  Delaware  Co., 
N.  Y.,  and  arrived  the  last  of  June,  at  their  new 
homes  in  the  Far  West.  The  whole  population  on 
the  Reserve  then  amounted  to  less  than  one  hun- 
dred and  fifty  persons.  These  were  at  Cleveland, 
Youngstown  and  at  Mentor.  During  the  summer, 
three  famiHes  came  to  Burton,  and  Judge  Hudson 
settled  at  Hudson.  All  these  pioneers  suffered 
severely  for  food,  and  from  the  fever  induced  by 
chills.  It  took  several  years  to  become  accli- 
mated. Sometimes  the  entire  neighborhood 
would  be  down,  and  only  one  or  two,  who  could 
wait  on  the  rest  "between  chills,"  were  able  to  do 
anything.     Time  and  courage  overcame,  finally. 

It  was  not  until  1798,  that  a  permanent  settle- 
ment was  made  at  the  mouth  of  Conneaut  Creek. 
Those  who  came  there  in  1796  went  on  with  their 
surveys,  part  remaining  in  Cleveland,  laid  out  that 

summer.  Judge  Kingsbury  could  not  remain  at 
Conneaut,  and  went  nearer  the  settlements  made 
about  theCuyahoga.  Inthespring  of  1798,  Thomas 
Montgomery  and  Aaron  Wright  settled  here  and 
remained.  Up  the  stream  they  found  some  thirty 
Indian  cabins,  or  huts,  in  a  good  state  of  preserva- 
tion, which  they  occupied  until  they  could  erect 
their  own.  Soon  after,  they  were  joined  by  others, 
and,  in  a  year  or  two,  the  settlement  was  permanent 
and  prosperous. 

The  site  of  the  present  town  of  Austinburg  in 
Ashtabula  County  was  settled  in  the  year  1799, 
by  two  families  from  Connecticut,  who  were  in- 
duced to  come  thither,  by  Judge  Austin.  The 
Judge  preceded  them  a  short  time,  driving,  in 
company  with  a  hired  man,  some  cattle  about  one 
hundred  and  fifty  miles  through  the  woods,  follow- 
ing an  old  Indian  trail,  while  the  rest  of  the  party 
came  in  a  boat  across  the  lake.  When  they  ar- 
rived, there  were  a  few  families  at  Harpersburg ; 
one  or  two  families  at  Windsor,  twenty  miles 
southwest;  also  a  few  families  at  Elk  Creek,  forty 
miles  northeast,  and  at  Vernon,  the  same  distance 
southeast.  All  these  were  in  a  destitute  condition 
for  provisions.  In  1800,  another  family  moved 
from  Norfolk,  Conn.  In  the  spring  of  1801,  sev- 
eral families  came  from  the  same  place.  Part  came 
by  land,  and  part  by  water.  During  that  season, 
wheat  was  carried  to  an  old  mill  on  Elk  Creek, 
forty  miles  away,  and  in  some  instances,  half  was 
given  for  carrying  it  to  mill  and  returning  it  in 

Wednesday,  October  21,  1801,  a  church  of  six- 
teen members  was  constituted  in  Austinburg. 
This  was  the  first  church  on  the  Reserve,  and  was 
founded  by  Rev.  Joseph  Badger,  the  first  mission- 
ary there.  It  is  a  fact  worthy  of  note,  that  in 
1802,  Mr.  Badger  moved  his  family  fi-om  Buffalo 
to  this  town,  in  the  first  wagon  that  ever  came 
from  that  place  to  the  Reserve.  In  1803,  noted 
revivals  occurred  in  this  part  of  the  West,  attended 
I  by  the  peculiar  bodily  phenomenon  known  as  the 
I  "  shakes  "  or  "jerks." 

I  The  surveying  party  which  landed  at  the  mouth 
I  of  Conneaut'^ Creek,  July  4,  1796,  soon  completed 
j  their  labors  in  this  part  of  the  Reserve,  and  ex- 
!  tended  them  westward.  By  the  first  of  September, 
I  they  had  explored  the  lake  coast  as  fiir  west  as  the 
outlet  of  the  Cuyahoga*  River,  then   considered 

*  Cuyahoga,  id   the    Indian  language,    signifies  "crooked."— 
Boioe'H  Cnlleclions. 

"The  liuiians  called  the  river  'Cnyahoghan-uk,'  'Lake  River 
It  is,  emphaticiUy,  a  Lake  river.     It  rises  in  lakes  and  empties  into 
a  \a]i.e."—Atwate'-'s  Hi  lory  of  Ohio. 



by  all  an  important  Western  place,  and  one  des- 
tined to  be  a  great  commercial  mart.  Time  has 
verified  the  prophecies,  as  now  the  city  of  Cleve- 
land covers  the  site. 

As  early  as  1755,  the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga 
River  was  laid  down  on  the  maps,  and  the  French 
had  a  station  here.  It  was  also  considered  an  im- 
portant post  during  the  war  of  the  Ilevolution,, 
and  later,  of  1812.  The  British,  who,  after  the 
Ilevolution,  refused  to  abandon  the  lake  country 
west  of  the  Cuyahoga,  occupied  its  shores  until 
1790.  Their  traders  had  a  house  in  Ohio  City, 
north  of  the  Detroit  road,  on  the  point  of  the  hill 
near  the  river,  when  the  surveyors  arrived  in 
1796.  Washington,  Jefferson,  and  all  statesmen 
of  that  day,  regarded  the  outlet  of  the  Cuyahoga 
as  an  important  place,  and  hence  the  early  at- 
tempt of  the  surveyors  to  reach  and  lay  out  a  town 

The  corps  of  surveyors  arrived  early  in  Septem- 
ber, 1796,  and  at  once  proceeded  to  lay  out  a  town. 
It  was  named  Cleveland,  in  honor  of  Gen.  Moses 
Cleveland,  the  Land  Company's  agent,  and  for 
years  a  very  prominent  man  in  Connecticut,  where 
he  lived  and  died.  By  the  18th  of  October,  the 
surveyors  had  completed  the  survey  and  left  the 
place,  leaving  only  Job  V.  Stiles  and  family,  and 
Edward  Paine,  who  were  the  only  persons  that 
passed  the  succeeding  winter  in  this  place.  Their 
residence  was  a  log  cabin  that  stood  on  a  spot  of 
ground  long  afterward  occupied  by  the  Commercial 
Bank.  Their  nearest  neighbors  were  at  Conne- 
aut,  where  Judge  Kingsbury  lived;  at  Fort 
Mcintosh,  on  the  south  or  east,  at  the  mouth  of 
Big  Beaver,  and  at  the  mouth  of  the  river  Raisin, 
on  the  west. 

The  next  season,  the  surveying  party  came  again 
to  Cleveland,  which  they  made  their  headquarters. 
Early  in  the  spring,  Judge  Kingsbury  came  over 
from  Conneaut,  bringing  with  him  Elijah  Gunn, 
who  had  a  short  time  before  joined  him.  Soon 
after,  Maj.  Lorenzo  Carter  and  Ezekiel  Hawley 
came  with  their  fiimilies.  These  were  about  all 
who  are  known  to  have  settled  in  this  place  that 
summer.  The  next  year,  1798,  Rodolphus  Ed- 
wards and  Nathaniel  Doane  and  their  families  set- 
tled in  Cleveland.  Mr.  Doane  had  been  ninety- 
two  days  on  his  journey  from  Chatham,  Conn.  In 
the  latter  part  of  the  summer  and  fill,  nearly  every 
person  in  the  settlement  was  down  with  the  bil- 
ious fever  or  with  the  ague.  Mr.  Doane's  family 
consisted  of  nine  persons,  of  whom  Seth,  a  lad  six- 
teen years  of  age,  was  the  only  one  able  to  care  for 

them.  Such  was  the  severity  of  the  fever,  that 
any  one  having  only  the  ague  was  deemed  quite 
fortunate.  Much  suffering  for  proper  food  and 
.  medicines  followed.  The  only  way  the  Doane 
family  was  supplied  for  two  months  or  more,  was 
through  the  exertions  of  this  boy,  who  went  daily, 
after  having  had  one  attack  of  the  chills,  to  Judge 
Kingsbury's  in  Newburg — five  miles  away,  where 
the  Judge  now  lived — got  a  peck  of  corn,  mashed  it 
in  a  hand-mill,  waited  until  a  second  attack  of  the 
chills  passed  over,  and  then  returned.  At  one  time, 
for  several  days,  he  was  too  ill  to  make  the  trip, 
during  which  turnips  comprised  the  chief  article 
of  diet.  Fortunately,  Maj.  Carter,  having  only 
the  ague,  was  enabled  with  his  trusty  rifle  and  dogs 
to  procure  an  abundance  of  venison  and  other  wild 
game,  His  family,  being  somewhat  acclimated, 
suffered  less  than  many  others.  Their  situation  can 
hardly  now  be  realized.  "  Destitute  of  a  physician, 
and  with  few  medicines,  necessity  taught  them  to 
use  such  means  as  nature  had  placed  within  their 
reach.  They  substituted  pills  from  the  extract  of 
the  bitternut  bark  for  calomel,  and  dogwood  and 
cherry  bark  for  quinine." 

In  November,  four  men,  who  had  so  far  recov- 
ered as  to  have  ague  attacks  no  oftener  than  once 
in  two  or  three  days,  started  in  the  only  boat  for 
Walnut  Creek,  Penn.,  to  obtain  a  winter's  supply 
of  flour.  When  below  Euclid  Creek,  a  storm 
drove  them  ashore,  broke  their  boat,  and  compelled 
their  return.  During  the  winter  and  summer  fol- 
lowing, the  settlers  had  no  flour,  except  that 
ground  in  hand  and  coffee  mills,  which  was,  how- 
ever, considered  very  good.  Not  all  had  even  that. 
During  the  summer,  the  Connecticut  Land  Com- 
pany opened  the  first  road  on  the  Reserve,  which 
commenced  about  ten  miles  south  of  the  lake 
shore,  on  the  Pennsylvania  State  line,  and  extended 
to  Cleveland.  In  January,  1799,  Mr.  Doane 
moved  to  Doane's  Corners,  leaving  only  Maj.  Car- 
ter's family  in  Cleveland,  all  the  rest  leaving  as 
soon  as  they  were  well  enough.  For  fifteen  months, 
the  Major  and  his  fxmily  were  the  only  white  per- 
sons left  on  the  town  site.  During  the  spring, 
Wheeler  W.  Williams  and  Maj.  Wyatt  built  the 
first  grist-mill  on  the  Reserve,  on  the  site  of  New- 
burg. It  was  looked  upon  as  a  very  valuable  acces- 
sion to  the  neighborhood.  Prior  to  this,  each  fam- 
ily had  its  own  hand-mill  in  one  of  the  corners  of 
the  cabin.  The  old  mill  is  thus  described  by  a 
pioneer : 

"  The  stones  were  of  the  common  grindstone 
grit,  about  four  inches  thick,  and  twenty  in  diame- 




ter.  The  runner,  or  upper,  was  turned  by  band, 
by  a  pole  set  in  the  top  of  it,  near  the  outer  edge. 
The  upper  end  of  the  pole  was  inserted  into  a  hole 
in  a  board  fastened  above  to  the  joists,  immedi- 
ately over  the  hole  in  the  verge  of  the  runner. 
One  person  fed  the  corn  into  the  eye — a  hole  in 
the  center  of  the  runner — while  another  turned. 
It  was  very  hard  work  to  grind,  and  the  operators 
alternately  exchanged  places." 

In  1800,  several  settlers  came  to  the  town  and 
a  more  active  life  was  the  result.  From  this  time, 
Cleveland  began  to  progress.  The  4th  of  July, 
1801,  the  first  ball  in  town  was  held  at  Major 
Carter's  log  cabin,  on  the  hill-side.  John  and 
Benjamin  Wood,  and  R.  H.  Bhnn  were  managers; 
and  Maj.  Samuel  Jones,  musician  and  master  of 
ceremonies.  The  company  numbered  aboutthirty, 
very  evenly  divided,  for  the  times,  between  the 
sexes.  "  Notwithstanding  the  dancers  had  a  rough 
puncheon  floor,  and  no  better  beverage  to  enliven 
their  spirits  than  sweetened  whisky,  yet  it  is  doubt- 
ful if  the  anniversary  of  American  independence 
was  ever  celebrated  in  Cleveland  by  a  more  joyful 
and  harmonious  company  than  those  who  danced 
the  scamper-down,  double-shuffle,  western-swing 
and  half-moon,  that  day,  in  Maj.  Carter's  cabin." 
The  growth  of  the  town,  fi-om  this  period  on,  re- 
mained prosperous.  The  usual  visits  of  the  Indi- 
ans were  made,  ending  in  their  drunken  carousals 
and  fights.  Deer  and  other  wild  animals  furnished 
abundant  meat.  The  settlement  was  constantly 
augmented  by  new  arrivals,  so  that,  by  181-1,  Cleve- 
land was  incorporated  as  a  town,  and,  in  1836,  as 
a  city.  Its  harbor  is  one  of  the  best  on  the  lakes, 
and  hence  the  merchandise  of  the  lakes  has  always 
been  attracted  thither.  Like  Cincinnati  and  Chil- 
licothe,  it  became  the  nucleus  of  settlements  in  this 
part  of  the  State,  and  now  is  the  largest  city  in 
Northern  Ohio. 

One  of  the  earliest  settlements  made  in  the 
Western  Reserve,  and  by  some  claimed  as  the  first 
therein,  was  made  on  the  site  of  Youngstown,  Ma- 
honing County,  by  a  Mr.  Young,  afterward  a  Judge, 
in  the  summer  of  1796.  During  this  summer, 
before  the  settlements  at  Cuyahoga  and  Conueaut 
were  made,  Mr.  Young  and  Mr.  Wilcott,  proprie- 
tors of  a  township  of  land  in  Northeastern  Ohio, 
came  to  their  possessions  and  began  the  survey  of 
their  land.  Just  when  they  came  is  not  known. 
They  were  found  here  by  Col.  James  Hillman, 
then  a  trader  in  the  employ  of  Duncan  &  Wilson, 
of  Pittsburgh,  "  who  had  been  forwarding  goods 
across    the  country  by  pack-saddle  horses  since 

1786,  to  the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga,  thence  to  be 
shipped  on  the  schooner  Mackinaw  to  Detroit. 
Col.  Hillman  generally  had  charge  of  all  these 
caravans,  consisting  sometimes  of  ninety  horses 
and  ten  men.  They  commonly  crossed  the  Big 
Beaver  four  miles  below  the  mouth  of  the  She- 
nango,  thence  up  the  left  bank  of  the  Mahoning — 
called  by  the  Indians  "  Mahoni"  or  "  Mahonick" 
signifying  the  "  lick"  or  "  at  the  lick  " — crossing 
it  about  three  miles  below  the  site  of  Youngstown, 
thence  by  way  of  the  Salt  Springs,  over  the  sites 
of  Milton  and  Ravenna,  crossing  the  Cuyahoga  at 
the  mouth  of  Breakneck  and  again  at  the  mouth 
of  Tinker's  Creek,  thence  down  the  river  to  its 
mouth,  where  they  had  a  log  hut  in  which  to 
store  their  goods.  This  hut  was  there  when  the 
surveyors  came,  but  at  the  time  unoccupied.  At 
the  mouth  of  Tinker's  Creek  were  a  few  log  huts 
built  by  iMoravian  Missionaries.  These  were  used 
only  one  year,  as  the  Indians  had  gone  to  the  Tus- 
carawas River.  These  and  three  or  four  cabins  at 
the  Salt  Springs  were  the  only  buildings  erected 
by  the  whites  prior  to  1796,  in  Northeastern  Ohio. 
Those  at  the  Salt  Springs  were  built  at  an  early 
day  for  the  accommodation  of  whites  who  came 
from  Western  Pennsylvania  to  make  salt.  The 
tenants  were  dispossessed  in  1785  by  Gen.  Harmar. 
A  short  time  after,  one  or  two  white  men  were 
killed  by  the  Indians  here.  In  1788'  Col.  Hill- 
man settled  at  Beavertown,  where  Duncan  & 
Wilson  had  a  store  for  the  purpose  of  trading 
with  the  Indians.  He  went  back  to  Pittsburgh 
soon  after,  however,  owing  to  the  Indian  war,  and 
remained  there  till  its  close,  continuing  in  his  busi- 
ness whenever  opportunity  offered.  In  1796, 
when  returning  from  one  of  his  trading  expeditions 
alone  in  his  canoe  down  the  Mahoning  River,  he 
discovered  a  smoke  on  the  bank  near  the  present 
town  of  Youngstown,  and  on  going  to  the  spot 
found  Mr.  Young  and  Mr.  Wolcott,  as  before  men- 
tioned. A  part  of  Col.  Hillman's  cargo  consisted 
of  whisky,  a  gallon  or  so  of  which  he  still  had. 
The  price  of  "fire-water  "  then  was  81  per  quart 
in  the  currency  of  the  country,  a  deerskin  being 
legal  tender  for  $1,  and  a  doeskin  for  50  cents. 
Mr.  Young  proposed  purchasing  a  quart,  and 
having  a  frolic  on  its  contents  during  the  even- 
ing, and  insisted  on  paying  Hillman  his  cus- 
tomary price.  Hillman  urged  that  inasmuch  as 
they  were  strangers  in  the  country,  civility  re- 
quired him  to  furnish  the  means  for  the  entertain- 
ment. Young,  however,  insisted,  and  taking  the 
deerskin   used  for  his  bed — the  only  one  he  had — 

~$)  "V 



paid  for  his  quart  of  whisky,  and  an  evening's 
froUc  "was  the  result. 

"  HiUman  remained  a  few  days,  when  they  ac- 
companied him  to  Beaver  Town  to  celebrate  the 
4th,  and  then  all  returned,  and  Hilhnan  erected  a 
cabin  on  the  site  of  Youngstown.  It  is  not  cer- 
tain that  they  remained  here  at  this  time,  and 
hence  the  priority  of  actual  settlement  is  generally 
conceded  to  Conneaut  and  Cleveland.  The  next 
year,  in  the  fall,  a  Mr.  Bi'own  and  one  other  per- 
son came  to  the  banks  of  the  Mahoning  and  made 
a  permanent  settlement.  The  same  season  Uriah 
Holmes  and  Titus  Hayes  came  to  the  same  locality, 
and  before  winter  quite  a  settlement  was  to  be  seen 
here.  It  proceeded  quite  prosperously  until  the 
wanton  murder  of  two  Indians  occurred,  which, 
for  a  time,  greatly  excited  the  whites,  lest  the  In- 
dians should  retaliate.  Through  the  efforts  of 
Col.  Hilhnan,  who  had  great  influence  with  the 
natives,  they  agreed  to  let  the  murderers  stand  a 
trial.  They  were  acquitted  upon  some  technicality. 
The  trial,  however,  pacified  the  Indians,  and  no 
trouble  came  from  the  unwarranted  and  unfortu- 
nate circumstance,  and  no  check  in  the  emigration 
or  prosperity  of  the  colony  occurred."* 

As  soon  as  an  efifective  settlement  had  been  es- 
tablished at  Youngstown,  others  were  made  in  the 
surrounding  country.  One  of  these  was  begun  by 
William  Feuton  in  1798,  on  the  site  of  the  pres- 
ent town  of  Warren,  in  Trumbull  County.  He 
remained  here  alone  one  year,  when  he  was  joined 
by  Capt.  Ephraim  Quimby.  By  the  last  of  Sep- 
tember, the  next  year,  the  colony  had  increased  to 
sixteen,  and  from  that  date  on  continued  prosper- 
ously. Once  or  twice  they  stood  in  fear  of  the 
Indians,  as  the  result  of  quarrels  induced  by 
whisky.  Sagacious  persons  generally  saved  any 
serious  outbreak  and  pacified  the  natives.  Mr. 
Badger,  the  first  missionary  on  the  Reserve,  came 
to  the  settlement  here  and  on  the  Mahoning,  as 
soon  as  each  was  made,  and,  by  his  earnest  labors, 
succeedcid  in  forming  churches  and  schools  at  an 
early  day.  He  was  one  of  the  most  efficient  men 
on  the  Reserve,  and  throughout  his  long  and  busy 
life,  was  well  known  and  greatly  respected.  He 
died  in  18-46,  aged  eighty-nine  years. 

The  settlements  given  are  about  all  that  were 
made  before  the  close  of  1797.  In  following  the 
narrative  of  these  settlements,  attention  is  paid  to 
the  chronological  order,  as  far  as  this  can  be  done. 
Like  those  settlements  already  made,  many  which 

*  Recollections  of  Col.  HiUman. — Boive's  AnnaU. 

are  given  as  occurring  in  the  next  year,  1798, 
were  actually  begun  earlier,  but  were  only  tem- 
porary preparations,  and  were  not  considered  as 
made  until  the  next  year. 

Turning  again  to  the  southern  portion  of  Ohio, 
the  Scioto,  Muskingum  and  Miami  Valleys  come 
prominently  into  notice.  Throughout  the  entire 
Eastern  States  they  were  still  attracting  attention, 
and  an  increased  emigration,  busily  occupying  their 
verdant  fields,  was  the  result.  All  about  Chilli- 
cothe  was  now  well  settled,  and,  up  the  banks  of 
that  stream,  prospectors  were  selecting  sites  for 
their  future  homes. 

In  1797,  Robert  Armstrong,  George  Skidmore, 
Lucas  Sullivant,  William  Domigan,  James  Mar- 
shall, John  Dill,  Jacob  Grubb,  Jacob  Overdier, 
Arthur  O'Hara,  John  Brickell,  Col.  Culbertson, 
the  Deardorfs,  McElvains,  Selles  and  others,  came 
to  what  is  now  Franklin  County,  and,  in  August, 
Mr.  Sullivant  and  some  others  laid  out  the  town  of 
Franklinton,  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Scioto,  oppo- 
site the  site  of  Columbus.  The  country  about  this 
locality  had  long  been  the  residence  of  the  Wyan- 
dots,  who  had  a  large  town  on  the  city's  site,  and 
cultivated  extensive  fields  of  corn  on  the  river  bot- 
toms. The  locality  had  been  visited  by  the  whites 
as  early  as  1780,  in  some  of  their  expeditions,  and 
the  fertility  of  the  land  noticed.  As  soon  as  peace 
was  assured,  the  whites  came  and  began  a  settle- 
ment, as  has  been  noted.  Soon  after  Franklinton 
was  established,  a  Mr.  Springer  and  his  son-in-law, 
Osborn,  settled  on  the  Big  Darby,  and,  in  the  sum- 
mer of  1798,  a  scattering  settlement  was  made  on 
Alum  Creek.  About  the  same  time  settlers  came 
to  the  mouth  of  the  Gahannah,  and  along  other 
water-courses.  Franklinton  was  the  point  to  which 
emigrants  came,  and  from  which  they  always  made 
their  permanent  location.  For  several  years  there 
was  no  mill,  nor  any  such  commodity,  nearer  than 
Chillicothe.  A  hand-mill  was  constructed  in 
Franklinton,  which  was  commonly  used,  unless  the 
settlers  made  a  trip  to  Chillicothe  in  a  canoe. 
Next,  a  horse-mill  was  tried ;  but  not  till  1805, 
when  Col.  Kilbourne  built  a  mill  at  Worthington, 
settled  in  1803,  could  any  efficient  grinding  be 
done.  In  1789,  a  small  store  was  openedin  Frank- 
linton, by  James  Scott,  but,  for  seven  or  eight 
years,  Chillicothe  was  the  nearest  post  office. 
Often,  when  the  neighbors  wanted  mail,  one  of 
their  number  was  furnished  money  to  pay  the 
postage  on  any  letters  that  might  be  waiting,  and 
sent  for  the  mail.  At  first,  as  in  all  new  localities, 
a  great  deal  of  sickness,  fever  and  ague,  prevailed. 




As  the  people  became  acclimated,  this,  however, 

The  township  of  Sharon  in  this  county  has  a 
history  similar  to  that  of  Granville  Township  in 
Licking  County.  It  was  settled  by  a  "  Scioto 
Company,"  formed  in  Granby,  Conn.,  in  the  winter 
of  1801-02,  consisting  at  first  of  eight  associates. 
They  drew  up  articles  of  association,  among  which 
was  one  limiting  their  number  to  forty,  each  of 
whom  must  be  unanimously  chosen  by  ballot,  a 
single  negative  being  sufiBcient  to  prevent  an  election. 
Col.  James  Kilbourne  was  sent  out  the  succeeding 
spring  to  explore  the  country  and  select  and  pur- 
chase a  township  for  settlement.  He  returned  in 
the  fall  without  making  any  purchase,  through 
fear  that  the  State  Constitution,  then  about  to  be 
formed,  would  tolerate  slavery,  in  which  case  the 
project  would  have  been  abandoned.  While  on 
this  visit.  Col.  Kilbourne  compiled  from  a  variety 
of  sources  the  first  map  made  of  Ohio.  Although 
much  of  it  was  conjectured,  and  hence  inaccurate, 
it  was  veiy  valuable,  being  correct  as  far  as  the 
State  was  then  known. 

"As  soon  as  information  was  received  that  the 
constitution  of  Ohio  prohibited  slavery,  Col.  Kil- 
bourne purchased  the  township  he  had  previously 
selected,  within  the  United  States  military  land 
district,  and,  in  the  spring  of  1803,  returned  to 
Ohio,  and  began  improvements.  By  the  succeed- 
ing December,  one  hundred  settlers,  mainly  from 
Hartford  County,  Conn.,  and  Hampshire  County, 
Mass.,  arrived  at  their  new  home.  Obeying  to  the 
letter  the  agreement  made  in  the  East,  the  first 
cabin  erected  was  used  for  a  schoolhouse  and  a 
church  of  the  Protestant  Episcopal  denomination ; 
the  first  Sabbath  after  the  arrival  of  the  colony, 
divine  service  was  held  therein,  and  on  the  arrival 
of  the  eleventh  family  a  school  was  opened.  This 
early  attention  to  education  and  religion  has  left 
its  favorable  impress  upon  the  people  until  this  day. 
The  first  4th  of  July  was  uniquely  and  appropri- 
ately celebrated.  Seventeen  gigantic  trees,  em- 
blematical of  the  seventeen  States  forming  the 
Union,  were  cut,  so  that  a  few  blows  of  the  ax,  at 
sunrise  on  the  4th,  prostrated  each  successively 
with  a  tremendous  crash,  forming  a  national  salute 
novel  in  the  world's  history."* 

The  growth  of  this  part  of  Ohio  continued 
without  interruption  until  the  establishment  of  the 
State  capital  at  Columbus,  in  1816.  The  town  was 
laid  out  in  1812,  but,  as  that  date  is  considered  re- 

*IIowe's  Collections. 

mote  in  the  early  American  settlements,  its  history 
will  be  left  to  succeeding  pages,  and  there  traced 
when  the  history  of  the  State  capital  and  State 
government  is  given. 

The  site  of  Zanesville,  in  Muskingum  County, 
was  early  looked  upon  as  an  excellent  place  to  form 
a  settlement,  and,  had  not  hostilities  opened  in 
1791,  with  the  Indians,  the  place  would  have  been 
one  of  the  earliest  settled  in  Ohio.  As  it  was,  the 
war  so  disarranged  matters,  that  it  was  not  till 
1797  that  a  permanent  settlement  was  effected. 

The  Muskingum  country  was  principally  occu- 
pied, in  aboriginal  times,  by  the  Wyanduts,  Dela- 
wares,  and  a  few  Senecas  and  Shawanees.  An  In- 
dian town  once  stood,  years  before  the  settlement 
of  the  country,  in  the  vicinity  of  Duncan's  Falls, 
in  Muskingum  County,  from  which  circumstance 
the  place  is  often  called  "Old  Town."  Near  Dres- 
den, was  a  large  Shawanee  town,  called  \5^.akato- 
maca.  The  graveyard  was  quite  large,  and,  when 
the  whites  first  settled  here,  remains  of  the  town 
were  abundant.  It  was  in  this  vicinity  that  the 
venerable  Maj.  Cass,  father  of  Lewis  Cass,  lived 
and  died.  He  owned  4,000  acres,  given  him  for 
his  military  services. 

The  first  settlers  on  the  site  of  Zanesville  were 
William  McCulloh  and  Henry  Crooks.  The  lo- 
cality was  given  to  Ebenezer  Zane,  who  had  been 
allowed  three  sections  of  land  on  the  Scioto,  Mus- 
kingum and  Hockhocking,  wherever  the  road 
crossed  these  rivers,  provided  other  prior  claims 
did  not  interfere,  for  opening  "Zane's  trace." 
When  he  located  the  road  across  the  Muskingum, 
he  selected  the  place  where  Zanesville  now  stands, 
being  attracted  there  by  the  excellent  water  privi- 
leges. He  gave  the  section  of  land  here  to  his 
brother  Jonathan  Zane,  and  J.  Mclntire,  who 
leased  the  ferry,  established  on  the  road  over  the 
Muskingum,  to  William  McCulloh  and  Henry 
Crooks,  who  became  thereby  the  first  settlers.  The 
ferry  was  kept  about  where  the  old  upper  bridge 
was  afterward  placed.  The  ferry-boat  was  made 
by  fastening  two  canoes  together  with  a  stick. 
Soon  after  a  flat-boat  was  used.  It  was  brought 
from  Wheeling,  by  Mr.  Mclntire,  in  1797,  the 
year  after  the  ferry  was  established.  The  road  cut 
out  through  Ohio,  ran  from  Wheeling,  Va.,  to 
Maysville,  Ky.  Over  this  road  the  mail  was  car- 
ried, and,  in  1798,  the  first  mail  ever  carried 
wholly  in  Ohio  was  brought  up  fi"om  Marietta  to 
McCulloh's  cabin  by  Daniel  Convers,  where,  by 
arrangement  of  the  Postmaster  General,  it  met 
a  mail   from  Wheeling  and  one  from   Maysville. 




McCuIIoh,  who  could  hardly  read,  was  authorized 
to  assort  the  mails  and  send  each  package  in  its 
proper  direction.  For  this  service  he  received 
SoU  per  annum  ;  but  owing  to  his  inability  to  read 
well,  Mr.  Convers  generally  performed  the  duty. 
At  that  time,  the  mails  met  here  once  a  week. 
Four  years  after,  the  settlement  had  so  increased 
that  a  regular  post  office  was  opened,  and  Thomas 
Dowden  appointed  Postmaster.  He  kept  his  office 
in  a  wooden  building  near  the  river  bank. 

Messrs.  Zane  and  Mclntire  laid  out  a  town  in 
1799,  which  they  called  Westbourn.  When  the 
post  office  was  established,  it  was  named  Zanesville, 
and  in  a  short  time  the  village  took  the  same  name. 
A  few  families  settled  on  the  west  side  of  the  river, 
soon  after  McCulloh  arrived,  and  as  this  locality 
grew  well,  not  long  after  a  store  and  tavern  was 
opened  here.  Mr.  Mclntire  built  a  double  log 
cabin,  which  was  used  as  a  hotel,  and  in  which 
Louis  Philippe,  King  of  France,  was  once  enter- 
tained. Although  the  fire  and  accommodations 
were  of  the  pioneer  period,  the  honorable  guestseems 
to  have  enjoyed  his  visit,  if  the  statements  of  Lewis 
Cass  in  his  "  Camp  and  Court  of  Louis  Philippe" 
may  be  believed. 

In  1804,  Muskingum  County  was  formed  by  the 
Legislature,  and,  for  a  while,  strenuous  efforts  made 
to  secure  the  State  capital  by  the  citizens  of  Zanes- 
ville. They  even  erected  buildings  for  the  use  of 
the  Legislature  and  Governor,  and  during  the  ses- 
sion of  1810-11,  the  temporary  seat  of  govern- 
ment was  fixed  here.  When  the  permanent  State 
capital  was  chosen  in  181G,  Zanesville  was  passed 
by,  and  gave  up  the  hope.  It  is  now  one  of  the 
most  enterprising  towns  in  the  Muskingum  Valley. 

During  the  summer  of  1797,  John  Knoop,  then 
living  ft)ur  miles  above  Cincinnati,  made  several 
expeditions  up  the  Miami  Valley  and  selected  the 
land  on  which  he  afterward  located.  The  next 
spring  Mr.  Knoop,  his  brother  Benjamin,  Henry 
G-arard,  Benjamin  Hamlet  and  John  Tildus  estab- 
lished a  station  in  what  is  now  Miami  County,  near 
the  present  town  of  Staunton  Village.  That  sum- 
mer, Mrs.  Knoop  planted  the  first  apple-tree  in 
the  Miami  *  country.  They  all  lived  together  for 
greater  safety  for  two  years,  during  which  time 
they  were  occupied  clearing  their  farms  and  erect- 
ing dwellings.  During  the  summer,  the  site  of 
Piquawas  settled,  and  three  young  men  located  at  a 
place  known  as  "  Freeman's  Prairie."     Those  who 

*The  word  Miami  in  the  Indian  tongue  signified  mother.  The 
Miamis  wore  the  original  owners  of  the  valley  by  that  name,  and 
affirmed  they  were  created  there. 

settled  at  Piqua  were  Samuel  Hilliard,  Job  Garard, 
Shadrac  Hudson,  Jonah  Rollins,  Daniel  Cox, 
Thomas  Rich,  and  a  Mr.  Hunter.  The  last  named 
came  to  the  site  of  Piqua  first  in  1797,  and 
selected  his  home.  Until  1799,  these  named  were 
the  only  ones  ia  this  locality  ;  but  that  year  emi- 
gration set  in,  and  very  shortly  occupied  almost  all 
the  bottom  land  in  Miami  County.  With  the 
increase  of  emigration,  came  the  comforts  of  life, 
and  mills,  stores  and  other  necessary  aids  to  civil- 
ization, were  ere  long  to  be  seen. 

The  site  of  Piqua  is  quite  historic,  being  the 
theater  of  many  important  Indian  occurrences, 
and  the  old  home  of  the  Shawanees,  of  which 
tribe  Tecumseh  was  a  chief.  During  the  Indian 
war,  a  fort  called  Fort  Piqua  was  built,  near  the 
residence  of  Col.  John  Johnston,  so  long  the  faith- 
ful Indian  Agent.  The  fort  was  abandoned  at  the 
close  of  hostilities. 

When  the  Miami  Canal  was  opened  through  this 
part  of  the  State,  the  country  began  rapidly  to 
improve,  and  is  now  probably  one  of  the  best  por- 
tions of  Ohio. 

About  the  same  time  the  Miami  was  settled,  a 
company  of  people  fi'om  Pennsylvania  and  Vir- 
ginia, who  were  principally  of  German  and  Irish 
descent,  located  in  Lawrence  County,  near  the  iron 
region.  As  soon  as  that  ore  was  made  available, 
that  part  of  the  State  rapidly  filled  with  settlers, 
most  of  whom  engaged  in  the  mining  and  working 
of  iron  ore.     Now  it  is  very  prosperous. 

Another  settlement  was  made  the  same  season, 
1797,  on  the  Ohio  side  of  the  river,  in  Columbiana 
County.  The  settlement  progressed  slowly  for  a 
while,  owing  to  a  few  difficulties  with  the  Indians. 
The  celebrated  Adam  Poe  had  been  here  as  early 
as  1782,  and  several  localities  are  made  locally 
famous  by  his  and  his  brother's  adventures. 

In  this  county,  on  Little  Beaver  Creek,  near  its 
mouth,  the  second  paper-mill  west  of  the  Alle- 
ghanies  was  erected  in  1805-6.  It  was  the  pioneer 
enterprise  of  the  kind  in  Ohio,  and  was  named  the 
Ohio  Paper-Mill.  Its  proprietors  were  John 
Bever  and  John  Coulter. 

One  of  the  most  noted  localities  in  the  State  is 
comprised  in  Greene  County.  The  Shawanee 
town,  "Old  Chillicothe,"  was  on  the  Little  Miami, 
in  this  county,  about  three  miles  north  of  the  site 
of  Xenia.  This  old  Indian  town  was,  in  the  an- 
nals of  the  West,  a  noted  place,  and  is  frequently 
noticed.  It  is  first  mentioned  in  1773,  by  Cajit. 
Thomas  Bullitt,  of  Virginia,  who  boldly  advanced 
alone  into  the  town  and  obtained   the  consent  of 



the  Indians  to  go  on  to  Kentucky  and  make  his 
settlement  at  the  falls  of  the  Ohio.  His  audacious 
bravery  gained  his  request.  Daniel  Boone  was 
taken  prisoner  early  in  1778,  with  twenty-seven 
others,  and  kept  for  a  time  at  Old  Chillicothe. 
Through  the  influence  of  the  British  Governor, 
Hamilton,  who  had  taken  a  great  fancy  to  Boone, 
he  and  ten  others  were  sent  to  Detroit.  The  In- 
dians, however,  had  an  equal  fancy  for  the  brave 
frontiersman,  and  took  him  back  to  Chillicothe, 
and  adopted  him  into  their  tribe.  About  the  1st 
of  June  he  escaped  from  them,  and  made  liis  way 
back  to  Kentucky,  in  time  to  prevent  a  universal 
massacre  of  the  whites.  In  July,  1779,  the  town 
was  destroyed  by  Col.  John  Bowman  and  one 
hundred  and  sixty  Kentuckians,  and  the  Indians 

The  Americans  made  a  permanent  settlement  in 
this  county  in  1797  or  1798.  This  latter  year,  a 
mill  was  erected  in  the  confines  of  the  county, 
which  implies  the  settlement  was  made  a  short 
time  previously.  A  short  distance  east  of  the 
mill  two  block-houses  were  erected,  and  it  was  in- 
tended, should  it  become  necessary,  to  surround 
them  and  the  mill  with  pickets.  The  mill  was 
used  by  the  settlers  at  "  Dutch  Station,"  in  Miami 
County,  fully  thirty  miles  distant.  The  richness 
of  the  country  in  this  part  of  the  State  attracted  a 
great  number  of  settlers,  so  that  by  1803  the 
county  was  established,  and  Xenialaid  out,  and  des- 
ignated as  the  county  seat.  Its  first  court  house, 
a  primitive  log  structure,  was  long  preserved  as  a 
curiosity.     It  would  indeed  be  a  curiosity  now. 

Zane's  trace,  passing  from  Wheeling  to  Mays- 
ville,  crossed  the  Hockhocking*  River,  in  Fairfield 
County,  where  Lancaster  is  now  built.  Mr.  Zane 
located  one  of  his  three  sections  on  this  river, 
covering  the  site  of  Lancaster.  Following  this 
trace  in  1797,  many  individuals  noted  the  desira- 
bleness of  the  locality,  some  of  whom  determined 
to  return  and  settle.  "  The  site  of  the  city  had 
in  former  times  been  the  home  of  the  Wyandots, 
who  had  a  town  here,  that,  in  1790,  contained 
over  500  wigwams  and  more  than  1 ,000  souls. 
Their  town  was  called  Tarhee^  or,  in  English,  the 
Crane-toivn,  a,nd  derived  its  name  from  the  princi- 

*  The  word  Hock-hock-ing  in  the  Delaware  langviago  signifies 
a  bottle:  tlie  Shawanees  have  it  Wen-lha-kiigh-qua  sope,  ie ;  hoUle 
rioer.  John  White  in  the  Amprican  Pioiietr  says:  "Aliout  seven 
miles  nort  'wcst  of  Lancaster,  tlipre  is  a  fall  In  the  Hockhocking  of 
about  twuity  feet.  Above  the  fall  for  a  short  distance,  the  creek 
is  very  narrow  and  straight  forming  a  neck,  while  at  the  falls  it 
suddenly  widens  on  each  sideand  swells  into  the  appearance  of  the 
body  of  a  bottle.  The  whole,  when  seen  from  above,  appears  exactly 
in  the  shape  of  a  bottle,  and  from  this  fact  the  Indians  called  the 
river  Hock-hock-ing."' — Howe's  CoUeciioiix. 

pal  chief  of  that  tribe.  Another  portion  of  the 
tribe  then  lived  at  Toby-town,  nine  miles  west  of 
Tarhe-town  (now  Royaltown),  and  was  governed 
by  an  inferior  chief  called  Toby.  The  chief's  wig- 
wam in  Tarhe  stood  on  the  bank  of  the  prairie, 
near  a  beautiful  and  abundant  spring  of  water, 
whose  outlet  was  the  river.  The  wigwams  of  the 
Indians  were  built  of  the  bark  of  trees,  set  on 
poles,  in  the  form  of  a  sugar-camp,  with  one  square 
open,  fronting  a  fire,  and  about  the  height  of  a 
man.  The  Wyandot  tribe  that  day  numbered 
about  500  warriors.  By  the  treaty  of  Greenville, 
they  ceded  all  their  territory,  and  the  majority,  un- 
der their  chief,  removed  to  Upper  Sandusky.  The 
remainder  lingered  awhile,  loath  to  leave  the  home 
of  their  ancestors,  but  as  game  became  scarce,  they, 
too,  left  for  better  hunting-grounds."* 

In  April,  1798,  Capt.  Joseph  Hunter,  a  bold, 
enterprising  man,  settled  on  Zane's  trace,  on  the 
bank  of  the  prairie,  west  of  the  crossings,  at  a 
place  since  known  as  "  Hunter's  settlement."  For 
a  time,  he  had  no  neighbors  nearer  than  the  set- 
tlers on  the  Muskingum  and  Scioto  Rivers.  He 
lived  to  see  the  country  he  had  found  a  wilderness, 
full  of  the  homes  of  industry.  His  wife  was  the 
first  white  woman  that  settled  in  the  valley,  and 
shared  with  him  all  the  privations  of  a  pioneer 

Mr.  Hunter  had  not  been  long  in  the  valley  till 
he  was  joined  by  Nathaniel  Wilson,  John  and  Al- 
len Green,  John  and  Joseph  McMullen,  Robert 
Cooper,  Isaac  Shaefer,  and  a  few  others,  who 
erected  cabins  and  planted  corn.  The  next  year, 
the  tide  of  emigration  came  in  with  great  force. 
In  the  spring,  two  settlements  were  made  in  Green- 
field Township,  each  settlement  containing  twenty 
or  more  families.  One  was  called  the  Forks  of 
the  Hockhocking,  the  other,  Yankeetowu.  Set- 
tlements were  also  made  along  the  river  below 
Hunter's,  on  Rush  Creek,  Raccoon  and  Indian 
Creeks,  Pleasant  Run,  Felter's  Run,  at  Tobeytown, 
Muddy  Prairie,  and  on  Clear  Creek.  In  the  fall, 
— 1799 — Joseph  Loveland  and  Hezekiah  Smith 
built  a  log  grist-mill  at  the  Upper  Falls  of  the 
Hockhocking,  afterward  known  as  Rock  31111. 
This  was  the  first  mill  on  this  river.  In  the  latter 
part  of  the  year,  a  mail  route  was  established  over 
the  trace.  The  mail  was  earned  through  on  horse- 
back, and,  in  the  settlements  in  this  locality,  was 
left  at  the  cabin  of  Samuel  Coates,  who  lived  on 
the  prairie  at  the  crossings  of  the  river. 

*  Lecture  of  George  Sanderson. — Howe's  CollecHont. 




In  the  fall  of  the  next  year,  Ebenezer  Zane  laid 
out  Lancaster,  which,  until  1805,  was  known  as 
New  Lancaster.  The  lots  sold  very  rapidly,  at 
$50  each,  and,  in  less  than  one  year,  quite  a  vil- 
lage appeared.  December  9,  the  Governor  and 
Judges  of  the  Northwest  Territory  organized 
Fairfield  County,  and  made  Lancaster  the  county 
seat.  The  year  following,  the  Rev.  John  Wright, 
a  minister  of  the  Presbyterian  Church,  came,  and 
from  that  time  on  schools  and  churches  were  estab- 
lished and  tliereafter  regularly  maintained  at  this 

Not  far  from  Lancaster  are  immense  mural  es- 
carpments of  sandstone  formation.  They  were 
noted  among  the  aborigines,  and  were,  probably, 
used  by  them  as  places  of  outlook  and  defense. 

The  same  summer  Fairfield  County  was  settled, 
the  towns  of  Bethel  and  Williamsburg,  in  Cler- 
mont County,  were  settled  and  laid  out,  and  in 
1800,  the  county  was  erected. 

A  settlement  was  also  made  immediately  south 
of  Fairfield  County,  in  Hocking  County,  by  Chris- 
tian Westenhaver,  a  German,  from  near  Hagers- 
town,  Md.  He  came  in  the  spring  of  1798,  and 
was  soon  joined  by  several  families,  who  formed 
quite  a  settlement.  The  territory  included  in  the 
county  remained  a  part  of  Ptoss,  Athens  and 
Fairfield,  until  1818,  when  Flocking  County  was 
erected,  and  Logan,  which  had  been  laid  out  in 
181(3,  was  made  the  county  seat. 

The  country  comprised  in  the  county  is  rather 
broken,  especially  along  the  Hockhocking  River. 
This  broken  country  was  a  favorite  resort  of  the 
Wyandot  Indians,  who  could  easily  hide  in  the 
numerous  grottoes  and  ravines  made  by  the  river 
and  its  affluents  as  the  water  cut  its  way  through 
the  sandstone  rocks. 

In  1798,  soon  after  Zane's  trace  was  cut  through 
the  country,  a  Mr.  Graham  located  on  the  site  of 
Cambridge,  in  Guernsey  County.  His  was  then 
the  only  dwelling  between  Wheeling  and  Zanes- 
ville,  on  the  trace.  He  remained  here  alone  about 
two  years,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  George  Bey- 
mer,  from  Somerset,  Penn.  Both  these  persons 
kept  a  tavern  and  ferry  over  Will's  Creek.  In 
April,  1803,  Mr.  Beymer  was  succeeded  by  John 
Beatty,  who  came  from  Loudon,  Va.  His  family 
consisted  of  eleven  persons.  The  Indians  hunted 
in  this  vicinity,  and  were  frequent  visitors  at  the 
tavern.  In  June,  1806,  Cambridge  was  laid  out, 
and  on  the  day  the  lots  were  offered  for  sale,  sev- 
eral families  from  the  British  Isle  of  Guernsey, 
near  the  coast  of  France,  stopped  here  on   their 

way  to  the  West.  They  were  satisfied  with  the 
location  and  purchased  many  of  the  lots,  and  some 
land  in  the  vicinity.  They  were  soon  followed  by 
other  families  from  the  same  place,  all  of  whom 
settling,  in  this  locality  gave  the  name  to  the  county 
when  it  was  erected  in  1810. 

A  settlement  was  made  in  the  central  part  of  the 
State,  on  Darby  Creek,  in  Union  County,  in  the 
summer  of  1798,  by  James  and  Joshua  Ewing, 
The  next  year,  they  were  joined  by  Samuel  and 
David  Mitchell,  Samuel  Mitchell,  Jr.,  Samuel 
Kirkpatrick  and  Samuel  McCullough,and,  in  1800, 
by  George  and  Samuel  Reed,  Robert  Snodgrass 
and  Paul  Hodgson. 

"James  Ewing's  farm  was  the  site  of  an  an- 
cient and  noted  Mingo  town,  which  was  deserted 
at  the  time  the  Mingo  towns,  in  what  is  now  Logan 
County,  were  destroyed  by  Gen.  Logan,  of  Ken- 
tucky, in  1786.  When  Mr.  Ewing  took  posses- 
sion of  his  farm,  the  cabins  were  still  standing, 
and,  among  others,  the  remains  of  a  blacksmith's 
shop,  with  coal,  cinders,  iron-dross,  etc.  Jonathan 
Alder,  formerly  a  prisoner  among  the  Indians, 
says  the  shop  was  carried  on  by  a  renegade  white 
man,  named  Butler,  who  lived  among  the  Mingoes. 
Extensive  fields  had  formerly  been  cultivated  in 
the  vicinity  of  the  town."* 

Soon  after  the  settlement  was  established.  Col. 
James  Curry  located  here.  He  was  quite  an  influ- 
ential man,  and,  in  1820,  succeeded  in  getting  the 
county  formed  from  portions  of  Delaware,  Frank- 
lin, Madison  and  Logan,  and  a  part  of  the  old  In- 
dian Territory.  Marysville  was  made  the  county 

During  the  year  1789,  a  fort,  called  Foi-t  Steu- 
ben, was  built  on  the  site  of  Steuben ville,  but 
was  dismantled  at  the  conclusion  of  hostilities  in 
1795.  Three  years  after,  Bezaleel  Wells  and  Hon. 
James  Ross,  for  whom  Ross  County  was  named, 
located  the  town  of  Steubenville  about  the  old 
fort,  and,  by  liberal  offers  of  lots,  soon  attracted 
quite  a  number  of  settlers.  In  1805,  the  town 
was  incorporated,  and  then  had  a  population  of 
several  hundred  persons.  Jefferson  County  was 
created  by  Gov.  St.  Clair,  July  29,  1797,  the  year 
before  Steubenville  was  laid  out.  It  then  included 
the  large  scope  of  country  west  of  Pennsylvania ; 
east  and  north  of  a  line  from  the  mouth  of  the 
Cuyahoga  ;  southwardly  to  the  Muskingum,  and 
east  to  the  Ohio  ;  including,  in  its  territories,  the 
cities  of  Cleveland,  Canton,  Steubenville  and  War- 

■  Howe's  Collections. 





ren.  Only  a  short  time,  however,  was  it  allowed 
to  retain  this  size,  as  the  increase  in  emigration 
rendered  it  necessary  to  erect  new  counties,  which 
was  rapidly  done,  especially  on  the  adoption  c  "  the 
State  government. 

The  county  is  rich  in  early  history,  prior  to  its 
settlement  by  the  Americans.  It  was  the  home  of 
the  celebrated  Mingo  chief,  Logan,  who  resid  id 
awhile  at  an  old  Mingo  town,  a  few  miles  below  t  le 
site  of  Steubenville,  the  place  where  the  troo  )s 
under  Col.  WilHamson  rendezvoused  on  their  i  i- 
famous  raid  against  the  Moravian  Indians ;  ar  d 
also  where  Col.  Crawford  and  his  men  met,  whf  n 
starting  on  their  unfortunate  expedition. 

In  the  Reserve,  settlements  were  often  made 
remote  from  populous  localities,  in  accordance  with 
the  wish  of  a  proprietor,  who  might  own  a  tract  of 
country  twenty  or  thirty  miles  in  the  interior.  In 
the  present  county  of  Geauga,  three  families  located 
at  Burton  in  1798.  They  lived  at  a  considerable 
distance  from  any  other  settlement  for  some  time, 
and  were  greatly  inconvenienced  for  the  want  of 
mills  or  shops.  As  time  progressed,  however, 
these  were  brought  nearer,  or  built  in  their  midst, 
and,  ere  long,  almost  all  parts  of  the  Reserve  could 
show  some  settlement,  even  if  isolated. 

The  next  year,  1799,  settlements  were  made  at 
Ravenna,  Deerfield  and  Palmyra,  in  Portage 
County.  Hon.  Benjamin  Tappan  came  to  the  site 
of  Ravenna  in  June,  at  which  time  he  found  one 
white  man,  a  Mr.  Honey,  living  there.  At  this  date, 
a  solitary  log  cabin  occupied  the  sites  of  Buffalo  and 
Cleveland.  On  his  journey  from  New  England, 
My.  Tappan  fell  in  with  David  Hudson,  the  founder 
of  the  Hudson  settlement  in  Summit  County. 
After  many  days  of  travel,  they  landed  at  a  prairie  in 
Summit  County.  Mr.  Tappan  left  his  goods  in  a 
cabin,  built  for  the  purpose,  under  the  care  of  a  hired 
man,  and  went  on  his  way,  cutting  a  road  to  the 
site  of  Ravenna,  where  his  land  lay.  On  his  return 
for  a  second  load  of  goods,  they  found  the  cabin 
deserted,  and  evidences  of  its  plunder  by  the  In- 
dians. Not  long  after,  it  was  learned  that  the  man 
left  in  charge  had  gone  to  Mr.  Hudson's  settle- 
ment, he  having  set  out  immediately  on  his  arrival, 
for  his  own  land.  Mr.  Tappan  gathered  the  re- 
mainder of  his  goods,  and  started  back  for  Ravenna. 
On  his  way  one  of  his  oxen  died,  and  he  found 
himself  in  a  vast  forest,  away  from  any  habitation, 
and  with  one  dollar  in  money.  He  did  not  falter 
a  moment,  but  sent  his  hired  man,  a  faithful  fellow, 
to  Erie,  Penn.,  a  distance  of  one  hundred  miles 
through  the  wilderness,  with  the  compass  for  his 

guide,  requesting  from  Capt.  Lyman,  the  com- 
mander at  the  fort  there,  a  loan  of  money.  At 
the  same  time,  he  followed  the  township  lines  to 
Youngstown,  where  he  became  acquainted  with 
Col.  James  Hillman,  who  did  not  hesitate  to  sell 
him  an  ox  on  credit,  at  a  fair  price.  He  returned 
to  his  load  in  a  few  days,  found  his  ox  all  right, 
hitched  the  two  together  and  went  on.  He  was 
soon  joined  by  his  hired  man,  with  the  money,  and 
together  they  spent  the  winter  in  a  log  cabin.  He 
gave  his  man  one  hundred  acres  of  land  as  a  reward, 
and  paid  Col.  Hillman  for  the  ox.  In  a  year  or 
two  he  had  a  prosperous  settlement,  and  when  the 
county  was  erected  in  1807,  Ravenna  was  made 
the  seat  of  justice. 

About  the  same  time  Mr.  Tappan  began  his 
settlement,  others  were  commenced  in  other  locali- 
ties in  this  county.  Early  in  May,  1799,  Lewis 
Day  and  his  son  Horatio,  of  Granby,  Conn.,  and 
Moses  Tibbals  and  Green  Frost,  of  Granville, 
Mass.,  left  their  homes  in  a  one-horse  wagon,  and, 
the  29th  of  May,  arrived  in  what  is  now  Deerfield 
Township.  Theirs  was  the  first  wagon  that  had 
ever  penetrated  farther  westward  in  this  region 
than  Canfield.  The  country  west  of  that,  place 
had  been  an  unbroken  wilderness  until  within  a 
few  days.  Capt.  Caleb  Atwater,  of  Wallingford, 
Conn.,  had  hired  some  men  to  open  a  road  to 
Township  No.  1,  in  the  Seventh  Range,  of  which 
he  was  the  owner.  This  road  passed  through 
Deerfield,  and  was  completed  to  that  place  when 
the  party  arrived  at  the  point  of  their  destination. 
These  emigrants  selected  sites,  and  commenced 
clearing  the  land.  In  July,  Lewis  Ely  arrived 
from  Granville,  and  wintered  here,  while  those 
who  came  first,  and  had  made  their  improvements, 
returned  East.  The  4th  of  March,  1800,  Alva 
Day  (son  of  Lewis  Day),  John  Campbell  and 
Joel  Thrall  arrived.  In  April,  George  and  Rob- 
ert Taylor  and  James  Laughlin,  fi-om  Pennsylvania, 
with  their  families,  came.  Mr.  Laughlin  built  a 
grist-mill,  which  was  of  great  convenience  to  the 
settlers.  July  29,  Lewis  Day  returned  with 
his  family  and  his  brother-in-law,  Maj.  Rogers, 
who,  the  next  year,  also  brought  his  family. 

"  Much  suffering  was  experienced  at  first  on 
account  of  the  scarcity  of  provisions.  They  were 
chiefly  supplied  from  the  settlements  east  of  the 
Ohio  River,  the  nearest  of  which  was  Georgetown, 
forty  miles  away.  The  provisions  were  brought 
on  pack-horses  through  the  wilderness.  August 
22,  Mrs.  Alva  Day  gave  birth  to  a  child — a  fe- 
male— the    first    child    born    in    the    township. 




November  7,  the  first  wedding  took  place.  John 
Campbell  and  Sarah  Ely  were  joined  in  wedlock 
by  Calvin  Austin,  Esq.,  of  Warren.  He  was 
accompanied  from  Warren,  a  distance  of  twenty- 
seven  miles,  by  Mr.  Pease,  then  a  lawyer,  after- 
ward a  well-known  Judge.  They  came  on  foot, 
there  being  no  road;  and,  as  they  threaded  their 
way  through  the  woods,  young  Pease  taught  the 
Justice  the  marriage  ceremony  by  oft  repetition. 

"  In  1802,  Franklin  Township  was  organized,  em- 
bracing all  of  Portage  and  parts  of  Trumbull  and 
Summit  Counties.  About  this  time  the  settlement 
received  accessions  from  all  parts  of  the  East.  In 
February,  1801,  Rev.  Badger  came  and  began  his 
labors,  and  two  years  later  Dr.  Shadrac  Bostwick 
organized  a  Methodist  Episcopal  church.*  The 
remaining  settlement  in  this  county.  Palmyra,  was 
begun  about  the  same  time  as  the  others,  by  David 
Daniels,  from  Salisbury,  Conn.  The  next  year  he 
brought  out  his  family.  Soon  after  he  was  joined 
by  E.  N.  and  W.  Bacon,  E.  Cutler,  A.  Thurber, 
A.  Preston,  N.  Bois,  J.  T.  Baldwin,  T.  and  C. 
Gilbert,  D.  A.  and  S.  Waller,  N.  Smith,  Joseph 
Fisher,  J.  Tuttle  and  others. 

"  When  this  region  was  first  settled,  there  was 
an  Indian  trail  commencing  at  Fort  Mcintosh 
(Beaver,  Penn.),  and  extending  westward  to  San- 
dusky and  Detroit.  The  trail  followed  the  highest 
ground.  Along  the  trail,  parties  of  Indians  were 
frequently  seen  passing,  for  several  years  after  the 
whites  came.  It  seemed  to  be  the  great  aboriginal 
thoroughfare  from  Sandusky  to  the  Ohio  River. 
There  were  several  large  piles  of  stones  on  the 
trail  in  this  locality,  under  which  human  skeletons 
have  been  discovered.  These  are  supposed  to  be 
the  remains  of  Indians  slain  in  war,  or  murdered 
by  their  enemies,  as  tradition  says  it  is  an  Indian 
custom  for  each  one  to  cast  a  stone  on  the  grave 
of  an  enemy,  whenever  he  passes  by.  These  stones 
appear  to  have  been  picked  up  along  the  trail,  and 
cast  upon  the  heaps  at  diiFerent  times. 

"At  the  point  where  this  trail  crosses  Silver 
Creek,  Fredrick  Daniels  and  others,  in  1814,  dis- 
covered, painted  on  several  trees,  various  devices, 
evidently  the  work  of  Indians.  The  bark  was 
carefully  shaved  off  two-thirds  of  the  way  around, 
and  figures  cut  upon  the  wood.  On  one  of  these 
was  delineated  seven  Indians,  equipped  in  a  par- 
ticular manner,  one  of  whom  was  without  a  head. 
This  was  supposed  to  have  been  made  by  a  party 
on   their  return  westward,  to  give  intelligence  to 

*  Howe's  Collections. 

their  friends  behind,  of  the  loss  of  one  of  their 
party  at  this  place  ;  and,  on  making  search,  a  hu- 
man skeleton  was  discovered  near  by."  * 

The  celebrated  Indian  hunter,  Brady,  made  his 
remarkable  leap  across  the  Cuyahoga,  in  this 
county.  The  county  also  contains  Brady's  Pond, 
a  large  sheet  of  water,  in  which  he  once  made  his 
escape  from  the  Indians,  from  which  circumstance 
it  received  its  name. 

The  locality  comprised  in  Clark  County  was 
settled  the  same  summer  as  those  in  Summit  County. 
John  Humphries  came  to  this  part  of  the  State 
with  Gen.  Simon  Kenton,  in  1799.  With  them 
came  six  families  from  Kentucky,  who  settled 
north  of  the  site  of  Springfield.  A  fort  was 
erected  on  Mad  River,  for  security  against  the  In- 
dians. Fourteen  cabins  were  soon  built  near  it, 
all  being  surrounded  by  a  strong  picket  fence. 
David  Lowery,  one  of  the  pioneers  here,  built  the 
first  flat-boat,  to  operate  on  the  Great  Miami,  and, 
in  1800,  made  the  first  trip  on  that  river,  coming 
down  from  Dayton.  He  took  his  boat  and  cargo 
on  down  to  New  Orleans,  where  he  disposed  of  his 
load  of  "  five  hundred  venison  hams  and  bacon." 

Springfield  was  laid  out  in  March,  1801.  Griffith 
Foos,  who  came  that  spring,  built  a  tavern,  which 
he  completed  and  opened  in  June,  remaining  in 
this  place  till  1814.  He  often  stated  that  when 
emigrating  West,  his  party  were  four  days  and  a 
half  getting  from  Franklinton,  on  the  Scioto,  to 
Springfield,  a  distance  of  forty-two  miles.  When 
crossing  the  Big  Darby,  they  were  obliged  to  carry 
all  their  goods  over  on  horseback,  and  then  drag 
their  wagons  across  with  ropes,  while  some  of  the 
party  swam  by  the  side  of  the  wagon,  to  prevent 
its  upsetting.  The  site  of  the  town  was  of  such 
practical  beauty  and  utility,  that  it  soon  attracted 
a  large  number  of  settlers,  and,  in  a  few  years, 
Springfield  was  incorporated.  In  1811,  a  church 
was  built  by  the  residents  for  the  use  of  all  denom- 

Clark  County  is  made  famous  in  aboriginal 
history,  as  the  birthplace  and  childhood  home  of 
the  noted  Indian,  Tecumseh."}"     He   was  born    in 

*  Howe's  Collections. 

f  Tecumseh,  or  Tecumshe,  was  a  son  of  Puckeshinwa,  a  member 
of  the  Kiscopoke  tribe,  and  Methoataske,  of  the  Turtle  tribe  of  the 
Shawanee  nation.  They  removed  from  Florida  to  Ohio  soon  after 
their  marriage.  The  father,  Puckeshinwa,  rose  to  the  rank  of  a  chief, 
and  fell  at  the  battle  of  Point  Pleasant,  in  1774.  After  his  death, 
the  mother,  Methoata-ke,  returned  to  the  south,  where  she  died  at 
an  advanced  age.  Tecum°eh  was  born  about  the  year  1768.  He 
early  showsd  a  passion  for  war,  and,  when  only  27  years  of  age,  was 
made  a  chief.  The  next  year  he  removed  to  Deer  Creek,  in  the 
vicinity  of  Urbana.  and  from  there  to  the  site  of  Piqua,  on  the 
Great  Miami.  In  1798  he  accepted  the  invitation  of  the  Delawares 
in  the  vicinity  of  White  River,  Indiana,  and  from  that  time  made 




the  old  Indian  town  of  Piqua,  the  ancient  Piqua 
of  the  Shawanees,  on  the  north  side  of  Mad  River, 
about  five  miles  west  of  Springfield.  The  town 
was  destroyed  by  the  Kentucky  Rangers  under 
Gen.  (xeorge  Rogers  Clarke  in  1780,  at  the  same 
time  he  destroyed  "  Old  Chillicothe."  Immense 
fields  of  standing  corn  about  both  towns  were  cut 
down,  compelling  the  Indians  to  resort  to  the  hunt 
with  more  than  ordinary  vigor,  to  sustain  them- 
selves and  their  wives  and  children.  This  search 
insured  safety  for  some  time  on  the  borders.  The 
site  of  Cadiz,  in  Harrison  County,  was  settled  in 
April,  1799,  by  Alexander  Henderson  and  his 
family,  from  Washington  County,  Penn.  When 
they  arrived,  they  found  neighbors  in  the  persons 
of  Daniel  Peterson  and  his  family,  who  lived  near 
the  forks  of  Short  Creek,  and  who  had  preceded 
them  but  a  very  short  time.  The  next  year,  emi- 
grants began  to  cross  the  Ohio  in  great  numbers, 
and  in  five  or  six  years  large  settlements  could  be 
seen  in  this  part  of  the  State.  The  county  was 
erected  in  1814,  and  Cadiz,  laid  out  in  1803,  made 
the  county  seat. 

While  the  settlers  were  locating  in  and  about 
Cadiz,  a  few  families  came  to  what  is  now  Monroe 
County,  and  settled  near  the  present  town  of 
Beallsville.  Shortly  after,  a  few  persons  settled  on 
the  Clear  Fork  of  the  Little  IMuskingum,  and  a 
few  others  on  the  east  fork  of  Duck  Creek.     The 

next  season  all  these  settlements  received  addi- 
tions and  a  few  other  localities  were  also  occupied. 
Before  long  the  town  of  Beallsville  was  laid 
out,  and  in  time  became  quite  populous.  The 
county  was  not  erected  until  1813,  and  in  1815 
Woodsfield  was  laid  out  and  made  the  seat  of 

The  opening  of  the  season  of  1800 — the  dawn 
of  a  new  century — saw  a  vast  emigration  west 
ward.  Old  settlements  in  Ohio  received  immense 
increase  of  emigrants,  while,  branching  out  in  all 
directions  like  the  radii  of  a  circle,  other  settle- 
ments were  constantly  formed  until,  in  a  few  years, 
all  parts  of  the  State  knew  the  presence  of  the 
white  man. 

Towns  sprang  into  existence  here  and  there ; 
mills  and  factories  were  erected;  post  ofiices  and 
post-routes  were  established,  and  the  comforts  and 
conveniences  of  life  began  to  appear. 

With  this  came  the  desire,  so  potent  to  the  mind 
of  all  American  citizens,  to  rule  themselves  through 
representatives  chosen  by  their  own  votes.  Hith- 
erto, they  had  been  ruled  by  a  Governor  and  Judges 
appointed  by  the  President,  who,  in  turn,  appointed 
county  and  judicial  officers.  The  arbitrary  rulings 
of  the  Governor,  St.  Clair,  had  arrayed  the  mass 
of  the  people  against  him,  and  made  the  desire  for 
the  second  grade  of  government  stronger,  and 
finally  led  to  its  creation. 



SETTLEMENTS  increased  so  rapidly  in  that 
part  of  the  Northwest  Territory  included  in 
Ohio,  during  the  decade  from  1788  to  1798, 
despite  the  Indian  war,  that  the  demand  for  an 
election  of  a  Territorial  Assembly  could  not  be 
ignored  by  Gov.  St.  Clair,  who,  having  ascertained 
that  5,000  free  males  resided  within  the  limits  of 
the  Territory,  issued  his  proclamation  October  29, 
1798,  directing  the  electors  to  elect  representatives 
to  a  General  Assembly.     He  ordered  the  election 

hia  home  with  them.  He  was  most  active  in  the  war  of  1812 
against  the  Americans,  and  from  the  time  he  began  his  work  to 
unite  the  tribes,  his  history  is  so  closely  identified  therewith  that 
the  reader  is  referred  to  the  history  of  that  war  in  succeeding  pages. 
It  may  not  be  amiss  to  say  that  all  stories  regarding  the  manner 
of  his  death  are  considered  erroneous.  He  was  undoubtedly  killed 
in  the  outset  of  the  battle  of  the  Thames  in  Canada  in  1814,  and  his 
body  secretly  buried  by  the  Indians. 

to  be  held  on  the  third  Monday  in  December,  and 
directed  the  representatives  to  meet  in  Cincinnati 
January  22,  1799. 

On  the  day  designated,  the  representatives  * 
assembled  at  Cincinnati,  nominated  ten  persons, 
whose  names  were  sent  to  the  President,  who 
selected  five  to  constitute  the  Legislative  Council, 

*  Those  elected  were:  from  Washington  Clounty,  Return  Jona- 
than Meigs  and  Paul  Fearing;  from  Hamilton  County,  William 
Goforth,  William  McMillan,  John  Smith,  John  Ludlow,  Robert 
Benham,  Aaron  Caldwell  and  Isaac  Martin;  from  St.  Clair  County 
(Illinois),  Shadrach  Bond;  from  Knox  County  (Indiana),  John 
Small;  from  Kandolph  County  (Illinois),  John  Edgar;  from  Wayne 
County,  Solomon  Sibley,  Jacob  Visgar  and  Charles  F.  (  habert  de 
Joncaire;  from  Adams  County,  Joseph  Darlington  and  Nathaniel 
Massie;  from  Jefferson  County,  James  Pritchard;  fiom  Uoss  County, 
Thomas  Worthington,  Elias  Langham,  Samuel  Findley  and  Edward 
Ti£Bn.  The  five  gentlemen,  except  Vanderburgh,  chosen  as  the 
Upper  House  were  all  from  counties  afterward  included  in  Ohio. 




or  Upper  House.  These  five  were  Jacob  Burnet, 
James  Findley,  Henry  Vanderburgh,  Robert 
OHver  and  David  Vance.  On  the  3d  of  March, 
the  Senate  confii-med  their  nomination,  and  the 
Territorial  Government  of  Ohio* — or,  more  prop- 
erly, the  Northwest — was  complete.  As  this 
comprised  the  essential  business  of  this  body,  it 
was  prorogued  by  the  Governor,  and  the  Assembly 
directed  to  meet  at  the  same  place  September  16, 
1799,  and  proceed  to  the  enactment  of  laws  for 
the  Ten-itory. 

That  day,  the  Territorial  Legislature  met  again 
at  Cincinnati,  but,  for  want  of  a  quorum,  did  not 
organize  until  the  24th.  The  House  consisted  of 
nineteen  members,  seven  of  whom  were  from  Ham- 
ilton County,  four  from  Ross,  three  from  Wayne, 
two  from  Adams,  one  from  Jefferson,  one  from 
Washington  and  one  from  Knox.  Assembling 
both  branches  of  the  Legislature,  Gov.  St.  Clair 
addressed  them,  recommending  such  measures  to 
their  consideration  as,  in  his  judgment,  were  suited 
to  the  condition  of  the  country.  The  Council 
then  organized,  electing  Henry  Vanderburgh,  Presi- 
dent ;  William  C.  Schenck,  Secretary;  George 
Howard,  Doorkeeper,  and  Abraham  Carey,  Ser- 

The  House  also  organized,  electing  Edward  Tif- 
fin, Speaker ;  John  Reilly,  Clerk ;  Joshua  Row- 
land, Doorkeeper,  and  Abraham  Carey,  Sergeant- 

This  was  the  first  legislature  elected  in  the  old 
Northwestern  Territory.  During  its  first  session, 
it  passed  thirty  bills,  of  which  the  Governor  vetoed 
eleven.  They  also  elected  Wilham  Henry  Harri- 
son, then  Secretary  of  the  Territory,  delegate  to 
Congress.  The  Legislature  continued  in  session 
till  December  19,  having  much  to  do  in  forming 
new  laws,  when  they  were  prorogued  by  the  Gov- 
ernor, until  the  first  Monday  in  November,  1800. 
The  second  session  was  held  in  Chillicothe,  which 
had  been  designated  as  the  seat  of  government  by 
Congress,  until  a  permanent  capital  should  be 

May  7,  1800,  Congress  passed  an  act  establish- 
ing Indiana  Territory,  including  all  the  country 
west  of  the  Great  Miami  River  to  the  Mississippi, 
and  appointed  William  Henry  Harrison  its  Gov- 
ernor.    At  the  autumn  session  of  the  Legislature 

*  Ohio  never  existed  as  a  Territory  proper.  It  was  known,  both 
before  and  after  the  division  of  the  Northwest  Territory,  as  the 
"Territory  northwest  of  the  Ohio  River."  Still,  as  the  country 
comprised  in  its  limits  was  the  principal  theater  of  action,  the  short 
resume  given  here  is  made  necessary  in  the  logical  course  of  events. 
Ohio,  as  Ohio,  never  existed  until  the  creation  of  the  State  in 
March,  1803. 

of  the  eastern,  or  old  part  of  the  Territory,  Will- 
iam McMillan  was  elected  to  the  vacancy  caused 
by  this  act.  By  the  organization  of  this  Territory, 
the  counties  of  Knox,  St.  Clair  and  Randolph, 
were  taken  out  of  the  jurisdiction  of  the  old  Ter- 
ritory, and  with  them  the  representatives,  Henry 
Vandenburgh,  Shadrach  Bond,  John  Small  and 
John  Edgar. 

Before  the  time  for  the  next  Assembly  came,  a 
new  election  had  occurred,  and  a  few  changes  were 
the  result.  Robert  Oliver,  of  Marietta,  was  cho- 
sen Speaker  in  the  place  of  Henry  Vanderburgh. 
There  was  considerable  business  at  this  session ; 
several  new  counties  were  to  be  erected  ;  the  coun- 
try was  rapidly  filling  with  people,  and  where  the 
scruples  of  the  Governor  could  be  overcome,  some 
organization  was  made.  He  was  very  tenacious  of 
his  power,  and  arbitrary  in  his  rulings,  affirming 
that  he,  alone,  had  the  power  to  create  new  coun- 
ties. This  dogmatic  exercise  of  his  veto  power, 
his  rights  as  ruler,  and  his  defeat  by  the  Indians, 
all  tended  against  him,  resulting  in  his  displace- 
ment by  the  President.  This  was  done,  however, 
just  at  the  time  the  Territory  came  from  the  second 
grade  of  government,  and  the  State  was  created. 

The  third  session  of  the  Territorial  Legislature 
continued  from  November  24,  1801,  to  January 
23,  1802,  when  it  adjourned  to  meet  in  Cincin- 
nati, the  fourth  Monday  in  November,  but 
owing  to  reasons  made  obvious  by  subsequent 
events,  was  never  held,  and  the  third  session 
marks  the  decline  of  the  Territorial  government. 

April  30,  1802,  Congress  passed  an  act  "  to 
enable  the  people  of  the  eastern  division  of  the 
territory  northwest  of  the  Ohio  River,  to  form  a 
constitution  and  State  government,  and  for  the 
admission  of  such  States  into  the  Union  on 
an  equal  footing  with  the  original  States,  and  for 
other  purposes."  In  pursuance  of  this  act,  an 
election  had  been  held  in  this  part  of  the  Territory, 
and  members  of  a  constitutional  convention  cho- 
sen, who  were  to  meet  at  Chillicothe,  November 
1,  to  perform  the  duty  assigned  them. 

The  people  throughout  the  country  contemplat- 
ed in  the  new  State  were  anxious  for  the  adoption 
of  a  State  government.  The  arbitrary  acts  of  the 
Territorial  Governor  had  heightened  this  feeling  ; 
the  census  of  the  Territory  gave  it  the  lawful 
number  of  inhabitants,  and  nothing  stood  in  its 

The  convention  met  the  day  designated  and 
proceeded  at  once  to  its  duties.  When  the  time 
arrived  for  the  opening  of  the  Fourth  Territorial 




Legislature,  the  convention  was  in  session  and  had 
evidently  about  completed  its  labors.  The  mem- 
bers of  the  Legislature  (eight  of  whom  were  mem- 
bers of  the  convention)  seeing  that  a  speedy 
termination  of  the  Territorial  government  was  inev- 
itable, wisely  concluded  it  was  inexpedient  and 
unnecessary  to  hold  the  proposed  session. 

The  convention  concluded  its  labors  the  29th  of 
November.  The  Constitution  adopted  at  that  time, 
though  rather  crude  in  some  of  its  details,  was  an 
excellent  organic  instrument,  and  remained  almost 
entire  until  1851,  when  the  present  one  was 
adopted.  Either  is  too  long  for  insertion  here, 
but  either  will  well  pay  a  perusal.  The  one  adopted 
by  the  convention  in  1802  was  never  submitted 
to  the  people,  owing  to  the  circumstances  of  the 
times ;  but  it  was  submitted  to  Congress  February 
19,  1803,  and  by  that  body  accepted,  and  an  act 
passed  admitting  Ohio  to  the  Union. 

The  Territorial  government  ended  March  3, 
1803,  by  the  organization,  that  day,  of  the  State 
government,  which  organization  defined  the  pres- 
ent limits  of  the  State. 

"  We,  the  people  of  the  Eastern  Division  of  the  Ter- 
ritory of  tlie  United  States,  Northwest  of  tlie  River 
Ohio,  liaving  the  right  of  admission  into  the  General 
Government  as  a  member  of  the  Union,  consistent  with 
the  Constitution  of  the  United  States,  the  Ordinance 
of  Congress  of  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  eighty- 
seven,  and  of  the  law  of  Congress,  entitled  '  An  act  to 
enable  the  people  of  the  Eastern  Division  of  the  Terri- 
tory of  the  United  States  Northwest  of  the  River  Ohio, 
to  form  a  Constitution  and  a  State  Government,  and  for 
the  admission  of  such  State  into  the  Union  on  an  equal 
footing  with  the  original  States,  and  for  other  purpo- 
ses ;'  in  order  to  establish  justice,  promote  the  well- 
fare  and  secure  the  blessings  of  liberty  to  ourselves 
and  our  posterity,  do  ordain  and  establish  the  follow- 
ing Constitution  or  form  of  government;  and  do  mu- 
tually agree  with  each  other  to  form  ourselves  into  a 
free  and  independent  State,  by  the  name  of  the  State 
of  Ohio."* — Preamble,   Constitution  of  180S. 

When  the  convention  forming  the  Constitution, 
completed  its  labors  and  presented  the  results  to 
Congress,  and  that  body  passed  the  act  forming 

*  The  name  of  the  State  is  derived  from  the  river  forming  its 
southern  lioimdaiy.  Its  origin  \<i  somewliat  obscure,  liut  is  com- 
monly ascribed  to  the  Indians.  On  this  point.  Col.  Johnston  says: 
"  The  Sliawanoese  called  the  Ohio  River ' Ki'<-ke-pi-la,  Sepe,  i.  e.,  '■Engle 
Etver.'  The  Wyamlots  were  in  the  country  generations  before  the 
Sliawanoese,  and,  consequently,  their  name  of  the  river  is  the  prim- 
itive one  and  should  stand  in  preference  to  all  others.  Ohio  may 
be  called  an  improvement  on  the  expression,  '0-he-zuh,'  and  was,  no 
doubt,  adopted  by  the  early  French  voyagers  in  their  boat-songs, 
and  is  substantially  the  same  wori  as  used  by  the  Wyandots:  the 
meaning  applied  by  the  French,  fair  and  beautiful  '  la  belle  river,' 
being  the  same  precisely  as  that  meant  by  the  Indians — 'great, 
grand  and  fair  to  look  upon.'  " — Howe's  CoUeclioiis. 

Webster's  Dictionary  gives  the  word  as  of  Indian  origin,  and  its 
meaning  to  be,  "  Beautiful." 

the  State,  the  territory  included  therein  was  di- 
vided into  nine  counties,  whose  names  and  dates  of 
erection  were  as  follows: 

Washington,  July  27,  1788;  Hamilton,  Janu- 
ary 2,  1790;  (owing  to  the  Indian  war  no  other 
counties  were  erected  till  peace  was  restored);  Ad- 
ams, July  10,  1797;  Jeiferson,  July  29,  1797; 
Koss,  August  20,  1798;  Clermont,  Fairfield  and 
Trumbull,  December  9,  1800;  Belmont,  Septem- 
ber 7,  1801.  These  counties  were  the  thickest- 
settled  part  of  the  State,  yet  many  other  localities 
needed  organization  and  were  clamoring  for  it,  but 
owing  to  St.  Clair's  views,  he  refused  to  grant 
their  requests.  One  of  the  first  acts  on  the  as- 
sembling of  the  State  Legislature,  March  1,  1803, 
was  the  creation  of  seven  new  counties,  viz.,  Gal- 
lia, Scioto,  Geauga,  Butler,  Warren,  Greene  and 

Section  Sixth  of  the  "Schedule"  of  the  Consti- 
tution required  an  election  for  the  various  oflicers 
and  Representatives  necessary  under  the  new  gov- 
ernment, to  be  held  the  second  Tuesday  of  Janu- 
ary, 1803,  these  ofiicers  to  take  their  seats  and  as- 
sume their  duties  March  3.  The  Second  Article 
provided  for  the  regular  elections,  to  be  held  on 
the  second  Tuesday  of  October,  in  each  year.  The 
Governor  elected  at  first  was  to  hold  his  oflice 
until  the  first  regular  election  could  be  held,  and 
thereafter  to  continue  in  oifice  two  years. 

The  January  elections  placed  Edward  TiSin  in 
the  Governor's  office,  sent  Jeremiah  Morrow  to 
Congress,  and  chose  an  Assembly,  who  met  on  the 
day  designated,  at  Chillicothe.  Michael  Baldwin 
was  chosen  Speaker  of  the  House,  and  Nathaniel 
Massie,  of  the  Senate.  The  Assembly  appointed 
William  Creighton,  Jr.,  Secretary  of  State  ;  Col. 
Thomas  Gibson,  Auditor ;  William  McFarland, 
Treasurer;  Return  J.  Meigs,  Jr.,  Samuel  Hun- 
tington and  William  Sprigg,  Judges  of  the  Su- 
preme Court ;  Francis  Dunlevy,  Wyllys  Silliman 
and  Calvin  Pease,  President  Judges  of  the  First, 
Second  and  Third  Districts,  and  Thomas  Worth- 
ington  and  John  Smith,  United  States  Senators. 
Charles  Willing  Byrd  was  made  the  United  States 
District  Judge. 

The  act  of  Congress  forming  the  State,  con- 
tained certain  requisitions  regarding  public  schools, 
the  "  salt  springs,"  public  lands,  taxation  of  Gov- 
ernment lands,  Symmes'  purchase,  etc.,  which  the 
constitutional  convention  agreed  to  with  a  few 
minor  considerations.  These  Congress  accepted, 
and  passed  the  act  in  accordance  thereto.  The 
First  General  Assembly  found  abundance  of  work 





to  do  regarding  these  various  items,  and,  at  once, 
set  themselves  to  the  task.  Laws  were  passed  re- 
garding all  these  ;  new  counties  created  ;  officers 
appointed  for  the  same,  until  they  could  be  elected, 
and  courts  and  machinery  of  government  put  in 
motion.  President  Judges  and  lawyers  traveled 
their  circuits  holding  courts,  often  in  the  open  air 
or  in  a  log  shanty ;  a  constable  doing  duty  as 
guard  over  a  jury,  probably  seated  on  a  log  under 
a  tree,  or  in  the  bushes.  The  President  Judge  in- 
structed the  officers  of  new  counties  in  their  duties, 
and  though  the  whole  keeping  of  matters  accorded 
with  the  times,  an  honest  feeling  generally  pre- 
vailed, inducing  each  one  to  perform  his  part  as 
effectually  as  his  knowledge  permitted. 

The  State  continually  filled  with  people.  New 
towns  arose  all  over  the  country.  Excepting  the 
occasional  sicknesses  caused  by  the  new  climate  and 
fresh  soil,  the  general  health  of  the  people  im- 
proved as  time  went  (5n.  They  were  fully  in  ac- 
cord with  the  President,  Jefferson,  and  carefully 
nurtured  those  principles  of  personal  liberty  en- 
grafted in  the  fundamental  law  of  1787,  and  later, 
in  the  Constitution  of  the  State. 

Little  if  any  change  occurred  in  the  natural 
course  of  events,  following  the  change  of  govern- 
ment until  Burr's  expedition  and  plan  of  secession 
in  1805  and  1806  appeared.  What  his  plans 
were,  have  never  been  definitely  ascertained.  His 
action  related  more  to  the  Greneral  Government, 
yet  Ohio  was  called  upon  to  aid  in  putting  down 
his  insurrection — for  such  it  was  thought  to  be — 
and  defeated  his  purposes,  whatever  they  were. 
His  plans  ended  only  in  ignominious  defeat ;  the 
breaking-up  of  one  of  the  finest  homes  in  the 
Western  country,  and  the  expulsion  of  himself  and 
all  those  who  were  actively  engaged  in  his  scheme, 
whatever  its  imports  were. 

Again,  for  a  period  of  four  or  five  years,  no 
exciting  events  occurred.  Settlements  continued  ; 
mills  and  factories  increased ;  towns  and  cities 
grew  ;  counties  were  created  ;  trade  enlarged,  and 
naught  save  the  common  course  of  events  trans- 
pired to  mark  the  course  of  time.  Other  States 
were  made  from  the  old  Northwest  Territory,  all 
parts  of  which  were  rapidly  being  occupied  by 
settlers.  The  danger  from  Indian  hostilities  was 
little,  and  the  adventurous  wliites  were  rapidly 
occupying  their  country.  One  thing,  however, 
was  yet  a  continual  source  of  annoyance  to  the 
Americans,  viz.,  the  British  interference  with  the 
Indians.  Their  traders  did  not  scruple,  nor  fail 
on  every  opportunity,   to  aid  these  sons  of   the 

forest  with  arms  and  ammunition  as  occasion 
offered,  endeavoring  to  stir  them  up  against  the 
Americans,  until  events  here  and  on  the  high  seas 
culminated  in  a  declaration  of  hostilities,  and  the 
war  of  1812  was  the  result.  The  deluded  red 
men  found  then,  as  they  found  in  1795,  that  they 
were  made  tools  by  a  stronger  power,  and  dropped 
when  the  time  came  that  they  were  no  longer 

Before  the  opening  of  hostilities  occurred,  how- 
ever, a  series  of  acts  passed  the  Greneral  Assembly, 
causing  considerable  excitement.  These  were  the 
famous  "Sweeping  Resolutions,"  passed  in  1810. 
For  a  few  years  prior  to  their  passage,  considera- 
ble discontent  prevailed  among  many  of  the  legis- 
lators regarding  the  rulings  of  the  courts,  and  by 
many  of  these  embryo  law-makers,  the  legislative 
power  was  considered  omnipotent.  They  could 
change  existing  laws  and  contracts  did  they  desire 
to,  thought  many  of  them,  even  if  such  acts  con- 
flicted with  the  State  and  National  Constitutions. 
The  "  Sweeping  Resolutions  "  were  brought  about 
mainly  by  the  action  of  the  judges  in  declaring 
that  justices  of  the  peace  could,  in  the  collection 
of  debts,  hold  jurisdiction  in  amounts  not  exceed- 
ing fifty  dollars  without  the  aid  of  a  jury.  The 
Constitution  of  the  United  States  gave  the  jury 
control  in  all  such  cases  where  the  amount  did  not 
exceed  twenty  dollars.  Tiiere  was  a  direct  con- 
tradiction against  the  organic  law  of  the  land — to 
which  every  other  law  and  act  is  subversive,  and 
when  the  judges  declared  the  legislative  act  uncon- 
stitutional and  hence  null  and  void,  the  Legisla- 
ture became  suddenly  inflamed  at  their  independ- 
ence, and  proceeded  at  once  to  punish  the  admin- 
istrators of  justice.  The  legislature  was  one  of 
the  worst  that  ever  controlled  the  State,  and  was 
composed  of  many  men  who  were  not  only  igno- 
rant of  common  law,  the  necessities  of  a  State,  and 
the  dignity  and  true  import  of  their  office,  but 
were  demagogues  in  every  respect.  Having  the 
power  to  impeach  officers,  that  body  at  once  did 
so,  having  enough  to  carry  a  two-thirds  majority, 
and  removed  several  judges.  Further  maturing 
their  plans,  the  "  Sweepers,"  as  they  were  known, 
construed  the  law  appointing  certain  judges  and 
civil  officers  for  seven  years,  to  mean  seven  years 
from  the  organization  of  the  State,  whether  they 
had  been  officers  that  length  of  time  or  not.  All 
officers,  whether  of  new  or  old  counties,  were  con- 
strued as  included  in  the  act,  and,  utterly  ignoring 
the  Constitution,  an  act  was  passed  in  January, 
1810,  removing  every  civil  officer  in  the  State. 




February  10,  they  proceeded  to  fill  all  these  va- 
cant offices,  from  State  officers  down  to  the  lowest 
county  office,  either  by  appointment  or  by  ordering 
an  election  in  the  manner  prescribed  by  law. 

The  Constitution  provided  that  the  office  of 
judges  should  continue  for  seven  years,  evidently 
seven  years  from  the  time  they  were  elected,  and 
not  from  the  date  of  the  admission  of  the  State, 
which  latter  construction  this  headlong  Legisla- 
ture had  construed  as  the  meaning.  Many  of  the 
counties  had  been  organized  but  a  year  or  two, 
others  three  or  four  years ;  hence  an  indescribable 
confusion  arose  as  soon  as  the  new  set  of  officers 
were  appointed  or  elected.  The  new  order  of 
things  could  not  be  made  to  work,  and  finally,  so 
utterly  impossible  did  the  injustice  of  the  proceed- 
ings become,  that  it  was  dropped.  The  decisions 
of  the  courts  were  upheld,  and  the  invidious  doc- 
trine of  supremacy  in  State  legislation  received 
such  a  check  that  it  is  not  likely  ever  to  be  repeated. 

Another  act  of  the  Assembly,  during  this  pe- 
riod, shows  its  construction.  Congress  had  granted 
a  township  of  land  for  the  use  of  a  university,  and 
located  the  township  in  Symmes'  purchase.  This 
Assembly  located  the  university  on  land  outside 
of  this  purchase,  ignoring  the  act  of  Congress,  as 
they  had  done  before,  showing  not  only  ignorance 
of  the  true  scope  of  law,  but  a  lack  of  respect  un- 
becoming such  bodies. 

The  seat  of  government  was  also  moved  from 
Chillicothe  to  Zanesville,  which  vainly  hoped  to  be 
made  the  permanent  State  capital,  but  the  next 
session  it  was  again  taken  to  Chillicothe,  and  com- 
missioners appointed  to  locate  a  permanent  capital 

These  commissioners  were  James  Findley,  Jo- 
seph Darlington,  Wyllys  Silliman,  Reason  Beall, 
and  William  McFarland.  It  is  stated  that  they 
reported  at  first  in  favor  of  Dublin,  a  small  town 
on  the  Scioto  about  fourteen  miles  above  Colum- 
bus. At  the  session  of  1812-13,  the  Assembly 
accepted  the  proposals  of  Col.  James  Johnston, 
Alexander  McLaughlin,  John  Kerr,  and  Lyne 
Starling,  who  owned  the  site  of  Columbus.  The 
Assembly  also  decreed  that  the  temporary  seat  of 
government  should  remain  at  Chillicothe  until  the 
buildings  necessary  for  the  State  officers  should  be 

erected,  when  it  would  be  taken  there,  forever  to 
remain.  This  was  done  in  1816,  in  December  of 
that  year  the  first  meeting  of  the  Assembly  being 
held  there. 

The  site  selected  for  the  capital  was  on  the  east 
bank  of  the  Scioto,  about  a  mile  below  its  junction 
with  the  Olentangy.  Wide  streets  were  laid  out, 
and  preparations  for  a  city  made.  The  expecta- 
tions of  the  founders  have  been,  in  this  respect,  re- 
alized. The  town  was  laid  out  in  the  spring  of  1812, 
under  the  direction  of  Moses  Wright.  A  short 
time  after,  the  contract  for  making  it  the  capital  was 
signed.  June  18,  the  same  day  war  was  declared 
against  Great  Britain,  the  sale  of  lots  took  place. 
Among  the  early  settlers  were  George  McCor- 
mick,  George  B.  Harvey,  John  Shields,  Michael 
Patton,  Alexander  Fatten,  William  Altman,  John 
Collett,  William  McElvain,  Daniel  Kooser,  Peter 
Putnam,  Jacob  Hare,  Christian  Heyl,  Jarvis,  George 
and  Benjamin  Pike,  William  Long,  and  Dr.  John 
M.  Edminson.  In  1814,  a  house  of  worship  was 
built,  a  school  opened,  a  newspaper — The  Wtstern 
Intelligencer  and  Columbus  Gazette^  now  the 
Ohio  State  Journal — was  started,  and  the  old 
State  House  erected.  In  1816,  the  "Borough  of 
Columbus"  was  incorporated,  and  a  mail  route  once 
a  week  between  Chillicothe  and  Columbus  started. 
In  1819,  the  old  United  States  Court  House  was 
erected,  and  the  seat  of  justice  removed  from 
Franklinton  to  Columbus.  Until  1826,  times  were 
exceedingly  "  slow  "  in  the  new  capital,  and  but  lit- 
tle growth  experienced.  The  improvement  period 
revived  the  capital,  and  enlivened  its  trade  and 
growth  so  that  in  1834,  a  city  charter  was  granted. 
The  city  is  now  about  third  in  size  in  the  State, 
and  contains  many  of  the  most  prominent  public 
institutions.  The  present  capitol  building,  one  of 
the  best  in  the  West,  is  patterned  somewhat  after 
the  national  Capitol  at  Washington  City. 

From  the  close  of  the  agitation  of  the  "  Sweeping 
Resolutions,"  until  the  opening  of  the  war  of  1812, 
but  a  short  time  elapsed.  In  fact,  scarcely  had 
one  subsided,  ere  the  other  was  upon  the  country. 
Though  the  war  was  national,  its  theater  of  opera- 
tions was  partly  in  Ohio,  that  State  taking  an  act- 
ive part  in  its  operations.  Indeed,  its  liberty 
depended  on  the  war. 

^^         '' 

.Jk s 




From  the  organization  of  the  first  civil  government  in  the  Northwest  Territory   ( 1 ' 

Ohio  was  apart,  until  the  year  1880. 

to  1802),  of  which  the  State  of 


(a)  Arthur  St.  Clair 

*Charles  Willing  Byrd 

(6)  Edward  Tiiiin 

(c)  fThomas  Kirker 

Samuel  Huntington 

(d)  Return  Jonathan   Meigs. 

fOthniel  Looker 

Thomas  Worthington , 

(e)  Ethan  Allen  Brown 

fAllen  Trimble 

Jeremiah  Morrow 

Allen  Trimble 

Duncan  McArthur 

Robert  Lucas 

Joseph  Vance 

Wilson  Shannon 

Thomas  Corwin 

(/)  Wilson  Shannon 

JThomas  W.  Bartley , 

Mordecai  Bartley 

William  Bebb , 

(g)  Seabury  Ford 

(h)  Reuben  Wood 

(i)^  William  Medill 

Salmon  P.  Chase 

William  Dennison 

David  Tod 

(k)  John  Brough 

gCharles  Anderson 

Jacob  D.  Cox , 

Rutherford  B.  Hayes , 

Edward  F.  Noyes , 

William  Allen 

(I)  Rutherford  B.  Hayes 

(m)  Thomas  L.  Young 

Richard  M.  Bishop 

Charles  Foster 



Ross , 










Ross , 


Champaign  .., 

Belmont - 


Belmont , 












Trumbull , 

Hamilton , 








July  13 

March  3 
March  4 
Dec.  12 

April  14 


April  13 















March  2 
Jan.  14 
Jan.   14 

,  1803 
,  1807 
,  1808 
,  1810 
,  1814 
,  1814 
,  1818 
,  1822 
,  1822 
,  1826 
,  1830 
,  1832 
,  1836 
,  1838 
,  1840 
,  1842 
,  1844 
,  1844 
,  1846 
,  1850 
,  1853 
,  1856 
.  1860 
,  1862 
,  1864 
,  1 
,  1866 
,  1868 
,  1 
,  1874 
,  1876 
,  1877 
,  1878 
,  1880 

Term  Ended. 


March  3 
March  4 
Dec.  12 
Dec.  8 
March  25 
Dec.   8 


April  13 
Dec.   3 


July   15 
Jan.   14 


Aug.  29 
Jan.    9 





March  2 
Jan.  14 
Jan.   14 



(a)  Arthur  St.  Clair, of  Pennsylvania,  was  Governor  of  the  North- 
west Territory,  of  which  Ohio  was  a  part.from  July  13, 1788,  when  the 
first  civil  government  was  estahliehed  in  the  Territory,  until  about 
the  close  of  the  year  1802,  when  he  was  removed  by  the  President. 

♦Secretary  of  the  Territory,  and  was  acting  Governor  of  the 
Territory  after  the  removal  of  Gov.  St.  Clair. 

ib)  Resigned  March  3,  1807,  to  accept  the  office  of  U.  S.  Senator. 

(c)  Return  Jonathan  Meigs  was  elected  Governor  on  the  second 
Tuesday  of  October,  1807,  over  Nathaniel  Massie,  who  contested  the 
election  of  Meigs,  on  the  ground  that  "he  had  not  been  a  resident  of 
this  State  for  four  years  next  preceding  the  election,  as  required  by 
the  ConstHution,"'  and  the  General  Assembly,  in  joint  convention, 
declared  that  he  was  not  eligible.  The  office  was  not  given  to 
Massie,  nor  does  it  appear,  from  the  records  that  he  claimed  it,  but 
Thomas  Kirker,  acting  Governor,  continued  to  discharge  the  duties 
of  the  office  until  December  12,1808,  when  Samuel  Huntington  was 
inaugurated,  he  having  been  elected  on  the  second  Tuesday  of 
October  in  that  year. 

(d)  Resigned  March  25, 1814,  to  accept  the  office  of  Postmaster- 
General  of  the  United  States. 

(«)  Resigned  January  4, 1822.  to  accept  the  office  of  United 
States  !?enator. 

(/)  Resigned  April  13,  1844,  to  accept  the  office  of  Minister  to 

(3)  The  result  of  the  election  in  1848  was  not  finally  determined  in 
joint  convention  of  the  two  bouses  of  the  General  Asaembly  until 
January  19,1849,  and  the  inauguration  did  not  take  place  until  the 
22dof  that  month. 

(h)  Resigned  July  15, 1853  to  accept  the  office  of  Consul  to  Val- 

0)  Elected  in  October,  1853,  for  the  regular  term,  to  commence 
on  tlie  second  Monday  of  January,  1854. 

(k)  Died  August  29,  18G5. 

t  Acting  Governor. 

i  Acting  Governor,  vice  Wilson  Shannon,  resigned. 

^  Acting  Governor,  vice  Reuben  Wood,  resigned. 

^  Acting  Governor,  vice  John  Brough,  deceased. 

(I)  Resigned  March  2,  1877,  to  accept  the  office  of  President  of 
the  United  States. 

(m)  Vice  Rutherford  B.  Hayes,  resigned. 







IN  June,  1812,  war  was  declared  against  Great 
Britain.  Before  this,  an  act  was  passed  by  Con- 
gress, authorizing  the  increase  of  the  regular  army 
to  thirty-five  thousand  troops,  and  a  large  force  of 
volunteers,  to  serve  twelve  months.  Under  this 
act.  Return  J.  Meigs,  then  Governor  of  Ohio,  in 
April  and  May,  1812,  raised  three  regiments  of 
troops  to  serve  twelve  months.  They  rendez- 
voused at  Dayton,  elected  their  officers,  and  pre- 
pared for  the  campaign.  These  regiments  were 
numbered  First,  Second  and  Third.  Duncan  Mc- 
Arthur  was  Colonel  of  the  First ;  James  Findlay, 
of  the  Second,  and  Lewis  Cass,  of  the  Third. 
Early  in  June  these  troops  marched  to  Urbana, 
where  they  were  joined  by  Boyd's  Fourth  Regiment 
of  regular  troops,  under  command  of  Col.  Miller, 
who  had  been  in  the  battle  of  Tippecanoe.  Near 
the  middle  of  June,  this  little  army  of  about 
twenty-five  hundred  men,  under  command  of  Gov. 
William  Hull,  of  Michigan,  who  had  been  author- 
ized by  Congress  to  raise  the  troops,  started  on 
its  northern  march.  By  the  end  of  June,  the 
army  had  reached  the  Maumee,  after  a  very  severe 
march,  erecting,  on  the  way.  Forts  McArthur,  Ne- 
cessity and  Findlay.  By  some  carelessness  on  the 
part  of  the  American  Government,  no  ofiicial  word 
had  been  sent  to  the  frontiers  regarding  the  war, 
while  the  British  had  taken  an  early  precaution  to 
prepare  for  the  crisis.  Gov.  Hull  was  very  care- 
ful in  military  etiquette,  and  refused  to  march,  or 
do  any  ofi"ensive  acts,  unless  commanded  by  his 
superior  officers  at  Washington.  While  at  the 
Maumee,  by  a  careless  move,  all  his  personal 
effects,  including  all  his  plans,  number  and  strength 
of  his  army,  etc.,  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy. 
His  campaign  ended  only  in  ignominious  defeat, 
and  well-nigh  paralyzed  future  efi"orts.  All  Mich- 
igan fell  into  the  hands  of  the  British.  The  com- 
mander, though  a  good  man,  lacked  bravery  and 
promptness.  Had  Gen.  Harrison  been  in  com- 
mand no  such  results  would  have  been  the  case, 
and  the  war  would  have  probably  ended  at  the 

Before   Hull   had  surrendered,  Charles  Scott, 
Governor  of    Kentucky,  invited    Gen.  Harrison, 

Governor  of  Indiana  Territory,  to  visit  Frankfort, 
to  consult  on  the  subject  of  defending  the  North- 
west. Gov.  Harrison  had  visited  Gov.  Scott,  and 
in  August,  1812,  accepted  the  appointment  of 
Major  General  in  the  Kentucky  militia,  and,  by 
hasty  traveling,  on  the  receipt  of  the  news  of  the 
surrender  of  Detroit,  reached  Cincinnati  on  the 
morning  of  the  27th  of  that  month.  On  the  30th 
he  left  Cincinnati,  and  the  next  day  overtook  the 
army  he  was  to  command,  on  its  way  to  Dayton. 
After  leaving  Dayton,  he  was  overtaken  by  an  ex- 
press, informing  him  of  his  appointment  by  the 
Government  as  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  armies 
of  the  Indiana  and  Illinois  Territories.  The  army 
reached  Piqua,  September  3.  From  this  place 
Harrison  sent  a  body  of  troops  to  aid  in  the  de- 
fense of  Fort  Wayne,  threatened  by  the  enemy. 
On  the  6th  he  ordered  all  the  troops  forward,  and 
while  on  the  march,  on  September  17,  he  was 
informed  of  his  appointment  as  commander  of  the 
entire  Northwestern  troops.  He  found  the  army 
poorly  clothed  for  a  winter  campaign,  now  ap- 
proaching, and  at  once  issued  a  stirring  address  to 
the  people,  asking  for  food  and  comfortable  cloth- 
ing. The  address  was  not  in  vain.  After  his 
appointment.  Gen.  Harrison  pushed  on  to  Au- 
glaize, where,  leaving  the  army  under  command  of 
Gen.  Winchester,  he  returned  to  the  interior  of  the 
State,  and  establishing  his  headquarters  at  Frank- 
liuton,  began  active  measures  for  the  campaign. 

Early  in  March,  1812,  Col.  John  Miller  raised, 
under  orders,  a  regiment  of  infantry  in  Ohio,  and 
in  July  assembled  his  enlisted  men  at  Chillicothe, 
where,  placing  them — only  one  hundred  and  forty 
in  number — under  command  of  Captain  Ang-us 
Lewis,  he  sent  them  on  to  the  frontier.  They  erect- 
ed a  block-house  at  Piqua  and  then  went  on  to 
Defiance,  to  the  main  body  of  the  armv. 

In  July,  1812,  Gen.  Edward  W.  ^Tupper,  of 
Gallia  County,  raised  one  thousand  men  for  six 
months'  duty.  Under  orders  from  Gen.  Winches- 
ter, they  marched  through  Chillicothe  and  Urbana, 
on  to  the  Maumee,  where,  near  the  lower  end  of 
the  rapids,  they  made  an  ineffectual  attempt  to 
drive  off"  the  enemy.     Failing  in  this,  the  enemy 





attacked  Tupper  and  his  troops,  who,  though  worn 
down  with  the  march  and  not  a  Httle  disorganized 
through  the  jealousies  of  the  officers,  withstood 
the  attack,  and  repulsed  the  British  and  their  red 
allies,  who  returned  to  Detroit,  and  the  Americans 
to  Fort  McArthur. 

In  the  fall  of  1812,  Gcii.  Harrison  ordered  a 
detachment  of  six  hundred  men,  mostly  mounted, 
to  destroy  the  Indian  towns  on  the  Missisineway 
River,  one  of  the  head-waters  of  the  Wabash. 
The  winter  set  in  early  and  with  unusual  severity. 
At  the  same  time  this  expedition  was  carried  on, 
Bonaparte  was  retreating  from  Moscow.  The  expe- 
dition accomplished  its  design,  though  the  troops 
suffered  greatly  from  the  cold,  no  less  than  two 
hundred  men  being  more  or  less  frost  bitten. 

Gen.  Harrison  determined  at  once  to  retake 
Michigan  and  establish  a  line  of  defense  along  the 
southern  shores  of  the  lakes.  Winchester  was 
sent  to  occupy  Forts  Wayne  and  Defiance;  Perkins' 
brigade  to  Lower  Sandusky,  to  fortify  an  old 
stockade,  and  some  Pennsylvania  troops  and  artil- 
lery sent  there  at  the  same  time.  As  soon  as 
Gen.  Harrison  heard  the  results  of  the  Missis- 
ineway expedition,  he  went  to  Chillicothe  to  con- 
sult with  Gov.  Meigs  about  further  movements, 
and  tlie  best  methods  to  keep  the  way  between  the 
Upper  Miami  and  the  Maumee  continually  open. 
He  also  sent  Gen.  Winchester  word  to  move  for- 
ward to  the  rapids  of  the  Maumee  and  prepare  for 
winter  quarters.  This  Winchester  did  by  the 
middle  of  January,  1813,  establishing  himself  on 
the  northern  bank  of  the  river,  just  above  Wayne's 
old  battle-ground.  He  was  well  fixed  here,  and 
was  enabled  to  give  his  troops  good  bread,  made  from 
corn  gathered  in  Indian  corn-fields  in  this  vicinity. 

While  here,  the  inhabitants  of  Frenchtown,  on 
the  Raisin  River,  about  twenty  miles  from  Detroit, 
sent  Winchester  word  claiming  protection  from  the 
threatened  British  and  Indian  invasion,  avowing 
themselves  in  sympathy  with  the  Americans.  A 
council  of  war  decided  in  favor  of  their  request, 
and  Col.  Lewis,  with  550  men,  sent  to  their  relief 
Soon  afler.  Col.  Allen  was  sent  with  more  troops, 
and  the  enemy  easily  driven  away  from  about 
Frenchtown.  Word  was  sent  to  Gen.  Winchester, 
who  determined  to  march  with  all  the  men  he 
could  spare  to  aid  in  holding  the  post  gained.  He 
lefl,  the  19th  of  January,  with  250  men,  and  ar- 
rived on  the  evening  of  the  20th.  Failing  to 
take  the  necessary  precaution,  from  some  unex- 
plained reason,  the  enemy  came  up  in  the  night, 
established  his  batteries,  and,  the   next  day,  sur- 

prised and  defeated  the  American  Army  with  a 
terrible  loss.  Gen.  Winchester  was  made  a  pris- 
oner, and,  finally,  those  who  were  intrenched  in 
the  town  surrendered,  under  promise  of  Proctor, 
the  British  commander,  of  protection  from  the 
Indians.  This  promise  was  grossly  violated  the 
next  day.  The  savages  were  allowed  to  enter  the 
town  and  enact  a  massacre  as  cruel  and  bloody  as 
any  in  the  annals  of  the  war,  to  the  everlasting 
ignominy  of  the  British  General  and  his  troops. 

Those  of  the  American  Army  that  escaped,  ar- 
rived at  the  rapids  on  the  evening  of  the  22d  of 
January,  and  soon  the  sorrowful  news  spread 
throughout  the  army  and  nation.  Gen.  Harrison 
set  about  retrieving  the  disaster  at  once.  Delay 
could  do  no  good.  A  fort  was  built  at  the  rapids, 
named  Fort  Meigs,  and  troops  from  the  south  and 
west  hurriedly  advanced  to  the  scene  of  action. 
The  investment  and  capture  of  Detroit  was  aban- 
doned, that  winter,  owing  to  the  defeat  at  French- 
town,  and  expiration  of  the  terms  of  service  of 
many  of  the  troops.  Others  took  their  places, 
all  parts  of  Ohio  and  bordering  States  sending 

The  erection  of  Fort  Meigs  was  an  obstacle  in 
the  path  of  the  British  they  determined  to  remove, 
and,  on  the  28th  of  February,  1813,  a  large  band 
of  British  and  Indians,  under  command  of  Proc- 
tor, Tecumseh,  Walk-in-the-water,  and  other  In- 
dian chiefs,  appeared  in  the  Maumee  in  boats,  and 
prepared  for  the  attack.  Without  entering  into 
details  regarding  the  investment  of  the  fort,  it  is 
only  necessary  to  add,  that  after  a  prolonged  siege, 
lasting  to  the  early  part  of  May,  the  British  were 
obliged  to  abandon  the  fort,  having  been  severely 
defeated,  and  sailed  for  the  Canadian  shores. 

Next  followed  the  attacks  on  Fort  Stephenson, 
at  Lower  Sandusky,  and  other  predatory  excur- 
sions, by  the  British.  All  of  these  failed  of  their 
design;  the  defense  of  Maj.  Croghan  and  his  men 
constituting  one  of  the  most  brilliant  actions  of  the 
war.  For  the  gallant  defense  of  Fort  Stephenson  by 
Maj.  Croghan,  then  a  young  man,  the  army  merited 
the  highest  honors.  The  ladies  of  Chillicothe  voted 
the  heroic  Major  a  fine  sword,  while  the  whole 
land  rejoiced  at  the  exploits  of  him  and  his  band. 

The  decisive  efforts  of  the  army,  the  great  num- 
bers of  men  offered — many  of  whom  Gen.  Harrison 
was  obliged  to  send  home,  much  to  their  disgust — 
Perry's  victory  on  Lake  Erie,  September  10, 
1813 — all  presaged  the  triumph  of  the  American 
arms,  soon  to  ensue.  As  soon  as  the  battle  on 
the  lake  was  over,  the  British  at  Maiden  burned 




their  stores,  and  fled,  wliile  the  Americans,  under 
their  gallant  commander,  followed  them  in  Perry's 
vessel  to  the  Canada  shore,  overtaking  them  on 
the  River  Thames,  October  5.  In  the  battle  that 
ensued,  Tecumseh  was  slain,  and  the  British  Army 

The  war  was  now  practically  closed  in  the  "West. 
Ohio  troops  had  done  nobly  in  defending  their 
northern  frontier,  and  in  regaining  the  Northwest- 
ern country.  Gen.  Harrison  was  soon  after  elected 
to  Congress  by  the  Cincinnati  district,  and  Gen. 
Duncan  McArthur  was  appointed  a  Brigadier 
General  in  the  regular  army,  and  assigned  to  the 
command  in  his  place.  Gen.  McArthur  made  an 
expedition  into  Upper  Canada  in  the  spring  of 
1814,  destroying  considerable  property,  and  driv- 
ing the  British  farther  into  their  own  dominions. 
Peace  was  declared  early  in  1815,  and  that  spring, 
the  troops  were  mustered  out  of  service  at  Chilli- 
cothe,  and  peace  with  England  reigned  supreme. 

The  results  of  the  war  in  Ohio  were,  for  awhile, 
similar  to  the  Indian  war  of  1795.  It  brought 
many  people  into  the  State,  and  opened  new  por- 
tions, before  unknown.  Many  of  the  soldiers  im- 
mediately invested  their  money  in  lands,  and  became 
citizens.  The  war  drove  many  people  from  the 
Atlimtic  Coast  west,  and  as  a  result  much  money, 
for  awhile,  circulated.  Labor  and  provisions  rose, 
which  enabled  both  workmen  and  tradesmen  to 
enter  tracts  of  land,  and  aided  emigration.  At  the 
conclusion  of  Wayu-^'s  war  in  1795,  probably 
not  more  than  five  thousand  people  dwelt  in  the 
limits  of  the  State  ;  at  the  close  of  the  war  of  1812, 
that  number  was  largely  increased,  even  with  the 
odds  of  war  against  them.  After  the  last  war,  tlie 
emigration  was  constant  and  gradual,  building  up 
the  State  in  a  manner  that  betokened  a  healthful 

As  soon  as  the  effects  of  the  war  had  worn  off, 
a  period  of  depression  set  in,  as  a  result  of  too 
free  speculation  indulged  in  at  its  close.  Gradu- 
ally a  stagnation  of  business  ensued,  and  many 
who  found  the'inselves  unable  to  meet  contracts 
made  in  "flush"  times,  found  no  alternative  but 
to  fail.  To  relieve  the  pressure  in  all  parts  of 
the  West,  Congress,  about  1815,  reduced  the 
price  of  public  lands  from  $2  to  $1.25 
per  acre.  This  measure  worked  no  little 
hardship  on  those  who  owned  large  tracts  of 
lands,  for  portions  of  which  they  had  not  fully 
paid,  and  as  a  consequence,  these  lands,  as  well 
as  all  others  of  this  class,  reverted  to  the 
Government.     The  general    market   was   in  New 

Orleans,  whither  goods  were  transported  in  flat- 
boats  built  especially  for  this  pupose.  This  com- 
merce, though  small  and  poorly  repaid,  was  the 
main  avenue  of  trade,  and  did  much  for  the  slow 
prosperity  prevalent.  The  few  banks  in  the  State 
found  their  bills  at  a  discount  abroad,  and  gradu- 
ally becoming  di-ained  of  their  specie,  either  closed 
business  or  failed,  the  major  part  of  them  adopt- 
ing the  latter  course. 

The  steamboat  began  to  be  an  important  factor 
in  the  river  navigation  of  the  West  about  this 
period.  The  first  boat  to  descend  the  Ohio  was 
the  Orleans,  built  at  Pittsburg  in  1812,  and  in 
December  of  that  year,  while  the  fortunes  of  war 
hung  over  the  land,  she  made  her  first  trip  fi-om  the 
Iron  City  to  New  Orleans,  being  just  twelve  days 
on  the  way.  The  second,  built  by  Samuel  Smith, 
was  called  the  Comet,  and  made  a  trip  as  far 
south  as  Louisville,  in  the  summer  of  1813.  The 
third,  the  Vesuvius,  was  built  by  Fulton,  and  went 
to  New  Orleans  in  1814.  The  fourth,  built  by 
Daniel  French  at  Brownsville,  Penn.,  made  two 
trips  to  Louisville  in  the  summer  of  1814.  The 
next  vessel,  the  ^tna,  was  built  by  Fulton  & 
Company  in  1815.  So  fast  did  the  business 
increase,  that,  four  years  after,  more  than 
forty  steamers  floated  on  the  Western  waters. 
Improvements  in  machinery  kept  pace  with  the 
building,  until,  in  1838,  a  competent  writer  stated 
there  were  no  less  than  four  hundred  steamers  in 
the  West.  Since  then,  the  erection  of  railways 
has  greatly  retarded  ship-building,  and  it  is  alto- 
gether probable  the  number  has  increased  but 

The  question  of  canals  began  to  agitate  the 
Western  country  during  the  decade  succeeding  the 
war.  They  had  been  and  were  being  constructed 
in  older  countries,  and  presaged  good  and  prosper- 
ous times.  If  only  the  waters  of  the  lakes  and 
the  Ohio  River  could  be  united  by  a  canal  run- 
ning through  the  midst  of  the  State,  thought  the 
people,  prosperous  cities  and  towns  would  arise  on 
its  banks,  and  commerce  flow  through  the  land. 
One  of  the  firmest  friends  of  such  improvements 
was  De  Witt  Clinton,  who  had  been  the  chief  man 
in  forwarding  the  "  Clinton  Canal,"  in  New  York. 
He  was  among  the  first  to  advocate  the  feasibility 
of  a  canal  connecting  Lake  Erie  and  the  Ohio 
River,  and,  by  the  success  of  the  New  York  canals, 
did  much  to  bring  it  about.  Popular  writers  of  the 
day  all  urged  the  scheme,  so  that  when  thi;  Assem- 
bly met,  early  in  December,  1821,  the  resolution, 
offered  by    Micajah   T.  Williams,  of   Cincinnati, 





for  the  appointment  of  a  committee  of  five  mem- 
bers to  take  into  consideration  so  much  of  the 
Governor's  message  as  related  to  canals,  and  see  if 
some  feasible  plan  could  not  be  adopted  whereby  a 
beginning  could  be  made,  was  quickly  adopted. 

The  report  of  the  committee,  advising  a  survey 
and  examination  of  routes,  met  with  the  approval 
of  the  Assembly,  and  commissioners  were  ap- 
pointed who  were  to  employ  an  engineer,  examine 
the  country  and  report  on  the  practicability  of  a 
canal  between  the  lakes  and  the  river.  The  com- 
missioners employed  James  Gleddes,  of  Onondaga 
County,  N.  Y.,  as  an  engineer.  He  arrived  in 
Columbus  in  June,  1822,  and,  before  eight  months, 
the  corps  of  engineers,  under  his  direction,  had 
examined  one  route.  During  the  next  two  sum- 
mers, the  examinations  continued.  A  number  of 
routes  were  examined  and  surveyed,  and  one,  from 
Cleveland  on  the  lake,  to  Portsmouth  on  the  Ohio, 
was  recommended.  Another  canal,  from  Cincin- 
nati to  Dayton,  on  the  Miami,  was  determined  on, 
and  preparations  to  commence  work  made.  A 
Board  of  Canal  Fund  Commissioners  was  created, 
money  was  borrowed,  and  the  morning  of  July 
4,  1825,  the  first  shovelful  of  earth  was  dug  near 
Newark,  with  imposing  ceremonies,  in  the  presence 
of  De  Witt  Clinton,  Grovernor  of  New  York,  and 
a  mighty  concourse  of  people  assembled  to  witness 
the  auspicious  event. 

Gov.  Clinton  was  escorted  all  over  the  State  to 
aid  in  developing  the  energy  everywhere  apparent. 
The  events  were  important  ones  in  the  history  of 
the  State,  and,  though  they  led  to  the  creation  of 
a  vast  debt,  yet,  in  the  end,  the  canals  were  a 

The  main  canal — the  Ohio  and  Erie  Canal — 
was  not  completed  till  1832.  The  Maumee  Canal, 
from  Dayton  to  Cincinnati,  was  finished  in  1834. 
They  cost  the  State  about  $G,000,UOO.  Each  of 
the  main  canals  had  branches  leading  to  important 
towns,  where  their  construction  could  be  made 
without  too  much  expense.  The  Miami  and  Mau- 
mee Canal,  from  Cincinnati  northward  along  the 
Miami  River  to  Piqua,  thence  to  the  Maumee 
and  on  to  the  lake,  was  the  largest  canal  made, 
and,  for  many  years,  was  one  of  the  most  important 
in  the  State.  It  joined  the  Wabash  Canal  on  the 
eastern  boundary  of  Indiana,  and  thereby  saved 
the  construction  of  many  miles  by  joining  this 
great  canal  from  Toledo  to  Evansville. 

The  largest  artificial  lake  in  the  world,  it  is  said, 
was  built  to  supply  water  to  the  Miami  Canal.  It 
exists  yet,  though  the  canal  is  not  much  used.     It 

is  in  the  eastern  part  of  Mercer  County,  and  is 
about  nine  miles  long  by  from  two  to  four  wide. 
It  was  formed  by  raising  two  walls  of  earth  from 
ten  to  thirty  feet  high,  called  respectively  the  east 
and  west  embankments  ;  the  first  of  which  is  about 
two  miles  in  length  ;  the  second,  about  four.  These 
walls,  with  the  elevation  of  the  ground  to  the 
north  and  south,  formed  a  huge  basin,  to  retain 
the  water.  The  reservoir  was  commenced  in  1837, 
and  finished  in  1845,  at  an  expense  of  several 
hundred  thousand  dollars.  When  first  built,  dur- 
ing the  accumulation  of  water,  much  malarial 
disease  prevailed  in  the  surrounding  country,  owing 
to  the  stagnant  condition  of  the  water.  The  citi- 
zens, enraged  at  what  they  considered  an  innova- 
tion of  their  rights,  met,  and,  during  a  dark  night, 
tore  out  a  portion  of  the  lower  wall,  letting  the 
water  flow  out.  The  damage  cost  thousands  of 
dollars  to  repair.  All  who  participated  in  the 
proceedings  were  liable  to  a  severe  imprisonment, 
but  the  state  of  feeling  was  such,  in  Mercer  County, 
where  the  offense  was  committed,  that  no  jury 
could  be  found  that  would  try  them,  and  the  affair 
gradually  died  out. 

The  canals,  so  efficacious  in  their  day,  were, 
however,  superseded  by  the  railroads  rapidly  find- 
ing their  way  into  the  West.  From  England, 
where  they  were  early  used  in  the  collieries,  the 
transition  to  America  was  easy. 

The  first  railroad  in  the  United  States  was  built 
in  the  summer  of  1826,  from  the  granite  quarry 
belonging  to  the  Bunker  Hill  Monument  Associa- 
tion to  the  wharf  landing,  three  miles  distant.  The 
road  was  a  slight  decline  from .  the  quarry  to 
the  wharf,  hence  the  loaded  cars  were  pro- 
pelled by  their  own  gravity.  On  their  return, 
when  empty,  they  were  drawn  up  by  a  single 
horse.  Other  roads,  or  tramways,  quickly  followed 
this.  They  were  built  at  the  Pennsylvania  coal 
mines,  in  South  Carolina,  at  New  Orleans,  and  at 
Baltimore.  Steam  motive  power  was  used  in  1831 
or  1832,  first  in  America  on  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio 
Railroad,  and  in  Charlestown,  on  a  railroad  there. 

To  transfer  these  highways  to  the  West  was  the 
question  of  but  a  few  years'  time.  The  prairies  of 
Illinois  and  Indiana  offered  superior  inducements 
to  such  enterprises,  and,  early  in  1835,  they  began 
to  be  agitated  there.  In  1838,  the  first  rail  was 
laid  in  Illinois,  at  Meredosia,  a  little  town  on  the 
Illinois  River,  on  what  is  now  the  Wabash  Railway. 

"The  first  railroad  made  in  Ohio,"  writes  Caleb 
Atwater,  in  his  "History  of  Ohio,"  in  1838,  "was 
finished  in  1836  by  the  people  of  Toledo,  a  town 

>^  <s~ 




some  two  years  old  then,  situated  near  the  mouth 
of  Maumee  River.  The  road  extends  westward  in- 
to Michigan  and  is  some  thirty  miles  in  length. 
There  is  a  road  about  to  be  made  from  Cincinnati 
to  Springfield.  This  road  follows  the  Ohio  River 
up  to  the  Little  Miami  River,  and  there  turns 
northwardly  up  its  valley  to  Xenia,  and,  passing 
the  Yellow  Springs,  reaches  Springfield.  Its  length 
must  be  about  ninety  miles.  The  State  will  own 
one-half  of  the  road,  individuals  and  the  city  of 
Cincinnati  the  other  half  This  road  will,  no 
doubt,  be  extended  to  Lake  Erie,  at  Sandusky 
City,  within  a  few  short  years." 

"There  is  a  railroad."  continues  Mr.  Atwater, 
"about  to  be  made  from  Painesville  to  the  Ohio 
River.  There  are  many  charters  for  other  roads, 
which  will  never  be  made." 

Mr.  Atwater  notes  also,  the  various  turnpikes  as 
well  as  the  famous  National  road  from  Baltimore 
westward,  then  completed  only  to  the  mountains. 
This  latter  did  as  much  as  any  enterprise  ever  en- 
acted in  building  up  and  populating  the  West. 
It  gave  a  national  thoroughfare,  which,  for  many 
years,  was  the  principal  wagon-way  from  the  At- 
lantic to  the  Mississippi  Valley. 

The  railroad  to  which  Mr.  Atwater  refers  as 
about  to  be  built  from  Cincinnati  to  Springfield, 
was  what  was  known  as  the  Mad  River  Railroad. 
It  is  commonly  conceded  to  be  the  first  one  built 
in  Ohio.*  Its  history  shows  that  it  was  chartered 
March  11,  1836,  that  work  began  in  1837;  that 
it  was  completed  and  opened  for  business  from 
Cincinnati  to  Milford,  in  December,  1842;  to  Xe- 
nia, in  August,  1845,  and  to  Springfield,  in  Au- 
gust, 1846.  It  was  laid  with  strap  rails  until 
about  1848,  when  the  present  form  of  rail  was 

One  of  the  earliest  roads  in  Ohio  was  what  was 
known  as  the  Sandusky,  Mansfield  &  Newark  Rail- 
road. It  was  chartered  at  first  as  the  Monroeville 
&  Sandusky  City  Railroad,  March  9,  1835.  March 
12,  1836,  the  Mansfield  &  New  Haven  road  was 
chartered;  the  Columbus  &  Lake  Erie,  March  12, 

1845,  and  the  Huron   &  Oxford,  February  27, 

1846.  At  first  it  ran  only  from  Sandusky  to 
Monroeville,  then  from  Mansfield  to  Huron.  These 

*  Hon.  E  D.  Mansfield  states,  in  1873,  that  the  "  first  actual  piece 
of  railroad  laid  in  Ohio,  was  made  on  the  Cincinnati  &  Sandusky 
Railroad;  hut,  about  the  same  time  we  have  the  Little  Miami  Rail- 
road, which  was  surveyed  in  1836  and  1837.  If  this,  the  generally 
accepted  opinion,  is  correct,  then  Mr.  Atwater's  statement  as  given, 
is  wrong.  His  history  is,  however,  generally  conceded  to  be  correct. 
Written  in  1838,  he  surely  ought  to  know  whereof  he  was  writing, 
as  the  railroads  were  then  only  in  construction  ;  but  few,  if  any, 
in  operation. 

two  were  connected  and  consolidated,  and  then  ex- 
tended to  Newark,  and  finally,  by  connections,  to 

It  is  unnecessary  to  follow  closely  the  history  of 
these  improvements  through  the  years  succeeding 
their  introduction.  At  first  the  State  owned  a 
share  in  nearly  all  railroads  and  canals,  but  finally 
finding  itself  in  debt  about  $15,00U,000  for  such 
improvements,  and  learning  by  its  own  and  neigh- 
bors' experiences,  that  such  policy  was  detrimental 
to  the  best  interests  of  the  people,  abandoned  the 
plan,  and  allowed  private  parties  entire  control  of 
all  such  works.  After  the  close  of  the  Mexican 
war,  and  the  return  to  solid  values  in  1 854  or  there- 
abouts, the  increase  of  railroads  in  all  parts  of  Ohio, 
as  well  as  all  parts  of  the  West,  was  simply  marvel- 
ous. At  this  date  there  are  more  than  ten  thou- 
sand miles  of  railroads  in  Ohio,  alongside  of  which 
stretch  innumerable  lines  of  telegraph,  a  system  of 
swift  messages  invented  by  Prof  Morse,  and  adopted 
in  the  United  States  about  1851. 

About  the  time  railroad  building  began  to  as- 
sume a  tangible  shape,  in  1840,  occurred  the  cele- 
brated political  campaign  known  in  history  as  the 
"  Hard  Cider  Campaign."  The  gradual  encroach- 
ments of  the  slave  power  in  the  West,  its  arrogant 
attitude  in  the  Congress  of  the  United  States  and 
in  several  State  legislatures  :  its  forcible  seizure  of 
slaves  in  the  free  States,  and  the  enactment  and 
attempted  enforcement  of  the  "fugitive  slave"  law 
all  tended  to  awaken  in  the  minds  of  the  Northern 
people  an  antagonism,  terminating  only  in  the  late 
war  and  the  abolishment  of  that  hideous  system  in 
the  United  States. 

The  "Whig  Party"  strenuously  urged  the 
abridgment  or  confinement  of  slavery  in  the 
Southern  States,  and  in  the  contest  the  party  took 
a  most  active  part,  and  elected  William  Henry 
Harrison  President  of  the  United  States.  As  he 
had  been  one  of  the  foremost  leaders  in  the  war  of 
1812,  a  resident  of  Ohio,  and  one  of  its  most  pop- 
ular citizens,  a  log  cabin  and  a  barrel  of  cider  were 
adopted  as  his  exponents  of  popular  opinion,  as 
expressive  of  the  rule  of  the  common  people  repre- 
sented in  the  cabin  and  cider,  in  turn  representing 
their  primitive  and  simple  habits  of  life.  He 
lived  but  thirty  days  after  his  inauguration,  dying 
on  the  9th  of  April,  1841,  when  John  Tyler,  the 
Vice  President,  succeeded  him  as  Chief  Executive 
of  the  nation. 

The  building  of  railroads ;  the  extension  of  com- 
merce ;  the  settlement  of  all  parts  of  the  State ; 
its  growth  in  commerce,  education,  reHgion  and 




population,  are  the  chief  events  from  1841  to  the 
Mexican  war.  Hard  times  occurred  about  as  often 
as  they  do  now,  preceded  by  "  flush"  times,  when 
speculation  ran  rife,  the  people  all  infatuated  with 

an  insane  idea  that  something  could  be  had  for 
nothing.  The  bubble  burst  as  often  as  inflated, 
ruining  many  people,  but  seemingly  teaching  few 




THE  Mexican  War  grew  out  of  the  question  of 
the  annexation  of  Texas,  then  a  province  of 
Mexico,  whose  territory  extended  to  the  Indian 
Territory  on  the  north,  and  on  up  to  the  Oregon 
Territory  on  the  Pacific  Coast.  Texas  had  been 
settled  largely  by  Americans,  who  saw  the  condi- 
tion of  aft'airs  that  would  inevitably  ensue  did  the 
country  remain  under  Mexican  rule.  They  first 
took  steps  to  secede  from  Mexico,  and  then  asked 
the  aid  of  America  to  sustain  them,  and  annex  the 
country  to  itself. 

The  Whig  party  and  many  others  opposed  this, 
chiefly  on  the  grounds  of  the  extension  of  slave 
territory.  But  to  no  avail.  The  war  came  on, 
Mexico  was  conquered,  the  war  lasting  from  April 
20,  1846,  to  May  30,  1848.  Fifty  thousand  vol- 
unteers were  called  for  the  war  by  the  Congress, 
and  $10,000,000  placed  at  the  disposal  of  the 
President,  James  K.  Polk,  to  sustain  the  army  and 
prosecute  the  war. 

The  part  that  Ohio  took  in  the  war  may  be 
briefly  summed  up  as  follows :  She  had  five  vol- 
unteer regiments,  five  companies  in  the  Fifteenth 
Infantry,  and  several  independent  companies,  with 
her  full  proportion  among  the  regulars.  When 
war  was  declared,  it  was  something  of  a  crusade  to 
many ;  full  of  romance  to  others ;  hence,  many 
more  were  offiered  than  could  be  received.  It  was 
a  campaign  of  romance  to  some,  yet  one  of  reality, 
ending  in  death,  to  many. 

When  the  first  call  for  troops  came,  the  First, 
Second  and  Third  Regiments  of  infantry  responded 
at  once.  Alexander  Mitchell  was  made  Colonel  of 
the  First;  John  E.  Wellerits  Lieutenant  Colonel ; 
and  Major  L.  Giddings,  of  Dayton,  its  Major, 
Thos.  L.  Hamer,  one  of  the  ablest  lawyers  in  Ohio, 
started  with  the  First  as  its  Major,  but,  before  the 
regiment  left  the  State,  he  was  made  a  Brigadier 
General  of  Volunteers,  and,  at  the  battle  of  Mon- 
terey, distinguished  himself;  and  there  contracted 

disease  and  laid  down  his  life.  The  regiment's 
Colonel,  who  had  been  wounded  at  Monterey,  came 
home,  removed  to  Minnesota,  and  there  died. 
Lieut.  Col.  Weller  went  to  California  after  the 
close  of  the  war.  He  was  United  States  Senator 
from  that  State  in  the  halls  of  Congress,  and,  at 
last,  died  at  New  Orleans. 

The  Second  Regiment  was  commanded  by  Col. 
George  W.  Morgan,  now  of  Mount  Vernon  ;  Lieut. 
Col.  William  Irwin,  of  Lancaster,  and  Maj.  Will- 
iam Wall.  After  the  war  closed,  Irwin  settled  in 
Texas,  and  remained  there  till  he  died.  Wall  lived 
out  his  days  in  Ohio.  The  regiment  was  never  in 
active  field  service,  but  was  a  credit  to  the  State. 

The  ofiicers  of  the  Third  Regiment  were.  Col. 
Samuel  R.  Curtis;  Lieut.  Col.  G.  W.  McCookand 
Maj.  John  Love.  The  first  two  are  now  dead ; 
the  Major  lives  in  McConneUsville. 

At  the  close  of  the  first  year  of  the  war,  these 
regiments  (First,  Second  and  Third)  were  mustered 
out  of  service,  as  their  term  of  enlistment  had 

When  the  second  year  of  the  war  began,  the 
call  for  more  troops  on  the  part  of  the  Government 
induced  the  Second  Ohio  Infantry  to  re-organize, 
and  again  enter  the  service.  William  Irwin,  of  the 
former  organization,  was  chosen  Colonel ;  William 
Latham,  of  Columbus,  Lieutenant  Colonel,  and 
William  H.  Link,  of  Circleville,  Major.  Nearly 
all  of  them  are  now  dead. 

The  regular  army  was  increased  by  eight  Ohio 
companies  of  infantry,  the  Third  Dragoons,  and 
the  Voltigeurs — light-armed  soldiers.  In  the  Fif- 
teenth Regiment  of  the  United  States  Army,  there 
were  five  Ohio  companies.  The  others  were  three 
from  Michigan,  and  two  from  Wisconsin.  Col. 
Moi'gan,  of  the  old  Second,  was  made  Colonel  of 
the  Fifteenth,  and  John  Howard,  of  Detroit,  an 
old  artillery  ofiicer  in  the  regular  army.  Lieutenant 
Colonel.     Samuel  Wood,  a  captain    in   the   Sixth 





United  States  Inftintry,  was  made  Major  ;  but  was 

afterward  succeeded  by  Mill,  of  Vermont. 

The  Fifteenth  was  in  a  number  of  skirmishes  at  first, 
and  later  in  the  battles  of  Contreras,  Cherubusco 
and  Chapultepec.  At  the  battle  of  Cherubusco, 
the  Colonel  was  severely  wounded,  and  Maj.  Mill, 
with  several  oflacers,  and  a  large  number  of  men, 
killed.  For  gallant  service  at  Contreras,  Col.  Mor- 
gan, though  only  twenty-seven  years  old,  was  made 
a  Brevet  Brigadier  General  in  the  United  States 
Army.  Since  the  war  he  has  delivered  a  number 
of  addresses  in  Ohio,  on  the  campaigns  in  Mex- 

The  survivors  of  the  war  are  now  few.  Though 
seventy-five  thousand  men  from  the  United  States 
went  into  that  conflict,  less  than  ten  thousand  now 
survive.  They  are  now  veterans,  and  as  such  de- 
light to  recount  their  reminiscences  on  the  fields  of 
Mexico.  They  are  all  in  the  decline  of  life,  and 
ere  a  generation  passes  away,  few,  if  any,  will  be 

After  the  war,  the  continual  growth  of  Ohio, 
the  change  in  all  its  relations,  necessitated  a  new 
organic  law.  The  Constitution  of  1852  was  the 
result.  It  re-affirmed  the  political  principles  of 
the  "ordinance  of  1787"  and  the  Constitution  of 
1802,  and  made  a  few  changes  necessitated  by  the 
advance  made  in  the  interim.  It  created  the 
office  of  Lieutenant  Governor,  fixing  the  term  of 
service  at  two  years.  This  Constitution  yet  stands 
notwithstanding  the  prolonged  attempt  in  1873-74: 
to  create  a  new  one.  It  is  now  the  organic  law  of 

From  this  time  on  to  the  opening  of  the  late  war, 
the  prosperity  of  the  State  received  no  check. 
Towns  and  cities  grew ;  railroads  multiplied ;  com- 
merce was  extended;  the  vacant  lands  were  rapidly 
filled  by  settlers,  and  everything  tending  to  the 
advancement  of  the  people  was  well  prosecuted. 
Banks,  after  much  tribulation,  had  become  in  a 
measure  somewhat  secure,  their  only  and  serious 
drawback  being  their  isolation  or  the  confinement 
of  their  circulation  to  their  immediate  localities. 
But  signs  of  a  mighty  contest  were  apparent.  A 
contest  almost  without  a  parallel  in  the  annals  of 
history ;  a  contest  between  freedom  and  slavery ; 
between  wrong  and  right ;  a  contest  that  could 
only  end  in  defeat  to  the  wrong.  The  Republican 
party  came  into  existence  at  the  close  of  President 
Pierce's  term,  in  1855.  Its  object  then  was,  prin- 
cipally, the  restriction  of  the  slave  power ;  ultimately 
its  extinction.  One  of  the  chief  exponents  and  sup- 
porters of  this  growing  party  in  Ohio,  was  Salmon  P. 

Chase ;  one  who  never  faltered  nor  lost  faith ;  and 
who  was  at  the  helm  of  State;  in  the  halls  of  Con- 
gress; chief  of  one  the  most  important  bureaus  of 
the  Government,  and,  finally,  Chief  Justice  of  the 
United  States.  When  war  came,  after  the  election 
of  Abraham  Lincoln  by  the  Republican  party,  Ohio 
was  one  of  the  first  to  answer  to  the  call  for  troops. 
Mr.  Chase,  while  Governor,  had  re-organized  the 
militia  on  a  sensible  basis,  and  rescued  it  from  the 
ignominy  into  which  it  had  fallen.  When  Mr. 
Lincoln  asked  for  seventy-five  thousand  men, 
Ohio's  quota  was  thirteen  regiments.  The  various 
chaotic  regiments  and  militia  troops  in  the  State 
did  not  exceed  1,500  men.  The  call  was  issued 
April  15,  1861  ;  by  the  18th,  two  regiments  were 
organized  in  Columbus,  whither  these  companies 
had  gathered;  before  sunrise  of  the  19th  the  Jirst 
and  second  regiments  were  on  their  way  to  Wash- 
ington City.  The  President  had  only  asked  for 
thirteen  regiments;  thirty  were  gathering;  the 
Government,  not  yet  fully  comprehending  the 
nature  of  the  rebellion,  refused  the  surplus  troops, 
but  Gov.  Dennison  was  authorized  to  put  ten 
additional  regiments  in  the  field,  as  a  defensive 
measure,  and  was  also  authorized  to  act  on  the 
defensive  as  well  as  on  the  offensive.  The  immense 
extent  of  southern  border  made  this  necessary, 
as  all  the  loyal  people  in  West  Virginia  and  Ken- 
tucky asked  for  help. 

In  the  limits  of  this  history,  it  is  impossible  to 
trace  all  the  steps  Ohio  took  in  the  war.  One  of 
her  most  talented  sons,  now  at  the  head  of  one  of 
the  greatest  newspapers  of  the  world,  says,  regard- 
ing the  action  of  the  people  and  their  Legislature : 

"In  one  part  of  the  nation  there  existed  a  grad- 
ual growth  of  sentiment  against  the  Union,  ending 
in  open  hostility  against  its  integrity  and  its  Con- 
stitutional law ;  on  the  other  side  stood  a  resolute, 
and  determined  people,  though  divided  in  minor 
matters,  firmly  united  on  the  question  of  national 
supremacy.  The  people  of  Ohio  stood  squarely 
on  this  side.  Before  this  her  people  had  been  di- 
vided up  to  the  hour  when — 

'"That  fierce  and  sudden  flash  across  the  rugged  black- 
ness broke, 

And,  with  a  voice  that  shook  the  land,  the  guns  of  Sum- 
ter spoke ; 

And   whereso'er   the   summons  came,  there   rose   the 
angry  din, 

As  when,  upon  a  rocky  coast,  a  stormy  tide  sets  in.' 

"  All  waverings  then  ceased  among  the  people 
and  in  the  Ohio  Legislature.     The  Union  must  be 




preserved.  The  white  heat  of  patriotism  and  fe- 
alty to  the  flag  that  had  been  victorious  in  three 
wars,  and  had  never  met  but  temporary  defeat 
then  melted  all  parties^  and  dissolved  all  hesitation, 
and,  April  18,  1861,  by  a  unanimous  vote  of 
ninety-nine  Representatives  in  its  favor,  there  was 
passed  a  bill  appropriating  $500,000  to  carry  into 
effect  the  requisition  of  the  President,  to  protect 
the  National  Government,  of  which  sum  $4.50,000 
were  to  purchase  arms  and  equipments  for  the 
troops  recjuired  by  that  requisition  as  the  quota  of 
Ohio,  and  $50,000  as  an  extraordinary  contingent 
fund  for  the  Governor.  The  commissioners  of  the 
State  Sinking  Fund  were  authorized,  by  the  same 
bill,  to  borrow  this  money,  on  the  0  per  cent  bonds 
of  the  State,  and  to  issue  for  the  same  certificates, 
freeing  such  bonds  from  taxation.  Then  followed 
other  such  legislation  that  declared  the  property  of 
volunteers  free  from  execution  for  debt  during 
their  term  of  service;  that  declared  any  resident 
of  the  State,  who  gave  aid  and  comfort  to  the 
enemies  of  the  Union,  guilty  of  treason  against 
the  State,  to  be  punished  by  imprisonment  at  hard 
labor  for  life;  and,  as  it  had  become  already  evi- 
dent that  thousands  of  militia,  beyond  Ohio's 
quota  of  the  President's  call,  would  volunteer,  the 
Legislature,  adopting  the  sagacious  suggestion  of 
Gov.  Dennison,  resolved  that  all  excess  of  volunteers 
should  be  retained  and  paid  for  service,  under 
direction  of  the  Governor.  Thereupon  a  bill 
was  passed,  authorizing  the  acceptance  of  volunteers 
to  form  ten  regiments,  and  providing  $500,000 
for  their  arms  and  equipments,  and  $1,500,000 
more  to  be  disbursed  for  troops  in  case  of  an  in- 
vasion of  the  State.  Then  other  legislation  was 
enacted,  looking  to  and  providing  against  the  ship- 
ment from  or  through  the  State  of  arms  or  mu- 
nitions of  war,  to  States  either  assuming  to  be 
neutral  or  in  open  rebellion ;  organizing  the  whole 
body  of  the  State  militia;  providing  suitable  offi- 
cers for  duty  on  the  staff  of  the  Governor;  re- 
quiring contracts  for  subsistence  of  volunteers  to 
be  let  to  the  lowest  bidder,  and  authorizing  the 
appointment  of  additional  general  officers. 

"  Before  the  adjournment  of  that  Legislature, 
the  Speaker  of  the  House  had  resigned  to  take 
command  of  one  of  the  regiments  then  about  to 
start  for  Washington  City ;  two  leading  Senators 
had  been  appointed  Brigadier  Generals,  and  many, 
in  fact  nearly  all,  of  the  other  members  of  both 
houses  had,  in  one  capacity  or  another,  entered  the 
military  service.  It  was  the  first  war  legislature 
ever  elected  in  Ohio,  and,  under  sudden  pressure. 

nobly  met  the  first  shock,  and  enacted  the  first 
measures  of  law  for  war.  Laboring  under  difficul- 
ties inseparable  from  a  condition  so  unexpected, 
and  in  the  performance  of  duties  so  novel,  it  may 
be  historically  stated  that  for  patriotism,  zeal  and 
ability,  the  Ohio  Legislature  of  1861  was  the 
equal  of  any  of  its  successors ;  while  in  that  exu- 
berance of  patriotism  which  obliterated  party  lines 
and  united  all  in  a  common  effort  to  meet  the 
threatened  integrity  of  the  United  States  as  a 
nation,  it  surpassed  them  both. 

"  The  war  was  fought,  the  slave  power  forever 
destroyed,  and  under  additional  amendments  to  her 
organic  law,  the  L^nited  States  wiped  the  stain  of 
human  slavery  from  her  escutcheon,  liberating  over 
four  million  human  beings,  nineteen-twentieths  of 
whom  were  native-born  residents. 

"  When  Lee  surrendered  at  Appomattox  Court 
House,  Ohio  had  two  hundred  regiments  of  all 
arms  in  the  National  service.  In  the  course  of 
the  war,  she  had  furnished  two  hundred  and  thirty 
regiments,  besides  twenty-six  independent  batteries 
of  artillery,  five  independent  companies  of  cavalry, 
several  companies  of  sharpshooters,  large  parts  of 
five  regiments  credited  to  the  West  Virginia  con- 
tingent, two  regiments  credited  to  the  Kentucky 
contingent,  two  transferred  to  the  United  States 
colored  troops,  and  a  large  proportion  of  the  rank 
and  file  of  the  Fifty-fourth  and  Sixty-fifth  Massa- 
chusetts Regiments,  also  colored  men.  Of  these  or- 
ganizations, twenty-three  were  infantry  regiments 
furnished  on  the  first  call  of  the  President,  an  ex- 
cess of  nearly  one-half  over  the  State's  quota  ;  one 
hundred  and  ninety-one  were  infantry  regiments, 
furnished  on  subsequent  calls  of  the  President — 
one  hundred  and  seventeen  for  three  years,  twenty- 
seven  for  one  year,  two  for  six  months,  two  for 
three  months,  and  forty-two  for  one  hundred  days. 
Thirteen  were  cavalry,  and  three  artillery  for  three 
years.  Of  these  three-years  troops,  over  twenty 
thousand  re-enlisted,  as  veterans,  at  the  end  of 
their  long  term  of  service,  to  fight  till  the  war 
would  end." 

As  original  members  of  these  organizations,  Ohio 
furnished  to  the  National  service  the  magnificent 
army  of  310,654  actual  soldiers,  omitting  from 
the  above  number  all  those  who  paid  commuta- 
tion money,  veteran  enlistments,  and  citizens  who 
enlisted  as  soldiers  or  sailors  in  other  States.  The 
count  is  made  from  the  reports  of  the  Provost 
Marshal  General  to  the  War  Department,  Penn- 
sylvania gave  not  quite  28,000  more,  while  Illinois 
fell    48,000     behind;      Indiana,     116,000     less; 




Kentucky,  235,000,  and  Massachusetts,  164,000. 
Thus  Ohio  more  than  maintained,  in  the  National 
army,  the  rank  among  her  sisters  which  her  popu- 
lation supported.  Ohio  furnished  more  troops  than 
the  President  ever  required  of  her  ;  and  at  the 
end  of  the  war,  with  more  than  a  thousand  men  in 
the  camp  of  the  State  who  were  never  mustered 
into  the  service,  she  still  had  a  credit  on  the  rolls 
of  the  War  Department  for  4,332  soldiers,  beyond 
the  aggregate  of  all  quotas  ever  assigned  to  her; 
and,  besides  all  these,  6,479  citizens  had,  in  lieu  of 
personal  service,  paid  the  commutation ;  while  In- 
diana, Kentucky,  Pennsylvania  and  New  York 
were  all  from  five  to  one  hundred  thousand  behind 
their  quotas.  So  ably,  through  all  those  years  of 
trial  and  death,  did  she  keep  the  promise  of  the 
memorable  dispatch  from  her  first  war  Governor  : 
''  If  Kentucky  refuses  to  fill  her  quota,  Ohio  will 
fill  it  for  her." 

"Of  these  troops  11,237  were  killed  or  mor- 
tally wounded  in  action,  and  of  these  6,563  were 
left  dead  on  the  field  of  battle.  They  fought  on 
well-nigh  every  battle-field  of  the  war.  Within 
forty-eight  hours  after  the  first  call  was  made  for 
troops,  two  regiments  were  on  the  way  to  Wash- 
ington. An  Ohio  brigade  covered  the  retreat  from 
the  first  battle  of  Bull  Run.  Ohio  troops  formed 
the  bulk  of  army  that  saved  to  the  Union  the 
territory  afterward  erected  into  West  Virginia  ; 
the  bulk  of  the  army  that  kept  Kentucky  from 
seceding ;  a  large  part  of  the  army  that  captured 
Fort  Donelson  and  Island  No.  10 ;  a  great  part  of 
the  army  that  from  Stone  River  and  Chickamauga, 
and  Mission  Ridge  and  Atlanta,  swept  to  the  sea 
and  captured  Fort  McAllister,  and  north  through 
the  Carolinas  to  Virginia." 

When  Sherman  started  on  his  famous  march  to 
the  sea, someone  said  to  President  Lincoln,  "T  hey 
will  never  get  through;  they  will  all  be  captured, 
and  the  Union  will  be  lost."  "  It  is  impossible," 
replied  the  President ;  "it  cannot  be  done.  There 
is  a  'mighty  sight  of  fight  iji  one  hundred  thou- 
sand   Western  men^ 

Ohio  troops  fought  at  Pea  Ridge.  They  charged 
at  Wagner.  They  helped  redeem  North  Carolina. 
They  were  in  the  sieges  of  Vicksburg,  Charleston, 
Mobile  and  Richmond.  At  Pittsburg  Landing, 
at  Antietam,  Gettysburg  and  Corinth,  in  the 
Wilderness,  at  Five  Forks,  before  Nashville  and 
Appomattox  Court  House;  "their bones,  reposing 
on  the  fields  they  won  and  in  the  graves  they  fill,  are 
a  perpetual  pledge  that  no  flag  shall  ever  wave  over 
their  graves  but  that  flag  they  died  to  maintain." 

Ohio's  soil  gave  birth  to,  or  furnished,  a  Grant, 
a  Sherman,  a  Sheridan,  a  McPherson,  a  Rosecrans, 
a  McClellan,  a  McDowell,  a  Mitchell,  a  Gilmore,  a 
Hazen,a  Sill,  a  Stanley,  a  Steadmau,and  others — all 
but  one,  children  of  the  country,  reared  at  West  Point 
for  such  emergencies.  Ohio's  war  record  shows 
one  General,  one  Lieutenant  General,  twenty  Major 
Generals,  twenty  seven  Brevet  Major  Generals,  and 
thirty  Brigadier  Generals,  and  one  hundred  and 
fifty  Brevet  Brigadier  Generals.  Her  three  war 
Governors  were  William  Dennison,  David  Todd,  and 
John  Brough.  She  furnished,  at  the  same  time, 
one  Secretary  of  War,  Edwin  M.  Stanton,  and 
one  Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  Salmon  P.  Chase. 
Her  Senators  were  Benjamin  F.  Wade  and  John 
Sherman.  At  least  three  out  of  five  of  Ohio's 
able-bodied  men  stood  in  the  line  of  battle.  On 
the  head  stone  of  one  of  these  soldiers,  who  gave 
his  life  for  the  country,  and  who  now  lies  in  a 
National  Cemetery,  is  inscribed  these  words : 

"  We  charge  the  living  to  preserve  that  Constitution  we 
have  died  to  defend." 

The  close  of  the  war  and  return  of  peace  brought 
a  period  of  fictitious  values  on  the  country,  occa- 
sioned by  the  immense  amount  of  currency  afloat. 
Property  rose  to  unheard-of  values,  and  everything 
with  it.  Ere  long,  however,  the  decline  came,  and 
with  it  "  hard  times."  The  climax  broke  over  the 
country  in  1873,  and  for  awhile  it  seemed  as  if 
the  country  was  on  the  verge  of  ruin.  People 
found  again,  as  preceding  generations  had  found, 
that  real  value  was  the  only  basis  of  true  prosper- 
ity, and  gradually  began  to  work  to  the  fact.  The 
Government  established  the  specie  basis  by 
gradual  means,  and  on  the  1st  day  of  January, 
1879,  began  to  redeem  its  outstanding  obligations 
in  coin.  The  efi"ect  was  felt  everywhere.  Busi- 
ness of  all  kinds  sprang  anew  into  life.  A  feeling 
of  confidence  grew  as  the  times  went  on,  and  now, 
on  the  threshold  of  the  year  1880,  the  State  is  en- 
tering on  an  era  of  steadfast  prosperity  ;  one  which 
has  a  sure  and  certain  foundation. 

Nearly  four  years  have  elaped  since  the  great 
Centennial  Exhibition  was  held  in  Philadelphia ; 
an  exhibition  that  brought  from  every  State  in  the 
Union  the  best  products  of  her  soil,  factories,  and 
all  industries.  In  that  exhibit  Ohio  made  an  ex- 
cellent display.  Her  stone,  iron,  coal,  cereals, 
woods  and  everything  pertaining  to  her  welfare  were 
all  represented.  Ohio,  occupying  the  middle  ground 
of  the  Union,  was  expected  to  show  to  foreign  na- 
tions what  the  valleys  of  the  Mississippi  and  Ohio 



-it ® 



could  produce.  The  State  nobly  stood  the  test 
and  ranked  foremost  among  all  others.  Her  cen- 
tennial building  was  among  the  first  completed 
and  among  the  neatest  and  best  on  the  grounds. 
During  the  summer,  the  Centennial  Commission 
extended  invitations  to  the  Governors  of  the  several 
States  to  appoint  an  orator  and  name  a  day  for  his 

delivery  of  an  address  on  the  history,  progress  and 
resources  of  his  State.  Gov.  Hayes  named  the 
Hon.  Edward  D.  Mansfield  for  this  purpose,  and 
August  9th,  that  gentleman  delivered  an  address 
so  valuable  for  the  matter  which  it  contains,  that 
we  here  give  a  synopsis  of  it. 



AUGUST    9,    1876. 

ONE  hundred  years  ago,  the  whole  territory, 
from  the  Alleghany  to  the  Rocky  Mountains 
was  a  wilderness,  inhabited  only  by  wild  beasts  and 
Indians.  The  Jesuit  and  Moravian  missionaries 
were  the  only  white  men  who  had  penetrated  the 
wilderness  or  beheld  its  mighty  lakes  and  rivers. 
While  the  thirteen  old  colonies  were  declaring 
their  independence,  the  thirteen  new  States,  which 
now  lie  in  the  western  interior,  had  no  existence, 
and  gave  no  sign  of  the  future.  The  solitude  of 
nature  was  unbroken  by  the  steps  of  civilization. 
The  wisest  statesman  had  not  contemplated  the 
probability  of  the  coming  States,  and  the  boldest 
patriot  did  not  dream  that  this  interior  wilderness 
should  soon  contain  a  greater  population  than  the 
thirteen  old  States,  with  all  the  added  growth  of 
one  hundred  years. 

Ten  years  after  that,  the  old  States  had  ceded 
their  Western  lands  to  the  General  Government, 
and  the  Congress  of  the  United  States  had  passed 
the  ordinance  of  1785,  for  the  survey  of  the  pub- 
lic territory,  and,  in  17 87,  the  celebrated  ordinance 
which  organized  the  Northwestern  Territory,  and 
dedicated  it  to  freedom  and  intelligence. 

Fifteen  years  after  that,  and  more  than  a  quarter 
of  a  century  after  the  Declaration  of  Independ- 
ence, the  State  of  Ohio  was  admitted  into  the 
Union,  being  the  seventeenth  which  accepted  the 
Constitution  of  the  United  States.  It  has  since 
grown  up  to  be  great,  populous  and  prosperous 
under  the  influence  of  those  ordinances.  At  her 
admittance,  in  1803,  the  tide  of  emigration  had 
begun  to  flow  over  the  Alleghanies  into  the  Valley 
of  the  Mississippi,  and,  although  no  steamboat,  no 
railroad  then  existed,  nor  even  a  stage  coach  helped 
the  immigrant,  yet  the  wooden  "  ark  "  on  the 
Ohio,  and  the  heavy  wagon,  slowly  winding  over 

the  mountains,  bore  these  tens  of  thousands  to  the 
wilds  of  Kentucky  and  the  plains  of  Ohio.  In 
the  spring  of  1788 — the  first  year  of  settlement — 
four  thousand  five  hundred  persons  passed  the 
mouth  of  the  Muskingum  in  three  months,  and 
the  tide  continued  to  pour  on  for  half  a  century  in 
a  widening  stream,  mingled  with  all  the  races  of 
Europe  and  America,  until  now,  in  the  hundredth 
year  of  America's  independence,  the  five  States  of  the 
Northwestern  Territory,  in  the  wilderness  of  1776, 
contain  ten  millions  of  people,  enjoying  all  the 
blessings  which  peace  and  prosperity,  freedom  and 
Christianity,  can  confer  upon  any  people.  Of  these 
five  States,  born  under  the  ordinance  of  1787,  Ohio 
is  the  first,  oldest,  and,  in  many  things,  the  greatest. 
In  some  things  it  is  the  greatest  State  in  the  Union. 
Let  us,  then,  attempt,  in  the  briefest  terms,  to 
draw  an  outline  portrait  of  this  great  and  remark- 
able commonwealth. 

Let  us  observe  its  physical  aspects.  Ohio  is 
just  one-sixth  part  of  the  Northwestern  Territory 
— 10,000  square  miles.  It  lies  between  Lake  Erie 
and  the  Ohio  River,  having  200  miles  of  navigable 
waters,  on  one  side  flowing  into  the  Atlantic  Ocean, 
and  on  the  other  into  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  Through 
the  lakes,  its  vessels  touch  on  G,000  miles  of 
interior  coast,  and,  through  the  Mississippi,  on 
36,000  miles  of  river  coast;  so  that  a  citizen  of 
Ohio  may  pursue  his  navigation  through  42,000 
miles,  all  in  his  own  country,  and  all  within  naviga- 
ble reach  of  his  own  State.  He  who  has  circumnavi- 
gated the  globe,  has  gone  but  little  more  than 
half  the  distance  which  the  citizen  of  Ohio  finds 
within  his  natural  reach  in  this  vast  interior. 

Looking  upon  the  surface  of  this  State,  we  find 
no  mountains,  no  barren  sands,  no  marshy  wastes, 
no  lava-covered    plains,   but  one  broad,    compact 





body  of  arable  land,  intersected  with  rivers  and 
streams  and  running  waters,  while  the  beautiful 
Ohio  flows  tranquilly  by  its  side.  More  than  three 
times  the  surface  of  Belgium,  and  one-third  of  the 
whole  of  Italy,  it  has  more  natural  resources  in 
proportion  than  either,  and  is  capable  of  ultimately 
supporting  a  larger  population  than  any  equal  sur- 
face in  Europe.  Looking  from  this  great  arable 
surface,  where  upon  the  very  hills  the  grass  and 
the  forest  trees  now  grow  exuberant  and  abundant, 
we  find  that  underneath  this  surface,  and  easily 
accessible,  lie  10,000  square  miles  of  coal,  and 
4,000  square  miles  of  iron — coal  and  iron  enough 
to  supply  the  basis  of  manufacture  for  a  world ! 
All  this  vast  deposit  of  metal  and  fuel  does  not  in- 
terrupt or  take  from  that  arable  surface  at  all. 
There  you  may  find  in  one  place  the  same  machine 
bringing  up  coal  and  salt  water  from  below,  while 
the  wheat  and  the  corn  grow  upon  the  surface 
above.  The  immense  masses  of  coal,  iron,  salt  and 
freestone  deposited  below  have  not  in  any  way 
diminished  the  fertility  and  production  of  the  soil. 

It  has  been  said  by  some  writer  that  the  char- 
acter of  a  people  is  shaped  or  modified  by  the 
character  of  the  country  in  which  they  live.  If 
the  people  of  Switzerland  have  acquired  a  certain 
air  of  liberty  and  independence  from  the  rugged 
mountains  around  which  they  live;  if  the  people 
of  Southern  Italy,  or  beautifiil  France,  have  ac- 
quired a  tone  of  ease  and  politeness  from  their 
mild  and  genial  clime,  so  the  people  of  Ohio, 
placed  amidst  such  a  wealth  of  nature,  in  the  tem- 
perate zone,  should  show  the  best  fruits  of  peace- 
ful industry  and  the  best  culture  of  Christian 
civilization.  Have  they  done  so?  Have  their 
own  labor  and  arts  and  culture  come  up  to  the  ad- 
vantages of  their  natural  situation?  Let  us  exam- 
ine this  growth  and  their  product. 

The  first  settlement  of  Ohio  was  made  by  a 
colony  from  New  England,  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Muskingum.  It  was  literally  a  remnant  of  the 
officers  of  the  Revolution.  Of  this  colony  no 
praise  of  the  historian  can  be  as  competent,  or  as 
strong,  as  the  language  of  Washington.  He  says, 
in  answer  to  inquiries  addressed  to  him:  "No  col- 
ony in  America  was  ever  settled  under  such  favor- 
able auspices  as  that  which  has  just  commenced  at 
the  Muskingum.  Information,  prosperity  and 
strength  will  be  its  characteristics.  I  know  many 
of  the  settlers  personally,  and  there  never  were 
men  better  calculated  to  promote  the  welfare  of 
such  a  community,"  and  he  adds  that  if  he  were 
a  young  man,  he  knows  no  country  in  which  he 

would  sooner  settle  than  in  this  Western  region." 
This  colony,  left  alone  for  a  time,  made  its  own 
government  and  nailed  its  laws  to  a  tree  in  the  vil- 
lage, an  early  indication  of  that  law-abiding  and 
peaceful  spirit  which  has  since  made  Ohio  a  just 
and  well-ordered  community.  The  subsequent 
settlements  on  the  Miami  and  Scioto  were  made  by 
citizens  of  New  Jersey  and  Virginia,  and  it  is  cer- 
tainly remarkable  that  among  all  the  early  immi- 
gration, there  were  no  ignorant  people.  In  the 
language  of  Washington,  they  came  with  "  infor- 
mation," qualified  to  promote  the  welfare  of  the 

Soon  after  the  settlement  on  the  Muskingum 
and  the  Miami,  the  great  wave  of  migration 
flowed  on  to  the  plains  and  valleys  of  Ohio  and  Ken- 
tucky. Kentucky  had  been  settled  earlier,  but  the 
main  body  of  emigrants  in  subsequent  years 
went  into  Ohio,  influenced  partly  by  the  great 
ordinance  of  1787,  securing  freedom  and  schools 
forever,  and  partly  by  the  greater  security  of 
titles  under  the  survey  and  guarantee  of  the 
United  States  Grovernment.  Soon  the  new  State 
grew  up,  with  a  rapidity  which,  until  then,  was 
unknown  in  the  history  of  civilization.  On  the 
Muskingum,  where  the  buffalo  had  roamed;  on 
the  Scioto,  where  the  Shawanees  had  built  their 
towns ;  on  the  Miami,  where  the  great  chiefs  of 
the  Miamis  had  reigned  ;  on  the  plains  of  San- 
dusky, yet  red  with  the  blood  of  the  white  man  ; 
on  the  Maumee,  where  Wayne,  by  the  victory  of 
the  "  Fallen  Timbers,"  had  broken  the  power  of 
the  Indian  confederacy — the  emigrants  fi-om  the 
old  States  and  from  Europe  came  in  to  cultivate 
the  fields,  to  build  up  towns,  and  to  rear  the  insti- 
tutions of  Christian  civilization,  until  the  single 
State  of  Ohio  is  greater  in  numbers,  wealth,  and 
education,  than  was  the  whole  American  Union 
when  the  Declaration  of  Independence  was  made. 

Let  us  now  look  at  the  statistics  of  this  growth 
and  magnitude,  as  they  are  exhibited  in  the  cen- 
sus of  the  United  States.  Taking  intervals  of 
twenty  years,  Ohio  had:  In  1810,  230,760;  in 
1830,  937,903;  in  1850,  1,980,329;  in  1870, 
2,665,260.  Add  to  this  the  increase  of  population 
in  the  last  six  years,  and  Ohio  now  has,  in  round 
numbers,  3,000,000  of  people — half  a  million 
more  than  the  thirteen  States  in  1776 ;  and 
her  cities  and  towns  have  to-day  six  times  the 
population  of  all  the  cities  of  America  one  hund- 
red years  ago.  This  State  is  now  the  third  in 
numbers  and  wealth,  and  the  first  in  some  of 
those    institutions    which    mark  the  progress  of 




mankind.  That  a  small  part  of  the  wilderness  of 
1771)  should  be  more  populous  than  the  whole 
Union  was  then,  and  that  it  should  have  made  a 
social  and  moral  advance  greater  than  that  of  any 
nation  in  the  same  time,  must  be  regarded  as  one 
of  the  most  startling  and  instructive  facts  which 
attend  this  year  of  commemoration.  If  such  has 
been  the  social  growth  of  Ohio,  let  us  look  at  its 
physical  development ;  this  is  best  expressed  by  the 
aggregate  productions  of  the  labor  and  arts  of  a 
people  applied  to  the  earth.  In  the  census  statistics 
of  the  United  States  these  are  expressed  in  the 
aggregate  results  of  agriculture,  mining,  manufact- 
ures, and  commerce.  Let  us  simplify  these  statis- 
tics, by  comparing  the  aggregate  and  ratios  as 
between  several  States,  and  between  Ohio  and  some 
countries  of  Europe. 

The  aggregate  amount  of  grain  and  potatoes — 
farinaceous  food,  produced  in  Ohio  in  1870  was 
134,938,413  bushels,  and  in  1874,  there  were  157,- 
323,597  bushels,  being  the  largest  aggregate 
amount  raised  in  any  State  but  one,  Illinois,  and 
larger  per  square  mile  than  Illinois  or  any  other 
State  in  the  country.  The  promises  of  nature 
were  thus  vindicated  by  the  labor  of  man  ;  and 
the  industry  of  Ohio  has  fulfilled  its  whole  duty 
to  the  sustenance  of  the  country  and  the  world. 
She  has  raised  more  grain  than  ten  of  the  old 
States  together,  and  more  than  half  raised  by 
Great  Britain  or  by  France.  I  have  not  the 
recent  statistics  of  Europe,  but  McGregor,  in  his 
statistics  of  nations  for  1832 — a  period  of  pro- 
found peace — gives  the  following  ratios  for  the 
leading  countries  of  Europe :  Great  Britain,  area 
120,324  miles;  amount  of  grain,  262,500,000 
bushels;  rate  per  square  mile,  2,190  to  1; 
Austria — area  258,003  miles  ;  amount  of  grain, 
366,800,000  bushels;  rate  per  square  mile,  1,422  to 
1 ;  France — area  215,858  miles  ;  amount  of  grain, 
233,847,300  bushels  ;  rate  per  square  mile,  1,080 
to  1.  The  State  of  Ohio — area  per  square  miles, 
40,000  ;  amount  of  grain,  150,000,000  bushels  ; 
rate  per  square  mile,  3,750.  Combining  the  great 
countries  of  Great  Britain,  Austria,  and  France, 
we  find  that  they  had  594,785  square  miles  and 
produced  863,147,300  bushels  of  grain,  which  was,  at 
the  time  these  statistics  were  taken,  1 ,450  bushels  per 
square  mile,  and  ten  bushels  to  each  one  of  the 
population.  Ohio,  on  the  other  hand,  had  3,750 
bushels  per  square  mile,  and  fifty  bushels  to  each 
one  of  the  population ;  that  is,  there  was  five 
times  as  much  gi-ain  raised  in  Ohio,  in  proportion 
to  the  people,  as  in  these  great  countries  of  Europe. 

As  letters  make  words,  and  words  express  ideas,  so 
these  dry  figures  of  statistics  express  facts,  and 
these  facts  make  the  whole  history  of  civilization. 

Let  us  now  look  at  the  statistics  of  domestic 
animals.  These  are  always  indicative  of  the  state 
of  society  in  regard  to  the  physical  comforts.  The 
horse  must  furnish  domestic  conveyances ;  the 
cattle  must  furnish  the  products  of  the  dairy,  as 
well  as  meat,  and  the  sheep  must  furnish  wool. 

Let  us  see  how  Ohio  compares  with  other  States 
and  with  Europe  :  In  1870,  Ohio  had  8,818,000 
domestic  animals ;  Illinois,  6,925,000  ;  New  York, 
5,283,000;  Pennsylvania,  4,493,000;  and  other 
States  less.  The  proportion  to  population  in  these 
States  was,  in  Ohio,  to  each  person,  3.3  ;  Illinois, 
2.7;  New  York,  1.2;  Pennsylvania,  1.2. 

Let  us  now  see  the  proportion  of  domestic  ani- 
mals in  Europe.  The  results  given  by  McGregor's 
statistics  are  :  In  Great  Britain,  to  each  person, 
2.44;  Russia,  2.00;  France,  1.50  ;  Prussia,  1.02; 
Austria,  1.00.  It  will  be  seen  that  the  proportion 
in  Great  Britain  is  only  two-thirds  that  of  Ohio ; 
in  France,  only  one-half;  and  in  Austria  and 
Prussia  only  one-third.  It  may  be  said  that,  in 
the  course  of  civilization,  the  number  of  animals 
diminishes  as  the  density  of  population  increases  ; 
and,  therefore,  this  result  might  have  been  ex- 
pected in  the  old  countries  of  Europe.  But  this 
does  not  apply  to  Russia  or  Germany,  still  less  to 
other  States  in  this  country.  Russia  in  Europe 
has  not  more  than  half  the  density  of  population 
now  in  Ohio.  Austria  and  Prussia  have  less  than 
150  to  the  square  mile.  The  whole  of  the  north 
of  Europe  has  not  so  dense  a  population  as  the 
State  of  Ohio,  still  less  have  the  States  of  Illinois 
and  Missouri,  west  of  Ohio.  Then,  therefore, 
Ohio  showing  a  larger  proportion  of  domestic  ani- 
mals than  the  north  of  Europe,  or  States  west  of 
her,  with  a  population  not  so  dense,  we  see  at  once 
there  must  be  other  causes  to  produce  such  a 

Looking  to  some  of  the  incidental  results  of  this 
vast  agricultural  production,  we  see  that  the  United 
States  exports  to  Europe  immense  amounts  of 
grain  and  provisions ;  and  that  there  is  manufact- 
ured in  this  country  an  immense  amount  of  woolen 
goods.  Then,  taking  these  statistics  of  the  raw 
material,  we  find  that  Ohio  produces  one-fifth  of 
all  the  wool ;  one-seventh  of  all  the  cheese ;  one- 
eighth  of  all  the  corn,  and  one-tenth  of  all  the 
wheat ;  and  yet  Ohio  has  but  a  fourteenth  part  of 
the  population,  and  one-eightieth  part  of  the  sur- 
face of  this  country. 





Let  us  take  another — a  commercial  view  of  this 
matter.  We  have  seen  that  Ohio  raises  five  times 
as  much  grain  per  square  mile  as  is  raised  per 
square  mile  in  the  empires  of  Great  Britain,  France 
and  Austria,  taken  together.  After  making  allow- 
ance for  the  differences  of  living,  in  the  working 
classes  of  this  country,  at  least  two-thirds  of  the 
food  and  grain  of  Ohio  are  a  surplus  beyond  the 
necessities  of  life,  and,  therefore,  so  much  in  the 
commercial  balance  of  exports.  This  corresponds 
with  the  fact,  that,  in  the  shape  of  grain,  meat, 
liquors  and  dairy  products,  this  vast  surplus  is  con- 
stantly moved  to  the  Atlantic  States  and  to  Europe. 
The  money  value  of  this  exported  product  is  equal 
to  $100,000,000  per  annum,  and  to  a  solid  capital 
of  $1,500,000,000,  after  all  the  sustenance  of  the 
people  has  been  taken  out  of  the  annual  crop. 

We  are  speaking  of  agriculture  alone.  We  are 
speaking  of  a  State  which  began  its  career  more 
than  a  quarter  of  a  century  after  the  Declaration 
of  Independence  was  made.  And  now,  it  may  be 
asked,  what  is  the  real  cause  of  this  extraordinary 
result,  which,  without  saying  anything  invidious  of 
other  States,  we  may  safely  say  has  never  been 
surpassed  in  any  country?  We  have  already 
stated  two  of  the  advantages  possessed  by  Ohio. 
The  first  is  that  it  is  a  compact,  unbroken  body  of 
arable  land,  surrounded  and  intersected  by  water- 
courses, equal  to  all  the  demands  of  commerce  and 
navigation.  Next,  that  it  was  secured  forever  to 
freedom  and  intelligence  by  the  ordinance  of  1787. 
The  intelligence  of  its  future  people  was  secured 
by  immense  grants  of  public  lands  for  the  purpose 
of  education ;  but  neither  the  blessings  of  nature, 
nor  the  wisdom  of  laws,  could  obtain  such  results 
without  the  continuous  labor  of  an  intelligent 
people.  Such  it  had,  and  we  have  only  to  take 
the  testimony  of  Washington,  already  quoted,  and 
the  statistical  results  I  have  given,  to  prove  that 
no  people  has  exhibited  more  steady  industry,  nor 
has  any  people  directed  their  labor  with  more  in- 

After  the  agricultural  capacity  and  production 
of  a  country,  its  most  important  physical  feature 
is  its  mineral  products;  its  capacity  for  coal  and 
iron,  the  two  great  elements  of  material  civiliza- 
tion. If  we  were  to  take  away  from  Great  Britain 
her  capacity  to  produce  coal  in  such  vast  quanti- 
ties, we  should  reduce  her  to  a  third-rate  position, 
no  longer  numbered  among  the  great  nations  of  the 
earth.  Coal  has  smelted  her  iron,  run  her  steam 
engines,  and  is  the  basis  of  her  manufactures. 
But  when   we   compare  the  coal   fields  of  Great 

Britain  with  those  of  this  country,  they  are  insig- 
nificant. The  coal  fields  of  all  Europe  are  small 
compared  with  those  of  the  central  United  States. 
The  coal  district  of  Durham  and  Northumberland, 
in  England,  is  only  880  square  miles.  There  are 
other  districts  of  smaller  extent,  making  in  the 
whole  probably  one-half  the  extent  of  that  in 
Ohio.  The  English  coal-beds  are  represented  as 
more  important,  in  reference  to  extent,  on  account 
of  their  thickness.  There  is  a  small  coal  district 
in  Lancashire,  where  the  workable  coal-beds  are  in 
all  150  feet  in  thickness.  But  this  involves,  as  is 
well  known,  the  necessity  of  going  to  immense 
depths  and  incurring  immense  expense.  On  the 
other  hand,  the  workable  coal-beds  of  Ohio  are 
near  the  surface,  and  some  of  them  require  no  ex- 
cavating, except  that  of  the  horizontal  lead  from 
the  mine  to  the  river  or  the  railroad.  In  one 
county  of  Ohio  there  are  three  beds  of  twelve,  six 
and  four  feet  each,  within  fifty  feet  of  the  surface. 
At  some  of  the  mines  having  the  best  coal,  the 
lead  from  the  mines  is  nearly  horizontal,  and  just 
high  enough  to  dump  the  coal  into  the  railroad 
cars.  These  coals  are  of  all  qualities,  from  that 
adapted  to  the  domestic  fire  to  the  very  best  qual- 
ity for  smelting  or  manufacturing  iron.  Recollect- 
ing these  facts,  let  us  try  to  get  an  idea  of  the  coal 
district  of  Ohio.  The  bituminous  coal  region  de- 
escending  the  western  slopes  of  the  Alleghanies, 
occupies  large  portions  of  Western  Pennsylvania, 
West  Virginia,  Ohio,  Kentucky  and  Tennessee.  I 
suppose  that  this  coal  field  is  not  less  than  fifty 
thousand  square  miles,  exclusive  of  Western  iMary- 
land  and  the  southern  terminations  of  that  field  in 
Georgia  and  Alabama.  Of  this  vast  field  of  coal, 
exceeding  anything  found  in  Europe,  about  one- 
fifth  part  lies  in  Ohio.  Prof  Mather,  in  his 
report  on  the  geology  of  the  State  (first  Geologi- 
cal Report  of  the  State)  says: 

"  The  coal-measures  within  Ohio  occupy  a  space 
of  about  one  hundred  and  eighty  miles  in  length  by 
eighty  in  breadth  at  the  widest  part,  with  an  area 
of  about  ten  thousand  square  miles,  extending 
along  the  Ohio  from  Trumbull  County  in  the  north 
to  near  the  mouth  of  the  Scioto  in  the  south. 
The  regularity  in  the  dip,  and  the  moderate  incli- 
nation of  the' strata,  afford  facilities  to  the  mines 
not  known  to  those  of  most  other  countries,  espe- 
cially Great  Britain,  where  the  strata  in  which  the 
coal  is  imbedded  have  been  broken  and  thrown  out 
of  place  since  its  deposit,  occasioning  many  slips 
and  faults,  and  causing  much  labor  and  expense  in 
again  recovering  the  bed.     In  Ohio  there  is  very 





little  difficulty  of  this  kind,  the  faults  being  small 
and  seldom  found." 

Now,  taking  into  consideration  these  geological 
facts,  let  us  look  at  the  extent  of  the  Ohio  coal 
field.  It  occupies,  wholly  or  in  part,  thirty-six 
counties,  including,  geographically,  14,000  square 
miles  ;  but  leaving  out  fractions,  and  reducing  the 
Ohio  coal  field  within  its  narrowest  limits,  it  is 
10,000  S(piare  miles  in  extent,  lies  near  the  surface, 
and  has  on  an  average  twenty  feet  thickness  of  work- 
able coal-beds.  Let  us  compare  this  with  the  coal 
mines  of  Durham  and  Northumberland  (England), 
the  largest  and  best  coal  mines  there.  That  coal 
district  is  estimated  at  850  square  miles,  twelve 
feet  thick,  and  is  calculated  to  contain  9,000,000,- 
000  tons  of  coal.  The  coal  field  of  Ohio  is  twelve 
times  larger  and  one-third  thicker.  Estimated  by 
that  standard,  the  coal  field  of  Ohio  contains  180,- 
000,000,000  tons  of  coal.  Marketed  at  only  $2 
per  ton,  this  coal  is  worth  $360,000,000,000,  or, 
in  other  words,  ten  times  as  much  as  the  whole 
valuation  of  the  United  States  at  the  present  time. 
But  we  need  not  undertake  to  estimate  either  its 
quantity  or  value.  It  is  enough  to  say  that  it  is  a 
quantity  which  we  can  scarcely  imagine,  which  is 
tenfold  that  of  England,  and  which  is  enough  to 
supply  the  entire  continent  for  ages  to  come. 

After  coal,  iron  is  beyond  doubt  the  most  val- 
uable mineral  product  of  a  State.  As  the  mate- 
rial of  manufacture,  it  is  the  most  important. 
What  are  called  the  "  precious  metals  "  are  not  to 
be  compared  with  it  as  an  element  of  industry  or 
profit.  But  since  no  manufactures  can  be  success- 
fully carried  on  without  fuel,  coal  becomes  the  first 
material  element  of  the  arts.  Iron  is  unquestion- 
ably the  next.  Ohio  has  an  iron  district  extending 
from  the  mouth  of  the  Scioto  River  to  some  point 
north  of  the  Mahoning  River,  in  Trumbull  County. 
The  whole  length  is  nearly  two  hundred  miles,  and 
the  breadth  twenty  miles,  making,  as  near  as  we  can 
ascertain,  4,000  square  miles.  The  iron  in  this  dis- 
trict is  of  various  qualities,  and  is  manufactured 
largely  into  bars  and  castings.  In  this  iron  dis- 
trict are  one  hundred  furnaces,  forty-four  rolling- 
mills,  and  fifteen  rail-mills,  being  the  largest  num- 
ber of  either  in  any  State  in  the  Union,  except 
only  Pennsylvania. 

Althoughonly  the  seventeenth  State  inits  admis- 
sion, I  find  that,  by  the  census  statistics  of  1870, 
it  is  the  third  State  in  the  production  of  iron  and  iron 
manufactures.  Already,  and  within  the  life  of 
one  man,  this  State  begins  to  show  what  must  in 
future  time  be  the  vast  results  of  coal   and  iron. 

applied  to  the  arts  and  manufactures.  In  the 
year  1874,  there  were  420,000  tons  of  pig  iron 
produced  in  Ohio,  which  is  larger  than  the  prod- 
uct of  any  State,  except  Pennsylvania.  The 
product  and  the  manufacture  of  iron  in  Ohio 
have  increased  so  rapidly,  and  the  basis  for 
increase  is  so  great,  that  we  may  not  doubt  that 
Ohio  will  continue  to  be  the  greatest  producer  of 
iron  and  iron  fabrics,  except  only  Pennsylvania. 
At  Cincinnati,  the  iron  manufacture  of  the  Ohio 
Valley  is  concentrating,  and  at  Cleveland  the  ores 
of  Lake  Superior  are  being  smelted. 

After  coal  and  iron,  we  may  place  salt  among 
the  necessaries  of  life.  In  connection"  with  the 
coal  region  west  of  the  Alleghanies,  there  lies  in 
Pennsylvania,  West  Virginia,  and  Ohio,  a  large 
space  of  country  underlaid  by  the  salt  rock,  which 
already  produces  immense  amounts  of  salt.  Of 
this,  Ohio  has  its  full  proportion.  In  a  large 
section  of  the  southeastern  portion  of  the  State, 
salt  is  produced  without  any  known  limitation. 
At  Pomeroy  and  other  points,  the  salt  rock  lies 
about  one  thousand  feet  below  the  surface,  but 
salt  water  is  brought  easily  to  the  surface  by  the 
steam  engine.  There,  the  salt  rock,  the  coal 
seam,  and  the  noble  sandstone  lie  in  successive 
strata,  while  the  green  corn  and  the  yellow  wheat 
bloom  on  the  surface  above.  The  State  of  Ohio 
produced,  in  1874,  3,500,000  bushels  of  salt, 
being  one-fifth  of  all  produced  in  the  United 
States.  The  salt  section  of  Ohio  is  exceeded  only 
by  that  of  Syracuse,  New  York,  and  of  Saginaw, 
Michigan.  There  is  no  definite  limit  to  the 
underlying  salt  rock  of  Ohio,  and,  therefore,  the 
production  will  be  proportioned  only  to  the  extent 
of  the  demand. 

Having  now  considered  the  resources  and  the 
products  of  the  soil  and  the  mines  of  Ohio,  we 
may  properly  ask  how  far  the  people  have  employed 
their  resources  in  the  increase  of  art  and  manu- 
facture. We  have  two  modes  of  comparison,  the 
rate  of  increase  within  the  State,  and  the  ratio 
they  bear  to  other  States.  The  aggregate  value 
of  the  products  of  manufacture,  exclusive  of 
mining,  in  the  last  three  censuses  were:  in  1850, 
$62,692,000;  in  1860,  $121,691,000;  in  1870, 

The  ratio  of  increase  was  over  100  per  cent  in 
each  ten  years,  a  rate  far  beyond  that  of  the  in- 
crease of  population,  and  much  beyond  the  ratio  of 
increase  in  the  whole  country.  In  1850,  the  man- 
ufiictures  of  Ohio  were  one-sixteenth  part  of  the 
aggregate  in  the  country ;  in  1860,  one-fifteenth 




part;  in  1870,  one-twelfth  part.  In  addition  to 
this,  we  find,  from  the  returns  of  Cincinnati  and 
Cleveland,  that  the  value  of  the  manufactured  prod- 
ucts of  Ohio  in  1875,  must  have  reached  $400,- 
000,000.  and,  by  reference  to  the  census  tables,  it 
will  be  seen  that  the  ratio  of  increase  exceeded  that 
of  the  great  manufacturing  States  of  New  York, 
Massachusetts  and  Connecticut.  Of  all  the  States 
admitted  into  the  Union  prior  to  Ohio,  Pennsylvania 
alone  has  kept  pace  in  the  progress  of  manufacture. 
Some  little  reference  to  the  manufacture  of  leading 
articles  may  throw  some  light  on  the  cause  of  this. 
In  the  production  of  agricultural  machinery  and 
implements,  Ohio  is  the  first  State  ;  in  animal  and 
vegetable  oils  and  in  pig  iron,  the  second;  in  cast 
iron  and  in  tobacco,  the  third  ;  in  salt,  in  machinery 
and  in  leather,  the  fourth.  These  facts  show  how 
largely  the  resources  of  coal,  iron  and  agriculture 
have  entered  into  the  manufactures  of  the  State. 
This  great  advance  in  the  manufactures  of  Ohio, 
when  we  consider  that  this  State  is,  relatively  to 
its  surface,  the  first  agricultural  State  in  the 
country,  leads  to  the  inevitable  inference  that  its 
people  are  remarkably  industrious.  When,  on 
forty  thousand  square  miles  of  surface,  three  mill- 
ions of  people  raise  one  hundred  and  fifty  million 
bushels  of  grain,  and  produce  manufactures  to  the 
amount  of  $269,000,000  (which  is  fifty  bushels 
of  breadstuff  to  each  man,  woman  and  child,  and 
$133  of  manufacture),  it  will  be  difficult  to  find 
any  community  surpassing  such  results.  It  is  a 
testimony,  not  only  to  the  State  of  Ohio,  but  to 
the  industry,  sagacity  and  energy  of  the  American 

Looking  now  to  the  commerce  of  the  State,  we 
have  said  there  are  six  hundred  miles  of  coast  line, 
which  embraces  some  of  the  principal  internal  ports 
of  the  Ohio  and  the  lakes,  such  as  Cincinnati,  Cleve- 
land, Toledo  and  Portsmouth,  but  whose  commerce 
is  most  wholly  inland.  Of  course,  no  comparison 
can  be  made  with  the  foreign  commerce  of  the 
ocean  ports.  On  the  other  -hand,  it  is  well  known 
that  the  inland  trade  of  the  country  far  exceeds 
that  of  all  its  foreign  commerce,  and  that  the  larg- 
est part  of  this  interior  trade  is  carried  on  its 
rivers  and  lakes.  The  materials  for  the  vast  con- 
sumption of  the  interior  must  be  conveyed  in  its 
vessels,  whether  of  sail  or  steam,  adapted  to  these 
waters.  Let  us  take,  then,  the  ship-building,  the 
navigation,  and  the  exchange  trades  of  Ohio,  as 
elements  in  determining  the  position  of  this  State 
in  reference  to  the  commerce  of  the  country.  At 
the  ports  of  Cleveland,  Toledo,  Sandusky  and  Cin- 

cinnati, there  have  been  built  one  thousand  sail  and 
steam  vessels  in  the  last  twenty  years,  making  an 
average  of  fifty  each  year.  The  number  of  sail, 
steam  and  all  kinds  of  vessels  in  Ohio  is  eleven 
hundred  and  ninety,  which  is  equal  to  the  number 
in  all  the  other  States  in  the  Ohio  Valley  and  the 
Upper  Mississippi. 

When  we  look  to  the  navigable  points  to  which 
these  vessels  are  destined,  we  find  them  on  all  this 
vast  coast  line,  which  extends  from  the  Gulf  of 
Mexico  to  the  Yellowstone,  and  from  Duluth  to 
the  St.  Lawrence. 

Looking  again  to  see  the  extent  of  this  vast  in- 
terior trade  which  is  handled  by  Ohio  alone,  we 
find  that  the  imports  and  exports  of  the  principal 
articles  of  Cincinnati,  amount  in  value  to  $500,- 
000,000;  and  when  we  look  at  the  great  trade  of 
Cleveland  and  Toledo,  we  shall  find  that  the  an- 
nual trade  of  Ohio  exceeds  $700,000,000.  The 
lines  of  railroad  which  connect  with  its  ports,  are 
more  than  four  thousand  miles  in  length,  or  rather 
more  than  one  mile  in  length  to  each  ten  square 
miles  of  surface.  This  great  amount  of  railroads  is 
engaged  not  merely  in  transporting  to  the  Atlantic 
and  thence  to  Europe,  the  immense  surplus  grain 
and  meat  in  Ohio,  but  in  carrying  the  largest  part 
of  that  greater  surplus,  which  exists  in  the  States 
west  of  Ohio,  the  granary  of  the  West.  Ohio 
holds  the  gateway  of  every  railroad  north  of  the 
Ohio,  from  the  Mississippi  to  the  Atlantic,  and 
hence  it  is  that  the  great  transit  lines  of  the  coun- 
try pass  through  Ohio. 

Let  us  now  turn  from  the  progress  of  the  arts 
to  the  progress  of  ideas ;  from  material  to  intellect- 
ual development.  It  is  said  that  a  State  consists 
of  men,  and  history  shows  that  no  art  or  science, 
wealth  or  power,  will  compensate  for  the  want  of 
moral  or  intellectual  stability  in  the  minds  of  a 
nation.  Hence,  it  is  admitted  that  the  strength 
and  perpetuity  of  our  republic  must  consist  in  the 
intelligence  and  morality  of  the  people.  A  re- 
public can  last  only  when  the  people  are  enlight- 
ened. This  was  an  axiom  with  the  early  legislators 
of  this  country.  Hence  it  was  that  when  Vir- 
ginia, Connecticut  and  the  original  colonies  ceded 
to  the  General  Government  that  vast  and  then  un- 
known wilderness  which  lay  west  of  the  Allegha- 
nies,  in  the  valleys  of  the  Ohio  and  Mississippi,  thoy 
took  care  that  its  future  inhabitants  should  be  an 
educated  people.  The  Constitution  was  not  formed 
when  the  celebrated  ordinance  of  1787  was  passed. 

That  ordinance  provided  that,  "  Religion,  mor- 
ality,   and    knowledge   being    necessary    to   good 






government  and  the  happiness  of  mankind,  schools 
and  the  means  of  education  shall  be  forever  en- 
couraged;" and  by  the  ordinance  of  1785  for  the 
survey  of  public  lands  in  the  Northwestern  Terri- 
tory, Section  16  in  each  township,  that  is,  one 
thirty-sixth  part,  was  reserved  for  the  maintenance 
of  public  schools  in  said  townships.  As  the  State 
of  Ohio  contained  a  little  more  than  twenty-five 
millions  of  acres,  this,  together  with  two  special 
grants  of  three  townships  to  universities,  amounted 
to  the  dedication  of  740,000  acres  of  land  to  the 
maintenance  of  schools  and  colleges.  It  was  a 
splendid  endowment,  but  it  was  many  years  before 
it  became  available.  It  was  sixteen  years  after  the 
passage  of  this  ordinance  (in  1803),  when  Ohio 
entered  the  Union,  and  legislation  upon  this  grant 
became  possible.  The  Constitution  of  the  State 
pursued  the  language  of  the  ordinance,  and  de- 
clared that  "schools  and  the  means  of  education 
shall  forever  be  encouraged  by  legislative  provision." 
The  Governors  of  Ohio,  in  successive  messages, 
urged  attention  to  this  subject  upon  the  people; 
but  the  thinness  of  settlement,  making  it  impossi- 
ble, except  in  few  districts,  to  collect  youth  in  suf- 
ficient numbers,  and  impossible  to  sell  or  lease 
lands  to  advantage,  caused  the  delay  of  efficient 
school  system  for  many  years.  In  1825,  however, 
a  general  law  establishing  a  school  system,  and  levy- 
ing a  tax  for  its  support,  was  passed. 

This  was  again  enlarged  and  increased  by  new 
legislation  in  183(3  and  1846.  From  that  time  to 
this,  Ohio  has  had  a  broad,  liberal  and  efficient  sys- 
tem of  public  instruction.  The  taxation  for  schools, 
and  the  number  enrolled  in  them  at  different  pe- 
riods, will  best  show  what  has  been  done.  In 
1855  the  total  taxation  for  school  purposes  was 
$2,672,827.  The  proportion  of  youth  of  school- 
able age  enrolled  was  67  per  cent.  In  1874  the 
amount  raised  by  taxation  was  $7,425,135.  The 
number  enrolled  of  schoolable  age  was  70  per 
cent,  or  707,943. 

As  the  schoolable  age  extends  to  twenty-one 
years,  and  as  there  are  very  few  youth  in  school 
after  fifteen  years  of  age,  it  follows  that  the  70 
per  cent  of  schoolable  youths  enrolled  in  the  ])ub- 
lic  schools  must  comprehend  nearly  the  whole 
number  between  four  and  fifteen  years.  It  is  im- 
portant to  observe  this  fact,  because  it  has  been 
inferred  that,  as  the  whole  number  of  youth  be- 
tween five  and  twenty-one  have  not  been  enrolled, 
therefore  they  are  not  educated.  This  is  a 
mistake;  nearly  all  over  fifteen  years  of  age  have 
been  in    the    public  schools,  and    all    the  native 

youth  of  the  State,  and  all  foreign  born,  young 
enough,  have  had  the  benefit  of  the  public  schools. 
But  in  consequence  of  the  large  number  who 
have  come  from  other  States  and  from  foreign 
countries,  there  are  still  a  few  who  are  classed  by 
the  census  statistics  among  the  "illiterate;"  the 
proportion  of  this  class,  however,  is  less  in  propor- 
tion than  in  twenty-eight  other  States,  and  less  in 
proportion  than  in  Connecticut  and  Massachusetts, 
two  of  the  oldest  States  most  noted  for  popular 
education.  In  fact,  every  youth  in  Ohio,  under 
twenty-one  years  of  age,  may  have  the  benefit  of  a 
public  education  ;  and,  since  the  system  of  graded 
and  high  schools  has  been  adopted,  may  obtain  a 
common  knowledge  from  the  alphabet  to  the  classics. 
The  enumerated  branches  of  study  in  the  pub- 
lic schools  of  Ohio  are  thirty-four,  including 
mathematics  and  astronomy,  French,  German  and 
the  classics.  Thus  the  State  which  was  in  the 
heart  of  the  wilderness  in  1776,  and  was  not  a 
State  until  the  nineteenth  century  had  begun,  now 
presents  to  the  world,  not  merely  an  unrivaled  de- 
velopment of  material  prosperity,  but  an  unsur- 
passed system  of  popular  education. 

In  what  is  called  the  higher  education,  in  the 
colleges  and  universities,  embracing  the  classics 
and  sciences  taught  in  regular  classes,  it  is  the  pop- 
ular idea,  and  one  which  few  dare  to  question,  that 
we  must  look  to  the  Eastern  States  for  superiority 
and  excellence ;  but  that  also  is  becoming  an  as- 
sumption without  proof;  a  proposition  difficult  to 
sustain.  The  facts  in  regard  to  the  education  of 
universities  and  colleges,  their  faculties,  students 
and  course  of  instruction,  are  all  set  forth  in  the 
complete  statistics  of  the  Bureau  of  Education  for 
1874.  They  show  that  the  State  of  Ohio  had  the 
largest  number  of  such  institutions;  the  largest 
number  of  instructors  in  their  faculties,  except  one 
State,  New  York ;  and  the  largest  number  of  stu- 
dents in  regular  college  classes,  in  proportion  to 
their  population,  except  the  two  States  of  Connect- 
icut and  Massachusetts.  Perhaps,  if  we  look  at 
the  statistics  of  classical  students  in  the  colleges, 
disregarding  preparatory  and  irregular  courses,  we 
shall  get  a  more  accurate  idea  of  the  progress  of 
the  higher  education  in  those  States  which  claim 
the  best.  In  Ohio,  36  colleges,  258  teachers, 
2,139  students,  proportion,  1  in  124;  in  Penn- 
sylvania, 27  colleges,  239  teachers,  2,359  students, 
proportion,  1  in  150;  in  New  York,  26  colleges, 
343  teachers,  2,764  students,  proportion,  1  in  176; 
in  the  six  NewEngland  States,  17  colleges,  252  teach- 
ers, 3,341  students,  proportion,  1  in  105;  in  Illi- 



nois,   24  colleges,   219  teachers,   1,701   students, 
proportion,  1  in  140. 

This  shows  there  are  more  collegiate  institutions 
in  Ohio  than  in  all  New  England  ;  a  greater  num- 
ber of  college  teachers,  and  only  a  little  smaller  ratio 
of  students  to  the  population  ;  a  greater  number  of 
such  students  than  either  in  New  York  or  Pennsyl- 
vania, and,  as  a  broad,  general  fact,  Ohio  has  made 
more  progress  in  education  than  either  of  the  old 
States  which  formed  the  American  Union.  Such 
a  fact  is  a  higher  testimony  to  the  strength  and  the 
beneficent  influence  of  the  American  Government 
than  any  which  the  statistician  or  the  historian 
can  advance. 

Let  us  now  turn  to  the  moral  aspects  of  the 
people  of  Ohio.  No  human  society  is  found  with- 
out its  poor  and  dependent  classes,  whether  made 
so  by  the  defects  of  nature,  by  acts  of  Providence, 
or  by  the  accidents  of  fortune.  Since  no  society 
is  exempt  from  these  classes,  it  must  be  judged 
not  so  much  by  the  fact  of  their  existence,  as  by 
the  manner  in  which  it  treats  them.  In  the  civil- 
ized nations  of  antiquity,  such  as  Greece  and 
Rome,  hospitals,  infirmaries,  orphan  homes,  and 
asylums  for  the  infirm,  were  unknown.  These 
are  the  creations  of  Christianity,  and  that  must  be 
esteemed  practically  the  most  Christian  State  which 
most  practices  this  Christian  beneficence.  In  Ohio, 
as  in  all  the  States  of  this  country,  and  of  all 
Christian  countries,  there  is  a  large  number  of  the 
infirm  and  dependent  classes;  but,  although  Ohio 
is  the  third  State  in  population,  she  is  only  the 
fourteenth  in  the  proportion  of  dependent  classes. 
The  more  important  point,  however,  was,  how  does 
she  treat  them  ?  Is  there  wanting  any  of  all 
the  varied  institutions  of  benevolence?  How  does 
she  compare  with  other  States  and  countries  in 
this  respect?  It  is  believed  that  no  State  or  coun- 
try can  present  a  larger  proportion  of  all  these 
institutions  which  the  benevolence  of  the  wise  and 
good  have  suggested  for  the  alleviation  of  suffer- 
ing and  misfortune,  than  the  State  of  Ohio.  With 
3,500  of  the  insane  within  h§r  borders,  she  has 
five  great  lunatic  asylums,  capable  of  accommodat- 
ing them  all.  She  has  asylums  for  the  deaf  and 
dumb,  the  idiotic,  and  the  blind.  She  has  the 
best  hospitals  in  the  country.  She  has  schools 
of  reform  and  houses  of  refuge.  She  has  "  homes  " 
for  the  boys  and  girls,  to  the  number  of  800,  who 
are  children  of  soldiers.  She  has  penitentiaries 
and  jails,  orphan  asylums  and  infirmaries.  In 
every  county  there  is  an  infirmary,  and  in  every 
public  institution,  except  the  penitentiary,  there  is  a 

school.  So  that  the  State  has  used  every  human 
means  to  relieve  the  suff'ering,  to  instruct  the  igno- 
rant, and  to  reform  the  criminal.  There  are  in 
the  State  80,000  who  come  under  all  the  various 
forms  of  the  infirm,  the  poor,  the  sick  and  the 
criminal,  who,  in  a  greater  or  less  degree,  make 
the  dependent  class.  For  these  the  State  has 
made  every  provision  which  humanity  or  justice 
or  intelligence  can  require.  A  young  State,  de- 
veloped in  the  wilderness,  she  challenges,  without 
any  invidious  comparison,  both  Europe  and  Amer- 
ica, to  show  her  superior  in  the  development  of 
humanity  manifested  in  the  benefaction  of  public 

Intimately  connected  with  public  morals  and 
with  charitable  institutions,  is  the  religion  of  a 
people.  The  people  of  the  United  States  are  a 
Christian  people.  The  people  of  Ohio  have  man- 
ifested their  zeal  by  the  erection  of  churches,  of 
Sunday  schools,  and  of  religious  institutions.  So 
far  as  these  are  outwardly  manifested,  they  are 
made  known  by  the  social  statistics  of  the  census. 
The  number  of  church  organizations  in  the  leading 
States  were :  In  the  State  of  Ohio,  6,488  ;  in 
the  State  of  New  York,  5,627  :  in  the  State  of 
Pennsylvania,  5,984  ;  in  the  State  of  Illinois,  4,298. 
It  thus  appears  that  Ohio  had  a  larger  number 
of  churches  than  any  State  of  the  Union.  The 
number  of  sittings,  however,  was  not  quite  as 
large  as  those  in  New  York  and  Pennsylvania. 
The  denominations  are  of  all  the  sects  known  in 
this  country,  about  thirty  in  number,  the  majority 
of  the  whole  being  Methodists,  Presbyterians  and 
Baptists.  Long  before  the  American  Independ- 
ence, the  Moravians  had  settled  on  the  Mahoning 
and  Tuscarawas  Rivers,  but  only  to  be  destroyed ; 
and  when  the  peace  with  Great  Britain  was  made, 
not  a  vestige  of  Christianity  remained  on  the 
soil  of  Ohio  ;  yet  we  see  that  within  ninety  years 
from  that  time  the  State  of  Ohio  was,  in  the  num- 
ber of  its  churches,  the  first  of  this  great  Union. 

In  the  beginning  of  this  address,  I  said  that 
Ohio  was  the  oldest  and  first  of  these  great  States, 
carved  out  of  the  Northwestern  Territory,  and  that 
it  was  in  some  things  the  greatest  State  of  the 
American  Union.  I  have  now  traced  the  physi- 
cal, commercial,  intellectual  and  moral  features  of 
the  State  during  the  seventy-five  years  of  its 
constitutional  history.  The  result  is  to  establish 
fully  the  propositions  with  which  I  began.  These 
facts  have  brought  out : 

1.  That  Ohio  is,  in  reference  to  the  square 
miles  of  its  surface,   the  first  State  in  agriculture 





of  tlie  American  Union;  this,  too,  notwithstand- 
ing it  has  800,000  in  cities  and  towns,  and  a  large 
development  of  capital  and  products  in  manu- 

2.  That  Ohio  has  raised  more  grain  per  square 
mile  than  either  France,  Austria,  or  Great  Britain. 
They  raised  1,450  bushels  per  square  mile,  and 
10  bushels  to  each  person.  Ohio  raised  3,750 
bushels  per  square  mile,  and  50  bushels  to  each 
one  of  the  population  ;  or,  in  other  words,  five 
times  the  proportion  of  grain  raised  in  Europe. 

3.  Ohio  was  the  first  State  of  the  Union  in 
the  production  of  domestic  animals,  being  far  in 
advance  of  either  New  York,  Pennsylvania  or  Illi- 
nois. The  proportion  of  domestic  animals  to  each 
person  in  Ohio  was  three  and  one-third,  and  in 
New  York  and  Pennsylvania  less  than  half  that. 
The  largest  proportion  of  domestic  animals  pro- 
duced in  Europe  was  in  Great  Britain  and  Russia, 
neither  of  which  come  near  that  of  Ohio. 

4.  The  coal-field  of  Ohio  is  vastly  greater  than 
that  of  Great  Britain,  and  we  need  make  no  com- 
parison with  other  States  in  regard  to  coal  or  iron ; 
for  the  10,000  square  miles  of  coal,  and  4,000 
square  miles  of  iron  in  Ohio,  are  enough  to  supply 
the  whole  American  continent  for  ages  to  come. 

5.  Neither  need  we  compare  the  results  of 
commerce  and  navigation,  since,  from  the  ports  of 
Cleveland  and  Cincinnati,  the  vessels  of  Ohio 
touch  on  42,000  miles  of  coast,  and  her  5,000 
miles  of  railroad  carry  her  products  to  every  part 
of  the  American  continent. 

6.  Notwithstanding  the  immense  proportion 
and  products  of  agriculture  in  Ohio,  yet  she  has 
more  th*an  kept  pace  with  New  York  and  New 
England  in  the  progress  of  manufactures  during 
the  last  twenty  years.  Her  coal  and  iron  are  pro- 
ducing their  legitimate  results  in  making  her  a 
great  manuflicturing  State. 

7.  Ohio  is  the  first  State  in  the  Union  as  to 
the  proportion  of  youth  attending  school ;  and  the 
States  west  of  the  Alleghanies  and  north  of  the 
Ohio  have  more  youth  in  school,  proportionably, 
than  New  England  and  New  York.  The  facts  on 
this  subject  are  so  extraordinary  that  I  may  be 
excused  for  giving  them  a  little  in  detail. 

The  proportion  of  youth  in  Ohio  attending 
school  to  the  population,  is  1  in  4.2;  in  Illinois,  1 
in  4.3;  in  Pennsylvania,  1  in  4.8;  in  New  York, 
1  in  5.2 ;  in  Connecticut  and  Massachusetts,  1  in 

These  proportions  show  that  it  is  in  the  West, 
and  not  in  the  East,  that  education  is  now  advanc- 

ing; and  it  is  here  that  we  see  the  stimulus  given 
by  the  ordinance  of  1787,  is  working  out  its  great 
and  beneficent  results.  The  land  grant  for  educa- 
tion was  a  great  one,  but,  at  last,  its  chief  effort 
was  in  stimulating  popular  education ;  for  the  State 
of  Ohio  has  taxed  itself  tens  of  millions  of  dollars 
beyond  the  utmost  value  of  the  land  grant,  to 
found  and  maintain  a  system  of  public  education 
which  the  world  has  not  surpassed. 

We  have  seen  that  above  and  beyond  all  this 
material  and  intellectual  development,  Ohio  has 
provided  a  vast  benefaction  of  asylums,  hospitals, 
and  infirmaries,  and  special  schools  for  the  support 
and  instruction  of  the  dependent  classes.  There  is 
not  within  all  her  borders  a  single  one  of  the  deaf, 
dumb,  and  blind,  of  the  poor,  sick,  and  insane,  not 
an  orphan  or  a  vagrant,  who  is  not  provided  for 
by  the  broad  and  generous  liberality  of  the  State 
and  her  people.  A  charity  which  the  classic  ages 
knew  nothing  of,  a  beneficence  which  the  splendid 
hierarchies  and  aristocracies  of  Europe  cannot 
equal,  has  been  exhibited  in  this  young  State, 
whose  name  was  unknown  one  hundred  years  ago, 
whose  people,  from  Europe  to  the  Atlantic,  and 
from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Ohio,  were,  like  Adam 
and  Eve,  cast  out — "  the  world  be/ore  them  where 
to  choose^ 

Lastly,  we  see  that,  although  the  third  in  pop- 
ulation, and  the  seventeenth  in  admission  to  the 
Union,  Ohio  had,  in  1870,  6,400  churches,  the 
largest  number  in  any  one  State,  and  numbering 
among  them  every  form  of  Christian  worship. 
The  people,  whose  fields  were  rich  with  grain, 
whose  mines  were  boundless  in  wealth,  and  whose 
commerce  extended  through  thousands  of  miles 
of  lakes  and  rivers,  came  here,  as  they  came  to 
New  England's  rock-bound  coast — 

"  With  freedom  to  worship  God." 

The  church  and  the  schoolhouse  rose  beside  the 
green  fields,  and  the  morning  bells  rang  forth  to 
cheerful  children  going  to  school,  and  to  a  Chris- 
tian people  going  to  the  church  of  God. 

Let  us  now  look  at  the  possibilities  of  Ohio  in 
the  future  development  of  the  American  Repub- 
lican Republic.  The  two  most  populous  parts  of 
Europe,  because  the  most  food-producing,  are  the 
Netherlands  and  Italy,  or,  more  precisely,  Belgium 
and  ancient  Lombardy  ;  to  the  present  time,  their 
population  is,  in  round  numbers,  three  hundred  to 
the  square  mile.  The  density  of  population  in 
England  proper  is  about  the  same.  We  may 
assume,  therefore,  that  three  hundred  to  the  square 


HISTORY    or    OHIO. 


mile  is,  in  round  numbers,  the  limit  of  comfortable 
subsistence  under  modern  civilization.  It  is  true 
that  modern  improvements  in  agricultural  machin- 
ery and  fertilization  have  greatly  increased  the 
capacity  of  production,  on  a  given  amount  of 
land,  with  a  given  amount  of  labor.  It  is  true, 
also,  that  the  old  countries  of  Europe  do  not 
possess  an  equal  amount  of  arable  land  with  Ohio 
in  proportion  to  the  same  surface.  It  would  seem, 
therefore,  that  the  density  of  population  in  Ohio 
might  exceed  that  of  any  part  of  Europe.  On 
the  other  hand,  it  may  be  said  with  truth  that  the 
American  people  will  not  become  so  dense  as  in 
Europe  while  they  have  new  lands  in  the  West 
to  occupy.  This  is  true  ;  but  lands  such  as  those 
in  the  valley  of  the  Ohio  are  now  becoming 
scarce  in  the  West,  and  we  think  that,  with  her 
great  capacity  for  the  production  of  grain  on  one 
hand,  and  of  illimitable  quantities  of  coal  and 
iron  to  manufacture  with  on  the  other,  that  Ohio 
will,  at  no  remote  period,  reach  nearly  the  density 
of  Belgium,  which  will  give  her  10,000,000  of 
people.  This  seems  extravagant,  but  the  tide  of 
migration,  which  flowed  so  fast  to  the  West,  is 
beginning  to  ebb,  while  the  manufactures  of  the 
interior  offer  greater  inducements. 

With  population  comes  wealth,  the  material  for 
education,  the  development  of  the  arts,  advance 
in  all  the  material  elements  of  civilization,  and  the 
still  grander  advancements  in  the  strength  and 
elevation  of  the  human  mind,  conquering  to  itself 
new  realms  of  material  and  intellectual  power, 
acquiring  in  the  future  what  we  have  seen  in  the 
past,  a  wealth  of  resources  unknown  and  undreamed 
of  when,  a  hundred  years  ago,  the  fathers  of  the 
republic  declared  their  independence.  I  know 
how  easy  it  is  to  treat  this  statement  with  easy 
incredulity,  but  statistics  is  a  certain  science ;  the 
elements  of  civilization  are  now  measured,  and  we 
know  the  progress  of  the  human  race  as  we  know 

that  of  a  cultivated  plant.  We  know  the  resources 
of  the  country,  its  food-producing  capacity,  its 
art  processes,  its  power  of  education,  and  the  unde- 
fined and  illimitable  power  of  the  human  mind 
for  new  inventions  and  unimagined  progress.  With 
this  knowledge,  it  is  not  difiicult  nor  unsafe  to  say 
that  the  future  will  produce  more,  and  in  a  far 
greater  ratio,  than  the  past.  The  pictured  scenes 
of  the  prophets  have  already  been  more  than  ful- 
filled, and  the  visions  of  beauty  and  glory,  which 
their  imagination  failed  fully  to  describe,  will  be 
more  than  realized  in  the  bloom  of  that  garden 
which  republican  America  will  present  to  the 
eyes  of  astonished  mankind.  Long  before  another 
century  shall  have  passed  by,  the  single  State  of 
Ohio  will  present  fourfold  the  population  with  which 
the  thirteen  States  began  their  independence,  more 
wealth  than  the  entire  Union  now  has ;  greater 
universities  than  any  now  in  the  country,  and  a 
development  of  arts  and  manufacture  which  the 
world  now  knows  nothing  of.  You  have  seen 
more  than  that  since  the  Constitution  was  adopted, 
and  what  right  have  you  to  say  the  future  shall 
not  equal  the  past  ? 

I  have  aimed,  in  this  address,  to  give  an  exact 
picture  of  what  Ohio  is,  not  more  for  the  sake  of 
Ohio  than  as  a  representation  of  the  products 
which  the  American  Republic  has  given  to  the 
world.  A  State  which  began  long  after  the 
Declaration  of  Independence,  in  the  then  unknown 
wilderness  of  North  America,  presents  to-day 
the  fairest  example  of  what  a  republican  govern- 
ment with  Christian  civilization  can  do.  Look 
upon  this  picture  and  upon  those  of  Assyria, 
of  Greece  or  Rome,  or  of  Europe  in  her  best 
estate,  and  say  where  is  the  civilization  of  the 
earth  which  can  equal  this.  If  a  Roman  citizen  could 
say  with  pride,  "  Civis  Romanus  sum,"  with  far 
greater  pride  can  you  say  this  day,  "I  am  an 
American  citizen." 

■"I e) 

r^  Q 





WHEN  the  survey  of  the  Northwest  Terri- 
tory was  ordered  by  Congress,  March  20, 
1785,  it  was  decreed  that  every  sixteenth  section 
of  hind  should  be  reserved  for  the  "maintenance 
of  pubhc  schools  within  each  township."  The 
ordinance  of  1787 — thanks  to  the  New  England 
Associates — proclaimed  that,  "  religion,  morality 
and  knowledge  being  essential  to  good  government, 
schools  and  the  means  of  education  should  forever 
be  encouraged."  The  State  Constitution  of  1802 
declared  that  "  schools  and  the  means  of  instruc- 
tion should  be  encouraged  by  legislative  provision, 
not  inconsistent  with  the  rights  of  conscience." 
In  1825,  through  the  persevering  eflforts  of  Nathan 
Guilford,  Senator  from  Hamilton  County,  Ephraim 
Cutler,  Representative  from  Washington  County, 
and  other  friends  of  education,  a  bill  was  passed, 
"  laying  the  foundation  for  a  general  system  of 
common  schools."  This  bill  provided  a  tax  of  one- 
half  mill,  to  be  levied  by  the  County  Commis- 
sioners for  school  purposes ;  provided  for  school 
examiners,  and  made  Township  Clerks  and  County 
Auditors  school  officers.  In  1829,  this  county 
tax  was  raised  to  three-fourths  of  a  mill ;  in  1834 
to  one  mill,  and,  in  1836,  to  one  and  a  half  mills. 
In  March,  1837,  Samuel  Lewis,  of  Hamilton 
County,was  appointed  State  Superintendent  of  Com- 
mon Schools.  He  was  a  very  energetic  worker,  trav- 
eling on  horseback  all  over  the  State,  delivering  ad- 
dresses and  encouraging  school  officers  and  teachers. 
Through    his   efforts   much  good  was  done,  and 

*  From  the  School  Commissioners'  Reports,  principally  those  of 
Thomns  W.  Harvey,  A.  M. 

Note  1. — The  first  school  taught  in  Ohio,  or  in  the  Northwestern 
Territory,  was  iu  1791.  The  first  teacher  was  Maj.  Austin  Tiipper, 
eldestson  of  Gen.  Benjamin  Tnpper,  both  Revolutionary  officers. 
The  room  occupied  was  the  same  as  that  in  which  the  first  Court  was 
held,  and  was  situated  in  the  northwest  block-house  of  the  garrison, 
called  the  stockade,  at  Marietta.  During  the  Indian  war  school 
was  taught  at  Fort  Harmar,  Point  Marietta,  and  at  other  set- 
tlements. A  meeting  was  held  in  Marietta,  April  29,  1797,  to  con- 
sider the  erection  of  a  school  building  suitable  for  the  instruction 
of  the  youth,  and  for  conducting  religious  services.  Resolutions 
were  adopted  which  led  to  the  erection  of  a  building  called  the 
Muskingum  Academy.  The  building  was  of  frame,  forty  feet  long 
and  twenly-four  feet  wide,  and  is  yet(lS78)standing.  Thebuilding 
was  twelve  ffet  higlj,  with  an  arched  ceiling.  It  stood  upon  astone 
foundation,  three  steps  from  the  ground.  There  were  two  chimneys 
and  a  lobby  projection.  There  was  a  cellar  under  the  whole  build- 
ing. It  stood  upon  a  beaiitiful  lot,  fronting  the  Muskingum  River, 
and  about  sixty  feet  back  fiom   the  street.     Some  large  trees  were 

many  important  features  engrafted  on  the  school 
system.  He  resigned  in  1839,  when  the  office  was 
abolished,  and  its  duties  imposed  on  the  Secretary 
of  State. 

The  most  important  adjunct  in  early  education 
in  the  State  was  the  college  of  teachers  organized 
in  Cincinnati  in  1831.  Albert  Pickett,  Dr.  Joseph 
Ray,  William  H.  McGuffey — so  largely  known  by 
his  Readers — and  Milo  G.  Williams,  were  at  its 
head.  Leading  men  in  all  parts  of  the  West  at- 
tended its  meetings.  Their  published  deliberations 
did  much  for  the  advancement  of  education  among 
the  people.  Through  the  efforts  of  the  college, 
the  first  convention  held  in  Ohio  for  educational 
purposes  was  called  at  Columbus,  January  13, 
1836.  Two  years  after,  in  December,  the  first 
convention  in  which  the  different  sections  of  the 
State  were  represented,  was  held.  At  both  these 
conventions,  all  the  needs  of  the  schools,  both  com- 
mon and  higher,  were  ably  and  fully  discussed, 
and  appeals  made  to  the  people  for  a  more  coi'dial 
support  of  the  law.  No  successful  attempts  were 
made  to  organize  a  permanent  educational  society 
until  December,  1847,  when  the  Ohio  State  Teach- 
ers' Association  was  formed  at  Akron,  Summit 
County,  with  Samuel  Galloway  as  President;  T. 
W.  Harvey,  Recording  Secretary;  M.  D.  Leggett, 
Corresponding  Secretary ;  William  Bowen,  Treas- 
urer, and  M.  F.  Cowdrey,  Chairman  of  the  Executive 
Committee.  This  Association  entered  upon  its 
work  with  commendable  earnestness,  and  has  since 

upon  the  lot  and  on  the  street  in  front.  Across  the  street  was  an 
open  common,  and  beyond  that  the  river.  Immediately  opposite 
tlie  door,  on  entering,  was  a  broad  aisle,  and,  at  the  end  of  the 
aisle,  against  the  wall,  was  a  desk  or  pulpit.  On  the  right  and  left 
of  the  pulpit,  against  the  wall,  and  fronting  the  pulpit,  was  a  row 
of  slips.  On  each  sideof  the  door,  facing  the  pulpit,  were  two  slips, 
and,  at  each  end  of  the  room,  one  slip.  These  slips  were  stationary, 
and  were  fitted  with  desks  that  could  be  let  down,  and  there  were 
boxes  in  the  desks  for  holding  books  and  papers.  In  the  center  of 
the  room  was  an  open  space,  which  could  be  filled  with  movable 
seats.  The  first  school  was  opened  here  in  1800." — Letter  of  A.  T. 

Note  2. — Another  evidence  of  the  character  of  the  New  England 
Associates  is  the  founding  of  a  public  library  as  early  as  1796,  or 
before.  Another  was  also  established  at  Belpre  about  the  same  time. 
Abundant  evidence  proves  the  existence  of  these  libraries,  all  tend- 
ing to  the  fact  that  the  early  settlers,  though  conquering  a  wilder- 
ness and  a  savage  foe,  would  not  allow  their  mental  faculties  to 
lack  for  food.  The  character  of  the  books  shows  that  "solid" 
reading  predominated. 




never  abated  its  zeal.  Semi-annual  meetings  were 
at  first  held,  but,  since  1858,  only  annual  meetings 
occur.  They  are  always  largely  attended,  and  al- 
ways by  the  best  and  most  energetic  teachers. 
The  Association  has  given  tone  to  the  educational 
interests  of  the  State,  and  has  done  a  vast  amount 
of  good  in  popularizing  education.  In  the  spring 
of  1851,  Lorin  Andrews,  then  Superintendent  of 
the  Massillon  school,  resigned  his  place,  and  be- 
came a  common-school  missionary.  In  July,  the 
Association,  at  Cleveland,  made  him  its  agent,  and 
instituted  measures  to  sustain  him.  He  remained 
zealously  at  work  in  this  relation  until  1853,  when 
he  resigned  to  accept  the  presidency  of  Kenyon 
College,  at  Gambler.  Dr.  A.  Lord  was  then  chosen 
general  agent  and  resident  editor  of  the  Journal 
of  Education,  which  positions  he  filled  two  years, 
with  eminent  ability. 

The  year  that  Dr.  Lord  resigned,  the  ex  officio 
relation  of  the  Secretary  of  State  to  the  common 
schools  was  abolished,  and  the  office  of  school  com- 
missioner again  created.  H.  H.  Barney  was 
elected  to  the  place  in  October,  1853.  The  office 
has  since  been  held  by  Rev.  Anson  Smyth,  elected 
in  1856,  and  re-elected  in  1859  ;  E.  E.  White, 
appointed  by  the  Grovernor,  November  11,  1863, 
to  fill  the  vacancy  caused  by  the  resignation  of  C. 
W.  H.  Cathcart,  who  was  elected  in  1862;  John 
A.  Norris,  in  1865;  W.  D.  Henkle,  in  1868; 
Thomas  W.  Harvey,  in  1871;  C.  S.  Smart,  in 
1875,  and  the  present  incumbent,  J.  J.  Burns, 
elected  in  1878,  his  term  expiring  in  1881. 

The  first  teachers'  institute  in  Northern  Ohio 
was  held  at  Sandusky,  in  September,  18-15,  con- 
ducted by  Salem  Town,  of  New  York,  A.  D.  Lord 
and  M.  F.  Cowdrey.  The  second  was  held  at  Char- 
don,  Geauga  Co.,  in  November  of  the  same  year. 
The  first  institute  in  the  southern  part  of  the 
State  was  held  at  Cincinnati,  in  February,  1837; 
the  first  in  the  central  part  at  Newark,  in  March, 
1848.  Since  then  these  meetings  of  teachers  have 
occurred  annually,  and  have  been  the  means  of 
great  good  in  elevating  the  teacher  and  the  public 
in  educational  interests.  In  1848.,  on  petition  of 
forty  teachers,  county  commissioners  were  author- 
ized to  pay  lecturers  from  surplus  revenue,  and  the 
next  year,  to  appropriate  $100  for  institute  pur- 
poses, upon  pledge  of  teachers  to  raise  half  that 
amount.  By  the  statutes  of  1864,  applicants  for 
teachers  were  required  to  pay  50  cents  each  as  an 
examination  fee.  One-third  of  the  amount  thus 
raised  was  allowed  the  use  of  examiners  as  trav- 
eling expenses,  the  remainder  to  be  applied  to  in- 

stitute instruction.  For  the  year  1871,  sixty-eight 
teachers'  institutes  were  held  in  the  State,  at  which 
308  instructors  and  lecturers  were  employed,  and 
7,158  teachers  in  attendance.  The  expense  incurred 
was  $16,361.99,  of  which  $10,127.13  was  taken 
from  the  institute  fund;  $2,730.34,  was  contrib- 
uted by  members;  $680,  by  county  commis- 
sioners, and  the  balance,  $1,371.50,  was  ob- 
tained from  other  sources.  The  last  report  of  the 
State  Commissioners — 1878 — shows  that  eighty- 
five  county  institutes  were  held  in  the  State,  con- 
tinuing in  session  748  days;  416  instructors  were 
employed;  11,466  teachers  attended;  $22,531.47 
were  received  from  all  sources,  and  that  the  ex- 
penses were  $19,587.51,  or  $1.71  per  member. 
There  was  a  balance  on  hand  of  $9,460.74  to  com- 
mence the  next  year,  just  now  closed,  whose  work 
has  been  as  progressive  and  thorough  as  any  former 
year.  The  State  Association  now  comprises  three 
sections;  the  general  association,  the  superintend- 
ents' section  and  the  ungraded  school  section.  All 
have  done  a  good  work,  and  all  report  progress. 

The  old  State  Constitution,  adopted  by  a  con- 
vention in  1802,  was  supplemented  in  1851  by 
the  present  one,  under  which  the  General  Assem- 
bly, elected  under  it,  met  in  1852.  Harvey  Rice, 
a  Senator  from  Cuyahoga  County,  Chairman  of 
Senate  Committee  on  "Common  Schools  and 
School  Lands,"  reported  a  bill  the  29th  of  March, 
to  provide  "for  the  re-organization,  supervision 
and  maintenance  of  common  schools."  This  bill, 
amended  in  a  few  particulars,  became  a  law 
March  14,  1853.  The  prominent  features  of  the 
new  law  were :  The  substitution  of  a  State  school 
tax  for  the  county  tax  ;  creation  of  the  office  of 
the  State  School  Commissioner;  the  creation  of  a 
Township  Board  of  Education,  consisting  of  repre- 
sentatives from  the  subdistricts ;  the  abolition  of 
rate-bills,  making  education  free  to  all  the  youth  of 
the  State ;  the  raising  of  a  fund,  by  a  tax  of  one- 
tenth  of  a  mill  yearly,  "  for  the  purpose  of  fur- 
nishing school  libraries  and  apparatus  to  all  the 
common  schools."  This  "library  tax"  was  abol- 
ished in  1860,  otherwise  the  law  has  remained 
practically  unchanged. 

School  journals,  like  the  popular  press,  have 
been  a  potent  agency  in  the  educational  history  of 
the  State.  As  early  as  1838,  the  Ohio  School 
Director  was  issued  by  Samuel  Lewis,  by  legisla- 
tive authority,  though  after  six  months'  continu- 
ance, it  ceased  for  want  of  support.  The  same 
year  the  Fesfalozzian,  by  E.  L.  Sawtell  and  II. 
K.  Smith,  of  Akron,   and  the    Common    School 



Advocate,  of  Cincinnati,  were  issued.  In  1846, 
the  School  Journal  began  to  be  published  by  A. 
I).  Lord,  of  Kirtland.  The  same  year  saw  the 
Free  School  Clarion,  by  W.  Bowen,  of  Massillon, 
and  the  School  Friend,  by  W.  B.  Smith  &  Co., 
of  Cincinnati.  The  next  year,  W.  H.  Moore  & 
Co.,  of  Cincinnati,  started  the  Western  School 
Journal.  In  1851,  the  Ohio  Teacher,  by 
Thomas  Rainey,  appeared;  the  News  and  Edu- 
cator, in  1863,  and  the  Educational  Times,  in 
1866.  In  1850,  Dr.  Lord's  Journal  of  Educa- 
tion was  united  with  the  School  Friend,  and 
became  the  recognized  organ  of  the  teachers  in 
Ohio.  The  Doctor  remained  its  principal  editor 
until  1856,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  Anson 
Smyth,  who  edited  the  journal  one  year.  In  1857, 
it  was  edited  by  John  D.  Caldwell ;  in  1858  and 
and  1859,  by  W.  T.  Coggeshall;  in  1860,  by  Anson 
Smyth  again,  when  it  passed  into  the  hands  of 
E.  E.  White,  who  yet  controls  it.  It  has  an 
immense  circulation  among  Ohio  teachers,  and, 
though  competed  by  other  journals,  since  started, 
it  maintains  its  place. 

The  school  system  of  the  State  may  be  briefly 
explained  as  follows:  Cities  and  incorporated  vil- 
lages are  independent  of  township  and  county  con- 
trol, in  the  management  of  schools,  having  boards 
of  education  and  examiners  of  their  own.  Some 
of  them  are  organized  for  school  purposes,  under 
special  acts.  Each  township  has  a  board  of  edu- 
cation, composed  of  one  member  from  each  sub- 
district.  The  township  clerk  is  clerk  of  this  board, 
but  has  no  vote.  Each  subdistrict  has  a  local 
board  of  trustees,  which  manages  its  school  affairs, 
subject  to  the  advice  and  control  of  the  township 
board.  These  officers  are  elected  on  the  first 
Monday  in  April,  and  hold  their  offices  three 
years.  An  enumeration  of  all  the  youth  between 
the  ages  of  five  and  twenty-one  is  made  yearly. 
All  public  schools  are  required  to  be  in  session  at 
least  twenty-four  weeks  each  year.  The  township 
clerk  reports  annually  such  facts  concerning  school 
affiiirs  as  the  law  requires,  to  the  county  auditor, 
who  in  turn  reports  to  the  State  Commissioner, 
who  collects  these  reports  in  a  general  report  to 
the  Legislature  each  year. 

A  board  of  examiners  is  appointed  in  each 
county  by  the  Probate  Judge.  This  board  has 
power  to  grant  certificates  for  a  term  not  exceed- 
ing two  years,  and  good  only  in  the  county  in 
which  they  are  executed ;  they  may  be  revoked  on 
sufficient  cause.  In  1864,  a  State  Board  of 
Examiners  was  created,  with  power  to  issue  life  cer- 

tificates, valid  in  all  parts  of  the  State.  Since 
then,  up  to  January  1,  1879,  there  have  been  188 
of  these  issued.  They  are  considered  an  excellent 
test  of  scholarship  and  abiHty,  and  are  very  credit- 
able to  the  holder. 

The  school  funds,  in  1865,  amounted  to  |3,27l,- 
275.66.  They  were  the  proceeds  of  appropriations 
of  land  by  Congress  for  school  purposes,  upon 
which  the  State  pays  an  annual  interest  of  6  per 
cent.  The  funds  are  known  as  the  Virginia  Mili- 
tary School  Fund,  the  proceeds  of  eighteen  quar- 
ter-townships and  three  sections  of  land,  selected 
by  lot  from  lands  lying  in  the  United  States 
Military  Reserve,  appropriated  for  the  use  of 
schools  in  the  Virginia  Military  Reservation;  the 
United  States  Military  School  Fund,  the  proceeds 
of  one  thirty-sixth  part  of  the  land  in  the  United 
States  Military  District,  appropriated  "for  the 
of  schools  within  the  same;"  the  Western  Reserve 
School  Fund,  the  proceeds  from  fourteen  quarter- 
townships,  situated  in  the  United  States  Military 
District,  and  37,758  acres,  most  of  which  was  lo- 
cated in  Defiance,  Williams,  Paulding,  Van  Wert 
and  Putnam  Counties,  appropriated  for  the  use  of 
the  schools  in  the  Western  Reserve;  Section 
16,  the  proceeds  from  the  sixteenth  section  of 
each  township  in  that  part  of  the  State  in  which 
the  Indian  title  was  not  extinguished  in  1803;  the 
Moravian  School  Fund,  the  proceeds  from  one 
thirty-sixth  part  of  each  of  three  tracts  of 
4,000  acres  situated  in  Tuscarawas  County,  orig- 
inally granted  by  Congress  to  the  Society  of  United 
Brethren,  and  reconveyed  by  this  Society  to  the 
United  States  in  1824.  The  income  of  these  funds 
is  not  distributed  by  any  uniform  rule,  owing  to 
defects  in  the  granting  of  the  funds.  The  territo- 
rial divisions  designated  receive  the  income  in 
proportion  to  the  whole  number  of  youth  therein, 
while  in  the  remainder  of  the  State,  the  rent  of 
Section  16,  or  the  interest  on  the  proceeds 
arising  from  its  sale,  is  paid  to  the  inhabitants  of 
the  originally  surveyed  townships.  In  these  terri- 
torial divisions,  an  increase  or  decrease  of  popula- 
tion must  necessarily  increase  or  diminish  the 
amount  each  youth  is  entitled  to  receive ;  and  the 
fortunate  location  or  judicious  sale  of  the  sixteenth 
section  may  entitle  one  township  to  receive  a  large 
sum,  while  an  adjacent  township  receives  a  mere 
pittance.  This  inequality  of  benefit  may  be  good 
for  localities,  but  it  is  certainly  a  detriment  to  the 
State  at  large.  There  seems  to  be  no  legal  remedy 
for  it.  In  addition  to  the  income  from  the  before- 
mentioned    funds,  a  variable  revenue   is   received 




from  certain  fines  and  licenses  paid  to  either  county 
or  township  treasurers  for  the  use  of  schools; 
from  the  sale  of  swamp  lands  ($25,720.07  allotted 
to  the  State  in  1850),  and  from  personal  property 
escheated  to  the  State. 

Aside  from  the  funds,  a  State  school  tax  is  fixed 
by  statute.  Local  taxes  vary  with  the  needs  of 
localities,  are  limited  by  law,  and  are  contingent 
on  the  liberality  and  public  spirit  of  different  com- 

The  State  contains  more  than  twenty  colleges 
and  universities,  more  than  the  same  number  of 
female  seminaries,  and  about  thirty  normal  schools 
and  academies.  The  amount  of  property  invested 
in  these  is  more  than  $6,000,000.  The  Ohio 
University  is  the  oldest  college  in  the  State. 

In  addition  to  the  regular  colleges,  the  State 
controls  the  Ohio  State  University,  formerly  the 
Agricultural  and  Mechanical  College,  established 
from  the  proceeds  of  the  land  scrip  voted  by  Con- 
gress to  Ohio  for  such  purposes.  The  amount 
realized  from  the  sale  was  nearly  $500,000.  This 
is  to  constitute  a  permanent  fund,  the  interest  only 
to  be  used.  In  addition,  the  sum  of  $300,000 
was  voted  by  the  citizens  of  Franklin  County,  in 
consideration  of  the  location  of  the  college  in  that 
county.  Of  this  sum  $111,000  was  paid  for  three 
hundred  and  fifteen  acres  of  land  near  the  city  of 
Columbus,  and  $112,000  for  a  college  building. 

the  balance  being  expended  as  circumstances  re- 
quired, for  additional  buildings,  laboratory,  appa- 
ratus, etc.  Thorough  instruction  is  given  in  all 
branches  relating  to  agriculture  and  the  mechanical 
arts.     Already  excellent  results  are  attained. 

By  the  provisions  of  the  act  of  March  14, 1853, 
township  boards  are  made  bodies  politic  and  cor- 
porate in  law,  and  are  invested  with  the  title,  care 
and  custody  of  all  school  property  belonging  to 
the  school  district  or  township.  They  have  control 
of  the  central  or  high  schools  of  their  townships ; 
prescribe  rules  for  the  district  schools  ;  may  appoint 
one  of  their  number  manager  of  the  schools  of  the 
township,  and  allow  him  reasonable  pay  for  his 
services ;  determine  the  text-books  to  be  used  ;  fix 
the  boundaries  of  districts  and  locate  schoolhouse 
sites  ;  make  estimates  of  the  amount  of  money  re- 
quired ;  apportion  the  money  among  the  districts, 
and  are  required  to  make  an  annual  report  to  the 
County  Auditor,  who  incorporates  the  same  in  his 
report  to  the  State  Commissioner,  by  whom  it 
reaches  the  Legislature. 

Local  directors  control  the  subdistricts.  They 
enumerate  the  children  of  school  age,  employ  and 
dismiss  teachers,  make  contracts  for  building  and 
furnishing  schoolhouses,  and  make  all  necessary 
provision  for  the  convenience  of  the  district  schools. 
Practically,  the  entire  management  rests  with 






"  Oft  did  the  harvest  to  their  sickles  yield, 

Their  furrow  oft  the  stubborn  glebe  has  broke  ; 

How  jocund  did  they  drive  their  teams  afield  ! 

How  bowed  the  woods  beneath  their  sturdy  stroke." 

THE  majority  of  the  readers  of  these  pages  are 
farmers,  hence  a  resume  of  agriculture  in  the 
State,  would  not  only  be  appropriate,  but  valuable 
as  a  matter  of  history.  It  is  the  true  basis  of 
national  prosperity,  and,  therefore,  justly  occupies 
a  foremost  place. 

In  the  year  1800,  the  Territory  of  Ohio  con- 
tained a  population  of  45,365  inhabitants,  or  a 
little  more  than  one  person  to  the  square  mile.    At 

this  date,  the  admission  of  the  Territory  into  the 
Union  as  a  State  began  to  be  agitated.  When  the 
census  was  made  to  ascertain  the  legality  of  the 
act,  in  conformity  to  the  "Compact  of  1787,"  no 
endeavor  was  made  to  ascertain  additional  statis- 
tics, as  now ;  hence,  the  cultivated  land  was  not 
returned,  and  no  account  remains  to  tell  how 
much  existed.  In  1805,  three  years  after  the  ad- 
mission of  the  State  into  the  Union,  7,252,856 
acres  had  been  purchased  from  the  General  Gov- 
ernment. Still  no  returns  of  the  cultivated  lands 
were  made.  In  1810,  the  population  of  Ohio  was 
230,760,  and  the  land  purchased  from  the  Gov- 




ernment  amounted  to  9,933,150  acres,  of  which 
amount,  however,  3,569,314  acres,  or  more  than 
one-third,  was  held  by  non-residents.  Of  the  lauds 
occupied  by  resident  land-owners,  there  appear  to 
have  been  100,968  acres  of  first-rate,  1,929,600 
of  second,  and  1,538,745  acres  of  third  rate  lands. 
At  this  period  there  were  very  few  exports  from 
the  farm,  loom  or  shop.  The  people  still  needed 
all  they  produced  to  sustain  themselves,  and  were 
yet  in  that  pioneer  period  where  they  were  obliged 
to  produce  all  they  wanted,  and  yet  were  opening- 
new  liirms,  and  bringing  the  old  ones  to  a  productive 

Kentucky,  and  the  country  on  the  Monongahela, 
lying  along  the  western  slopes  of  the  Alleghany 
Mountains,  having  been  much  longer  settled,  had 
begun,  as  early  as  1795,  to  send  considerable  quan- 
tities of  flour,  whisky,  bacon  and  tobacco  to  the 
lower  towns  on  the  Mississippi,  at  that  time  in  the 
possession  of  the  Spaniards.  At  the  French  set- 
tlements on  the  Ilhnois,  and  at  Detroit,  were 
being  raised  much  more  than  could  be  used,  and 
these  were  exporting  also  large  quantities  of  these 
materials,  as  well  as  peltries  and  such  commodities 
as  their  nomadic  lives  furnished.  As  the  Missis- 
sippi was  the  natural  outlet  of  the  West,  any  at- 
tempt to  impede  its  free  navigation  by  the  various 
powers  at  times  controlling  its  outlet,  would  lead 
at  once  to  violent  outbreaks  among  the  Western 
settlers,  some  of  whom  were  aided  by  unscrupulous 
persons,  who  thought  to  form  an  independent 
Western  country.  Providence  seems  to  have  had 
a  watchful  eye  over  all  these  events,  and  to  have 
so  guided  them  that  the  attempts  with  such  objects 
in  view,  invariably  ended  in  disgi-ace  to  their  per- 
petrators. This  outlet  to  the  West  was  thought 
to  be  the  only  one  that  could  carry  their  produce  to 
market,  for  none  of  the  Westerners  then  dreamed 
of  the  immense  system  of  railways  now  covering 
that  part  of  the  Union.  As  soon  as  ship-building 
commenced  at  Marietta,  in  the  year  1800,  the 
farmers  along  the  borders  of  the  Ohio  and  Musk- 
ingum llivers  turned  their  attention  to  the  culti- 
vation of  hemp,  in  addition  to  their  other  crops.  In  a 
few  years  sufficient  was  raised,  not  only  to  furnish 
cordage  to  the  ships  in  the  West,  but  large  quan- 
tities were  worked  up  in  the  various  rope-walks 
and  sent  to  the  Atlantic  cities.  Iron  had  been 
discovered,  and  forges  on  the  Juniata  were  busy 
converting  that  necessary  and  valued  material  into 
implements  of  industry. 

By  the  year  1805,  two  ships,  seven  brigs  and 
three  schooners  had  been  built  and  rigged   by  the 

citizens  of  Marietta.  Their  construction  gave  a 
fresh  impetus  to  agriculture,  as  by  means  of  them 
the  surplus  products  could  be  carried  away  to  a 
foreign  market,  where,  if  it  did  not  bring  money, 
it  could  be  exchanged  for  merchandise  equally 
valuable.  Captain  David  Devoll  was  one  of  the 
earliest  of  Ohio's  shipwrights.  He  settled  on  the 
fertile  Muskingum  bottom,  about  five  miles  above 
Marietta,  soon  after  the  Indian  war.  Here  he 
built  a  "floating  mill,"  for  making  flour,  and,  in 
1801,  a  ship  of  two  hundred  and  fifty  tons,  called 
the  Muskingum,  and  the  brig  Eliza  Greene,  of  one 
hundred  and  fifty  tons.  In  1804,  he  built  a 
schooner  on  his  own  account,  and  in  the  spring 
of  the  next  year,  it  was  finished  and  loaded  for  a 
voyage  down  the  Mississippi.  It  was  small,  only  of 
seventy  tons  burden,  of  a  light  draft,  and  intended 
to  run  on  the  lakes  east  of  New  Orleans.  In 
shape  and  model,  it  fully  sustained  its  name.  Nonpa- 
reil. Its  complement  of  sails,  small  at  first,  was 
completed  when  it  arrived  in  New  Orleans.  It 
had  a  large  cabin  to  accommodate  passengers,  was 
well  and  finely  painted,  and  sat  gracefully  on  the 
water.  Its  load  was  of  assorted  articles,  and  shows 
very  well  the  nature  of  exports  of  the  day.  It  con- 
sisted of  two  hundred  barrels  of  flour,  fifty  barrels  of 
kiln-dried  corn  meal,  four  thousand  pounds  of 
cheese,  six  thousand  of  bacon,  one  hundred  sets 
of  rum  puncheon  shooks,  and  a  few  grindstones. 
The  flour  and  meal  were  made  at  Captain  Devoll's 
floating  mill,  and  the  cheese  made  in  Belpre,  at  that 
date  one  of  Ohio's  most  flourishing  agricultural  dis- 
tricts. The  Captain  and  others  carried  on  boating  as 
well  as  the  circumstances  of  the  days  permitted,  fear- 
ing only  the  hostility  of  the  Indians,  and  the  duty 
the  Spaniards  were  liable  to  levy  on  boats  going 
down  to  New  Orleans,  even  if  they  did  not  take 
it  into  their  erratic  heads  to  stop  the  entire  navi- 
gation of  the  great  river  by  vessels  other  than 
their  own.  By  such  means,  merchandise  was  car- 
ried on  almost  entirely  until  the  construction  of 
canals,  and  even  then,  until  modern  times,  the 
flat-boat  was  the  main-stay  of  the  shipper  inhabit- 
ing the  country  adjoining  the  upper  Ohio  and 
Mississippi  Rivers. 

Commonly,  very  little  stock  was  kept  beyond 
what  was  necessary  for  the  use  of  the  family  and 
to  perform  the  labor  on  the  farm.  The  Scioto 
Valley  was  perhaps  the  only  exception  in  Ohio  to 
this  general  condition.  Horses  were  brought  by  the 
emigrants  from  the  East  and  were  characteristic 
of  that  region.  In  the  French  settlements  in  Illi- 
nois and  about  Detroit,  French  ponies,  marvels  of 




endurance,  were  chiefly  used.  They  were  impractic- 
able in  hauHng  the  immense  emigrant  wagons  over 
the  mountains,  and  hence  were  comparatively 
unknown  in  Ohio.  Until  1828,  draft  horses 
were  chiefly  used  here,  the  best  strains  being 
brought  by  the  "Tunkers,"  "  Mennonites,"  and 
"  Ormish," — three  religious  sects,  whose  members 
were  invariably  agriculturists.  In  Stark,  Wayne, 
Holmes,  and  Richland  Counties,  as  a  general  thing, 
they  congregated  in  communities,  where  the  neat- 
ness of  their  farms,  the  excellent  condition  of 
their  stock,  and  the  primitive  simplicity  of  their 
manners,  made  them  conspicuous. 

In  1828,  the  French  began  to  settle  in  Stark 
County,  where  they  introduced  the  stock  of  horses 
known  as  "  Selim,"  "Florizel,"  "Post  Boy"  and 
"  Timolen."  These,  crossed  upon  the  descents  of 
the  Norman  and  Conestoga,  produced  an  excellent 
stock  of  farm  horses,  now  largely  used. 

In  the  Western  Reserve,  blooded  horses  were  in- 
troduced as  early  as  1825.  John  I.  Van  Meter 
brought  fine  horses  into  the  Scioto  Valley  in  1815, 
or  thereabouts.  Soon  after,  fine  horses  were 
brought  to  Steubenville  from  Virginia  and  Penn- 
sylvania. In  Northern  Ohio  the  stock  was  more 
miscellaneous,  until  the  introduction  of  improved 
breeds  from  1815  to  1835.  By  the  latter  date 
the  strains  of  horses  had  greatly  improved.  The 
same  could  be  said  of  other  parts  of  the  State. 
Until  after  1825,  only  farm  and  road  horses  were 
required.  That  year  a  race-course — the  first  in 
the  State — was  established  in  Cincinnati,  shortly 
followed  by  others  at  Chillicothe,  Dayton  and  Ham- 
ilton. From  that  date  the  race-horse  steadily  im- 
proved. Until  1838,  however,  all  race-courses 
were  rather  irregular,  and,  of  those  named,  it  is 
difiicult  to  determine  which  one  has  priority  of 
date  over  the  others.  To  Cincinnati,  the  prece- 
dence is,  however,  generally  given.  In  1838,  the 
Buckeye  Course  was  established  in  Cincinnati,  and 
before  a  year  had  elapsed,  it  is  stated,  there  were 
fifteen  regular  race-courses  in  Ohio.  The  eifect 
of  these  courses  was  to  greatly  stimulate  the  stock 
of  racers,  and  rather  detract  from  draft  and  road 
horses.  The  organization  of  companies  to  import 
blooded  horses  has  again  revived  the  interest  in 
this  class,  and  now,  at  annual  stock  sales,  these 
strains  of  horses  are  eagerly  sought  after  by  those 
having  occasion  to  use  them. 

Cattle  were  brought  over  the  mountains,  and, 
for  several  years,  were  kept  entirely  for  domestic 
uses.  By  1805,  the  country  had  so  far  settled 
that  the  surplus  stock  was  fattened  on  corn  and 

fodder,  and  a  drove  was  driven  to  Baltimore.  The 
drove  was  owned  by  George  Renick,  of  Chillicothe, 
and  the  feat  was  looked  upon  as  one  of  great  im- 
portance. The  drove  arrived  in  Baltimore  in  ex- 
cellent condition.  The  impetus  given  by  this 
movement  of  Mr.  Renick  stimulated  greatly  the 
feeding  of  cattle,  and  led  to  the  improvement  of 
the  breed,  heretofore  only  of  an  ordinary  kind. 

Until  the  advent  of  railroads  and  the  shipment 
of  cattle  thereon,  the  number  of  cattle  driven  to 
eastern  markets  from  Ohio  alone,  was  estimated  at 
over  fifteen  thousand  annually,  whose  value  was 
placed  at  $600,000.  Besides  this,  large  numbers 
were  driven  from  Indiana  and  Illinois,  whose 
boundless  prairies  gave  free  scope  to  the  herding  of 
cattle.  Improved  breeds,  "Short  Horns,"  "Long 
Horns"  and  others,  were  introduced  into  Ohio  as 
early  as  1810  and  1815.  Since  then  the  stock 
has  been  gradually  improved  and  acclimated,  until 
now  Ohio  produces  as  fine  cattle  as  any  State  in 
the  Union.  In  some  localities,  especially  in  the 
Western  Reserve,  cheesemaking  and  dairy  interests 
are  the  chief  occupations  of  whole  neighborhoods, 
where  may  be  found  men  who  have  grown  wealthy 
in  this  business. 

Sheep  were  kept  by  almost  every  family,  in  pio- 
neer times,  in  order  to  be  supplied  with  wool  for 
clothing.  The  wool  was  carded  by  hand,  spun  in 
the  cabin,  and  frequently  dyed  and  woven  as  well 
as  shaped  into  garments  there,  too.  All  emigrants 
brought  the  best  household  and  farming  imple- 
ments their  limited  means  would  allow,  so  also  did 
they  bring  the  best  strains  of  horses,  cattle  and 
sheep  they  could  obtain.  About  the  year  1809, 
Mr.  Thomas  Rotch,  a  Quaker,  emigrated  to  Stark 
County,  and  brought  with  him  a  small  flock  of 
Merino  sheep.  They  were  good,  and  a  part  of 
them  were  from  the  original  flock  brought  over 
from  Spain,  in  1801,  by  Col.  Humphrey,  United 
States  Minister  to  that  country.  He  had  brought 
200  of  these  sheep,  and  hoped,  in  time,  to  see 
every  part  of  the  United  States  stocked  with  Me- 
rinos. In  this  he  partially  succeeded  only,  owing 
to  the  pi'ejudice  against  them.  In  1816,  Messrs. 
Wells  &  Dickenson,  who  were,  for  the  day,  exten- 
sive woolen  manufacturers  in  Steubenville,  drove 
their  fine  flocks  out  on  the  Stark  County  Plains 
for  the  summer,  and  brought  them  back  for  the 
winter.  This  course  was  pursued  for  several  years, 
until  farms  were  prepared,  when  they  were  per- 
manently kept  in  Stark  County.  This  flock  was 
originally  derived  from  the  Humphrey  importation. 
The  failure  of  Wells  &  Dickenson,  in  1824,  placed 




a  good  portion  of  this  flock  in  the  hands  of  Adam 
Hildebrand,  and  became  the  basis  of  his  celebrated 
flock.  Mr.  T.  S.  Humrickhouse,  of  Coshocton, 
in  a  communication  regarding  sheep,  writes  as  fol- 

"  The  first  merinos  brought  to  Ohio  were  doubtr- 
less  by  Seth  Adams,  of  Zanesville.  They  were 
Humphrey's  Merinos — undoubtedly  the  best  ever 
imported  into  the  United  States,  by  whatever 
name  called.  He  kept  them  part  of  the  time  in 
Washington,  and  afterward  in  Muskingum  County. 
He  had  a  sort  of  partnership  agency  from  Gen. 
Humphrey  for  keeping  and  selling  them.  They 
were  scattered,  and,  had  they  been  taken  care  of 
and  appreciated,  would  have  laid  a  better  found- 
ation of  flocks  in  Ohio  than  any  sheep  brought 
into  it  from  that  time  till  1852.  The  precise  date 
at  which  Adams  brought  them  cannot  now  be  as- 
certained ;  but  it  was  prior  to  1813,  perhaps  as 
early  as  1804." 

"The  first  Southdowns,"  continues  Mr.  Hum- 
rickhouse," "  New  Leicester,  Lincolnshire  and  Cots- 
wold  sheep  I  ever  saw,  were  brought  into  Coshocton 
County  from  England  by  Isaac  Maynard,  nephew 
of  the  famous  Sir  John,  in  1834.  There  were 
about  ten  Southdowns  and  a  trio  of  each  of  the 
other  kinds.  He  was  ofi"ered  ^500  for  his  Lin- 
colnshire ram,  in  Buffalo,  as  he  passed  through, 
but  refused.  He  was  selfish,  and  unwilling  to  put 
them  into  other  hands  when  he  went  on  a  farm, 
all  in  the  woods,  and,  in  about  three  years,  most  of 
them  had  perished." 

The  raising  and  improvement  of  sheep  has  kept 
steady  tread  with  the  growth  of  the  State,  and 
now  Ohio  wool  is  known  the  world  over.  In  quan- 
tity it  is  equal  to  any  State  in  America,  while  its 
quality  is  unequaled. 

The  first  stock  of  hogs  brought  to  Ohio  were 
rather  poor,  scrawny  creatures,  and,  in  a  short 
time,  when  left  to  themselves  to  pick  a  livelihood 
from  the  beech  mast  and  other  nuts  in  the  woods, 
degenerated  into  a  wild  condition,  almost  akin  to 
their  originators.  As  the  country  settled,  however, 
they  were  gathered  from  their  lairs,  and,  by  feed- 
ing them  corn,  the  farmers  soon  brought  them  out 
of  their  semi-barbarous  state.  Improved  breeds 
were  introduced.  The  laws  for  their  protection 
and  guarding  were  made,  and  now  the  hog  of  to- 
day shows  what  improvement  and  civilization  can 
do  for  any  wild  animal.  The  chief  city  of  the 
State  has  become  famous  as  a  slaughtering  place ; 
her  bacon  and  sides  being  known  in  all  the  civil- 
ized world. 

Other  domestic  animals,  mules,  asses,  etc.,  have 
been  brought  to  the  State  as  occasion  required. 
Wherever  their  use  has  been  demanded,  they  have 
been  obtained,  until  the  State  has  her  complement 
of  all  animals  her  citizens  can  use  in  their  daily 

Most  of  the  early  emigrants  brought  with  them 
young  fruit  trees  or  grafts  of  some  favorite  variety 
from  the  "  old  homestead."  Hence,  on  the  West- 
ern Reserve  are  to  be  found  chiefly — especially  in 
old  orchards — New  England  varieties,  while,  in  the 
localities  immediately  south  of  the  Reserve,  Penn- 
sylvania and  Maryland  varieties  predominate ;  but 
at  Marietta,  New  England  fruits  are  again  found, 
as  well  as  throughout  Southeastern  Ohio.  One  of 
the  oldest  of  these  orchards  was  on  a  Mr.  Dana's 
farm,  near  Cincinnati,  on  the  Ohio  River  bank.  It 
consisted  of  five  acres,  in  which  apple  seeds  and 
seedlings  were  planted  as  early  as  1790.  Part  of 
the  old  orchard  is  yet  to  be  seen,  though  the  trees 
are  almost  past  their  usefulness.  Peaches,  pears, 
cherries  and  apples  were  planted  by  all  the  pioneers 
in  their  gardens.  As  soon  as  the  seed  produced 
seedlings,  these  were  transplanted  to  some  hillside, 
and  the  orchard,  in  a  few  years,  was  a  productive 
unit  in  the  life  of  the  settler.  The  first  fruit 
brought,  was,  like  everything  else  of  the  pioneers, 
rather  inferior,  and  admitted  of  much  cultivation. 
Soon  steps  were  taken  by  the  more  enterprising 
settlers  to  obtain  better  varieties.  Israel  Putnam, 
as  early  as  179G,  returned  to  the  East,  partly  to 
get  scions  of  the  choicest  apples,  and,  partly,  on 
other  business.  He  obtained  quite  a  quantity  of 
choice  apples,  of  some  forty  or  fifty  varieties,  and 
set  them  out.  A  portion  of  them  were  distrib- 
uted to  the  settlers  who  had  trees,  to  ingraft. 
From  these  old  grafts  are  yet  to  be  traced  some  of 
the  best  orchards  in  Ohio.  Israel  Putnam  was  one 
of  the  most  prominent  men  in  early  Ohio  days. 
He  was  always  active  in  promoting  the  interests  of 
the  settlers.  Among  his  earliest  efforts,  that  of 
improving  the  fruit  may  well  be  mentioned.  He 
and  his  brother,  Aaron  W.  Putnam,  living  at  Bel- 
pre,  opposite  Blennerhasset's  Island,  began  the 
nursery  business  soon  after  their  arrival  in  the 
West.  The  apples  brought  by  them  from  their 
Connecticut  home  were  used  to  commence  the  busi- 
ness. These,  and  the  apples  obtained  from  trees 
planted  in  their  gardens,  gave  them  a  beginning. 
They  were  the  only  two  men  in  Ohio  engaged  in 
the  business  till  1817. 

In  early  times,  in  the  central  part  of  Ohio, 
there  existed  a  curious  character  known  as  "Johnny 




Appleseed."  His  real  name  was  John  Chapman. 
He  received  his  name  from  his  habit  of  planting, 
along  all  the  streams  in  that  part  of  the  State, 
apple-seeds  from  which  sprang  many  of  the  old 
orchards.  He  did  this  as  a  religious  duty,  think- 
ing it  to  be  his  especial  mission.  He  had,  it  is 
said,  been  disappointed  in  his  youth  in  a  love 
affair,  and  came  West  about  1800,  and  ever  after 
followed  his  singular  life.  He  was  extensively 
known,  was  quite  harmless,  very  patient,  and  did, 
without  doubt,  much  good.  He  died  in  1847,  at 
the  house  of  a  Mr.  Worth,  near  Fort  Wayne, 
Indiana,  who  had  long  known  him,  and  oflen 
befriended  him.  He  was  a  minister  in  the  Swed- 
enborgian  Church,  and,  in  his  own  way,  a  zealous 

The  settlers  of  the  Western  Reserve,  coming 
from  New  England,  chiefly  from  Connecticut, 
brought  all  varieties  of  fruit  known  in  their  old 
homes.  These,  whether  seeds  or  grafts,  were 
planted  in  gardens,  and  as  soon  as  an  orchard 
could  be  cleared  on  some  favorable  hillside,  the 
young  trees  were  transplanted  there,  and  in  time 
an  orchard  was  the  result.  Much  confusion 
regarding  the  kinds  of  fruits  thus  produced  arose, 
partly  from  the  fact  that  the  trees  grown  from 
seeds  did  not  always  prove  to  be  of  the  same  qual- 
ity as  the  seeds.  Climate,  soil  and  surroundings 
oflen  change  the  character  of  such  fruits. 
Many  new  varieties,  unknown  to  the  growers, 
were  the  result.  The  fruit  thus  produced  was 
often  of  an  inferior  growth,  and  when  grafts  were 
brought  from  the  old  New  England  home  and 
grafted  into  the  Ohio  trees,  an  improvement  as 
well  as  the  old  home  fruit  was  the  result.  After 
the  orchards  in  the  Reserve  began  to  bear,  the 
fruit  was  very  often  taken  to  the  Ohio  River  for 
shipment,  and  thence  found  its  way  to  the  South- 
ern and  Eastern  seaboard  cities. 

Among  the  individuals  prominent  in  introducing 
fi-uits  into  the  State,  were  Mr.  Dille,  of  Euclid,  Judge 
Fuller,  Judge  Whittlesey,  and  Mr.  Lindley. 
George  Hoadly  was  also  very  prominent  and  ener- 
getic in  the  matter,  and  was,  perhaps,  the  first  to 
introduce  the  pear  to  any  extent.  He  was  one  of 
the  most  persistent  and  enthusiastic  amateurs  in 
horticulture  and  pomology  in  the  West.  About 
the  year  1810,  Dr.  Jared  Kirtland,  father  of 
Prof.  J.  P.  Kirtland,  so  favorably  known 
among  horticulturists  and  pomologists,  came  from 
Connecticut  and  isettled  in  Poland,  Mahoning 
County,  with  his  family.  This  family  has  done 
more  than  any   other  in  the    State,    perhaps,    to 

advance  fruit  culture.  About  the  year  1824, 
Prof  J.  P.  Kirtland,  in  connection  with  his  brother, 
established  a  nursery  at  Poland,  then  in  Trumbull 
County,  and  brought  on  from  New  England  above 
a  hundred  of  their  best  varieties  of  apples,  cherries, 
peaches,  pears,  and  smaller  fruits,  and  a  year  or 
two  afler  brought  from  New  Jersey  a  hundred  of 
the  best  varieties  of  that  State ;  others  were  ob- 
tained in  New  York,  so  that  they  possessed  the  larg- 
est and  most  varied  stock  in  the  Western  country. 
These  two  men  gave  a  great  impetus  to  fruit  cult- 
ure in  the  West,  and  did  more  than  any  others 
of  that  day  to  introduce  improved  kinds  of  all 
fi-uits  in  that  part  of  the  United  States. 

Another  prominent  man  in  this  branch  of  indus- 
try was  Mr.  Andrew  H.  Ernst,  of  Cincinnati. 
Although  not  so  early  a  settler  as  the  Kirtlands, 
he  was,  like  them,  an  ardent  student  and  propa- 
gator of  fine  fi'uits.  He  introduced  more  than 
six  hundred  varieties  of  apples  and  seven  hun- 
dred of  pears,  both  native  and  foreign.  His 
object  was  to  test  by  actual  experience  the  most 
valuable  sorts  for  the  diversified  soil  and  climate 
of  the  Western  country. 

The  name  of  Nicholas  Longworth,  also  of  Cin- 
cinnati, is  one  of  the  most  extensively  known  of  any 
in  the  science  of  horticulture  and  pomology.  For 
more  than  fifty  years  he  made  these  his  especial 
delight.  Having  a  large  tract  of  land  in  the 
lower  part  of  Cincinnati,  he  established  nurseries, 
and  planted  and  disseminated  every  variety  of 
fruits  that  could  be  found  in  the  United  States — 
East  or  West — making  occasional  importations 
from  European  countries  of  such  varieties  as 
were  thought  to  be  adapted  to  the  Western  climate. 
His  success  has  been  variable,  governed  by  the 
season,  and  in  a  measure  by  his  numerous  experi- 
ments. His  vineyards,  cultivated  by  tenants,  gen- 
erally Gi-ermans,  on  the  European  plan,  during  the 
latter  years  of  his  experience  paid  him  a  hand- 
some revenue.  He  introduced  the  famous  Catawba 
grape,  the  standard  grape  of  the  West.  It  is 
stated  that  Mr.  Longworth  bears  the  same  relation 
to  vineyard  culture  that  Fulton  did  to  steam  navi- 
gation. Others  made  earlier  effort,  but  he  was  the 
first  to  establish  it  on  a  permanent  basis.  He  has 
also  been  eminently  successful  in  the  cultivation  of 
the  strawberry,  and  was  the  first  to  firmly  establish 
it  on  Western  soil.  He  also  brought  the  Ohio  Ever- 
bearing Raspberry  into  notice  in  the  State,  and 
widely  disseminated  it  throughout  the  country. 

Other  smaller  fi-uits  were  brought  out  to  the 
West  like  those  mentioned.     In  some  cases  fruits 



indigenous  to  the  soil  were  cultivated  and  improved, 
and  as  improved  fruits,  are  known  favorably  where- 
ever  used. 

In  chronology  and  importance,  of  all  the  cereals, 
corn  stands  foremost.  During  the  early  pioneer 
period,  it  was  the  staple  article  of  food  for  both 
man  and  beast.  It  could  be  made  into  a  variety 
of  forms  of  food,  and  as  such  was  not  only  palata- 
ble but  highly  nutritious  and  strengthening. 

It  is  very  difficult  to  determine  whether  corn 
originated  in  America  or  in  the  Old  World.  Many 
prominent  botanists  assert  it  is  a  native  of  Turkey, 
and  originally  was  known  as  "  Turkey  wheat."  Still 
others  claimed  to  have  found  mention  of  maize  in 
Chinese  writings  antedating  the  Turkish  discovery. 
Grains  of  maize  were  found  in  an  Egyptian  mum- 
my, which  goes  to  prove  to  many  the  cereal  was 
known  in  Africa  since  the  earliest  times.  Maize 
was  found  in  America  when  first  visited  by  white 
men,  but  of  its  origin  Indians  could  give  no  ac- 
count. It  had  always  been  known  among  them, 
and  constituted  their  chief  article  of  vegetable  diet. 
It  was  cultivated  exclusiveFy  by  their  squaws,  the 
men  considering  it  beneath  their  dignity  to  engage 
in  any  manual  labor.  It  is  altogether  probable  corn 
was  known  in  the  Old  World  long  before  the  New 
was  discovered.  The  Arabs  or  Crusaders  probably 
introduced  it  into  Europe.  How  it  was  introduced 
into  America  will,  in  all  probability,  remain  un- 
known. It  may  have  been  an  indigenous  plant, 
like  many  others.  Its  introduction  into  Ohio  dates 
with  the  settlement  of  tlie  whites,  especially  its 
cultivation  and  use  as  an  article  of  trade.  True, 
the  Indians  had  cultivated  it  in  small  quantities  ; 
each  lodge  a  little  for  itself,  but  no  effort  to  make 
of  it  a  national  support  began  until  the  civilization 
of  the  white  race  became  established.  From  that 
time  on,  the  increase  in  crops  has  grown  with  the 
State,  and,  excepting  the  great  corn  States  of  the 
West,  Ohio  produces  an  amount  equal  to  any  State 
in  the  Union.  The  statistical  tables  printed  in 
agricultural  reports  show  the  acres  planted,  and 
bushels  grown.  Figures  speak  an  unanswerable 

Wheat  is  probably  the  next  in  importance  of  the 
cereals  in  the  State.  Its  origin,  like  corn,  is  lost 
in  the  mists  of  antiquity.  Its  berry  was  no  doubt 
used  as  food  by  the  ancients  for  ages  anterior  to 
any  historical  records.  It  is  often  called  corn  in 
old  writings,  and  under  that  name  is  frequently 
mentioned  in  the  Bible. 

"As  far  back  in  the  vistas  of  ages  as  human 
records  go,  we  find  that  wheat  has  been  cultivated. 

and,  with  corn,  aside  from  animal  food,  has  formed 
one  of  the  chief  alimfentary  articles  of  all  nations  ; 
but  as  the  wheat  plant  has  nowhere  been  found  wild, 
or  in  a  state  of  nature,  the  inference  has  been 
drawn  by  men  of  unquestioned  scientific  ability, 
that  the  original  plant  from  which  wheat  has  been 
derived  was  either  totally  annihilated,  or  else  cul- 
tivation has  wrought  so  great  a  change,  that  the 
original  is  by  no  means  obvious,  or  manifest  to  bot- 

It  is  supposed  by  many,  wheat  originated  in 
Persia.  Others  affirm  it  was  known  and  cultivated 
in  Egypt  long  ere  it  found  its  way  into  Persia.  It 
was  certainly  grown  on  the  Nile  ages  ago,  and 
among  the  tombs  are  found  grains  of  wheat  in  a 
perfectly  sound  condition,  that  unquestionably 
have  been  buried  thousands  of  years.  It  may  be, 
however,  that  wheat  was  grown  in  Persia  first,  and 
thence  found  its  way  into  Egypt  and  Africa,  or, 
vice  versa.  It  grew  first  in  Egypt  and  Africa  and 
thence  crossed  into  Persia,  and  from  there  found 
its  way  into  India  and  all  parts  of  Asia. 

It  is  also  claimed  that  wheat  is  indigenous  to 
the  island  of  Sicily,  and  that  from  there  it  spread 
along  the  shores  of  the  Mediterranean  into  Asia 
Minor  and  Egypt,  and,  as  communities  advanced, 
it  was  cultivated,  not  only  to  a  greater  extent,  but 
with  greater  success. 

The  goddess  of  agriculture,  more  especially  of 
grains,  who,  by  the  Grreeks,  was  called  Demeter, 
and,  by  the  Romans,  Ceres — hence  the  name  ce- 
reals— was  said  to  have  her  home  at  Euna,  a  fertile 
region  of  that  island,  thus  indicating  the  source 
from  which  the  Greeks  and  Romans  derived  their 
Ceralia.  Homer  mentions  wheat  and  spelt  as 
bread;  also  corn  and  barley,  and  describes  his 
heroes  as  using  them  as  fodder  for  their  horses,  as 
the  people  in  the  South  of  Europe  do  at  present. 
Rye  was  introduced  into  Greece  from  Thrace,  or 
by  way  of  Thrace,  in  the  time  of  Galen.  In 
Caesar's  time  the  Romans  grew  a  species  of  wheat 
enveloped  in  a  husk,  hke  barley,  and  by  them 
called  "Far." 

During  the  excavations  of  Herculaneum  and 
Pompeii,  wheat,  in  an  excellent  state  of  preserva- 
tion, was  frequently  found. 

Dr.  Anson  Hart,  Superintendent,  at  one  time,  of 
Indian  Affiiirs  in  Oregon,  states  that  he  found 
numerous  patches  of  wheat  and  flax  growing  wild 
in  the  Yackemas  country,  in  Upper  Oregon.  There 
is  but  little  doubt  that  both  cereals  were  intro- 
duced into  Oregon  at  an  early  period  by  the  Hud- 
son Bay,  or  other  fur  companies.     Wheat  was  also 





found  by  Dr.  Boyle,  of  Columbus,  Ohio,  growing 
in  a  similar  state  in  tbe  Carson  Valley.  It  was, 
doubtless,  brought  there  by  the  early  Spaniards. 
In  153(>,  one  of  Cortez's  slaves  found  several  grains 
of  wheat  accidentally  mixed  with  the  rice.  The 
careful  negro  planted  the  handful  of  grains,  and 
succeeding  years  saw  a  wheat  crop  in  Mexico, 
which  found  its  way  northward,  probably  into 

Turn  where  we  may,  wherever  the  foot  of  civil- 
ization has  trod,  there  will  we  find  this  wheat 
plant,  which,  like  a  monument,  has  perpetuated 
the  memory  of  the  event;  but  nowhere  do  we  find 
the  plant  wild.  It  is  the  result  of  cultivation  in 
bygone  ages,  and  has  been  produced  by  "progress- 
ive development." 

It  is  beyond  the  limit  and  province  of  these 
pages  to  discuss  the  composition  of  this  important 
cereal ;  only  its  historic  properties  can  be  noticed. 
With  the  advent  of  the  white  men  in  America, 
wheat,  like  corn,  came  to  be  one  of  the  staple  prod- 
ucts of  life.  It  followed  the  pioneer  over  the 
mountains  westward,  where,  in  the  rich  Missis- 
sippi and  Illinois  bottoms,  it  has  been  cultivated 
by  the  French  since  1690.  When  the  hardy  New 
Englanders  came  to  the  alluvial  lands  adjoining 
the  Ohio,  Muskingum  or  Miami  Kivers,  they 
brought  with  them  this  "staiF  of  life,"  and  forth- 
with began  its  cultivation.  Who  sowed  the  first 
wheat  in  Ohio,  is  a  question  Mr.  A.  S.  Guthrie 
answers,  in  a  letter  published  in  the  Agricultural 
Report  of  1857,  as  follows: 

"  My  father,  Thomas  Guthrie,  emigrated  to  the 
Northwest  Territory  in  the  year  1788,  and  arrived 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Muskingum  in  July,  about 
three  months  after  Gen.  Putnam  had  arrived  with 
the  first  pioneers  of  Ohio.  My  father  brought  a 
bushel  of  wheat  with  him  from  one  of  the  frontier 
counties  of  Pennsylvania,  which  he  sowed  on  a 
lot  of  land  in  Marietta,  which  he  cleared  for  that 
purpose,  on  the  second  bottom  or  plain,  in  the 
neighborhood  of  where  the  Court  House  now 

Mr.  Guthrie's  opinion  is  corroborated  by  Dr. 
Samuel  P.  Hildreth,  in  his  "  Pioneer  Settlers  of 
Ohio,"  and  is,  no  doubt,  correct. 

From  that  date  on  down  through  the  years  of 
Ohio's  growth,  the  crops  of  wheat  have  kept  pace 
with  the  advance  and  growth  of  civilization.  The 
soil  is  admirably  adapted  to  the  growth  of  this  ce- 
real, a  large  number  of  varieties  being  grown,  and 
an  excellent  quality  produced.  It  is  firm  in  body, 
and,  in  many  cases,  is  a  successful  rival  of  wheat 

produced  in  the  great  wheat-producing  regions  of 
the  United  States — Minnesota,  and  the  farther 

Oats,  rye,  barley,  and  other  grains  were  also 
brought  to  Ohio  from  the  Atlantic  Coast,  though 
some  of  them  had  been  cultivated  by  the  French 
in  Illinois  and  about  Detroit.  They  were  at  first 
used  only  as  food  for  home  consumption,  and,  until 
the  successful  attempts  at  river  and  canal  naviga- 
tion were  brought  about,  but  little  was  ever  sent 
to  market. 

Of  all  the  root  crops  known  to  man,  the  potato 
is  probably  the  most  valuable.  Next  to  wheat, 
it  is  claimed  by  many  as  the  staff  of  life.  In 
some  localities,  this  assumption  is  undoubtedly 
true.  What  would  Ireland  have  done  in  her  fam- 
ines but  for  this  simple  vegetable?  The  potato  is 
a  native  of  the  mountainous  districts  of  tropical 
and  subtropical  America,  probably  from  Chili  to 
Mexico ;  but  there  is  considerable  difficulty  in 
deciding  where  it  is  really  indigenous,  and  where 
it  has  spread  after  being  introduced  by  man. 
Humboldt,  the  learned  savant,  doubted  if  it  had 
ever  been  found  wild,  but  scholars  no  less  fiimous, 
and  of  late  date,  have  expressed  an  opposite 
opinion.  In  the  wild  plant,  as  in  all  others,  the 
tubers  are  smaller  than  in  the  cultivated.  The 
potato  had  been  cultivated  in  America,  and  its 
tubers  used  for  food,  long  before  the  advent  of  the 
Europeans.  It  seems  to  have  been  first  brought 
to  Europe  by  the  Spaniards,  from  the  neighbor- 
hood of  Quito,  in  the  4?eginning  of  the  sixteenth 
century,  and  spread  through  Spain,  the  Netherlands, 
Burgundy  and  Italy,  cultivated  in  gardens  as  an 
ornament  only  and  not  for  an  article  of  food. 
It  long  received  through  European  countries  the 
same  name  with  the  batatas — sweet  potato,  which 
is  the  plant  meant  by  all  English  writers  down  to 
the  seventeenth  century. 

It  appears  that  the  potato  was  brought  from 
Virginia  to  Ireland  by  Hawkins,  a  slave-trader, 
in  1565,  and  to  England  by  Sir  Francis  Drake, 
twenty  years  later.  It  did  not  at  first  attract  much 
notice,  and  not  until  it  was  a  third  time  imported 
from  America,  in  1623,  by  Sir  Walter  Raleigh, 
did  the  Europeans  make  a  practical  use  of  it. 
Even  then  it  was  a  long  time  before  it  was  exten- 
sively cultivated.  It  is  noticed  in  agricultural 
journals  as  food  for  cattle  only  as  late  as  1719. 
Poor  people  began  using  it,  however,  and  finding  it 
highly  nutritious,  the  Royal  Geographical  Society, 
in  1663,  adopted  measures  for  its  propagation. 
About  this  time  it  began  to  be  used  in  Ireland  as 





food,  aad  from  the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  cent- 
ury, its  use  hiis  never  declined.  It  is  now  known 
in  every  (juarter  of  the  world,  and  has,  by  cultiva- 
tion, been  greatly  improved. 

The  inhabitants  of  America  learned  its  use 
frorc.  the  Indians,  who  cultivated  it  and  other 
root  crops — rutabagas,  radishes,  etc.,  and  taught 
the  whites  their  value.  When  the  pioneers  of 
Ohio  came  to  its  fertile  valleys,  they  brought 
improved  species  with  them,  which  by  cultiva- 
tion and  soil,  are  now  greatly  increased,  and  are 
among  the  standard  crops  of  the  State. 

The  cucurbitaceous  plants,  squashes,  etc.,  were, 
like  the  potato  and  similar  root  crops,  indigenous 
to  America — others,  like  the  melons,  to  Asia — 
and  were  among  the  staple  foods  of  the  original 
inhabitants.  The  early  French  missionaries  of 
the  West  speak  of  both  root  crops  and  cucurbi- 
taceous plants  as  in  use  among  the  aboriginal  inhab- 
itants. "They  are  very  sweet  and  wholesome," 
wrote  Marquette.  Others  speak  in  the  same  terms, 
though  some  of  the  plants  in  this  order  had  found 
their  way  to  these  valleys  through  the  Spaniards 
and  others  through  early  Atlantic  Coast  and  Mex- 
ican inhabitants.  Their  use  by  the  settlers  of  the 
West,  especially  Ohio,  is  traced  to  New  England, 
as  the  first  settlers  came  from  that  portion  of  the 
Union.  They  grow  well  in  all  parts  of  the  State, 
and  by  cultivation  have  been  greatly  improved  in 
quality  and  variety.  All  cucurbitaceous  plants 
require  a  rich,  porous  soil,  and  by  proper  atten- 
tion to  their  cultivation,  excellent  results  can  be 

Probably  the  earliest  and  most  important  im])le- 
ment  of  husbandry  known  is  the  plow.  Grain, 
plants  and  roots  will  not  grow  well  unless  the  soil 
in  which  they  are  planted  be  properly  stirred, 
hence  the  first  requirement  was  an  instrument  that 
would  fulfill  such  conditions. 

The  first  implements  were  rude  indeed  ;  gener- 
ally, stout  wooden  sticks,  drawn  through  the  earth 
by  thongs  attached  to  rude  ox-yokes,  or  fastened 
to  the  animal's  horns.  Such  plows  were  in  use 
among  the  ancient  Egyptians,  and  may  yet  be 
found  among  uncivilized  nations.  The  Old  Testa- 
ment furnishes  numerous  instances  of  the  use  of 
the  plow,  while,  on  the  ruins  of  ancient  cities  and 
among  the  pyramids  of  Egypt,  and  on  the  buried 
walls  of  Babylon,  and  other  extinct  cities,  are  rude 
drawings  of  this  useful  implement.  As  the  use 
of  iron  became  apparent  and  general,  it  was  util- 
ized for  plow-points,  where  the  wood  alone  would 
not  penetrate   the  earth.     They  got   their  plow- 

shares sharpened  in  Old  Testament  days,  also 
coulters,  which  shows,  beyond  a  doubt,  that  iron- 
pointed  plows  were  then  in  use.  From  times 
mentioned  in  the  Bible,  on  heathen  tombs,  and 
ancient  catacombs,  the  improvement  of  the  plow, 
like  other  farming  tools,  went  on,  as  the  race  of 
man  grew  in  intelligence.  Extensive  manors  in 
the  old  country  required  increased  means  of  turning 
the  ground,  and,  to  meet  these  demands,  ingenious 
mechanics,  from  time  to  time,  invented  inqjroved 
plows.  Strange  to  say,  however,  no  improvement 
was  ever  made  by  the  farmer  himself  This  is  ac- 
counted for  in  his  habits  of  life,  and,  too  often, 
the  disposition  to  "take  things  as  they  are."  When 
America  was  settled,  the  plow  had  become  an  im- 
plement capable  of  turning  two  or  three  acres  per 
day.  Still,  and  for  many  years,  and  even  until 
lately,  the  mold-board  was  entirely  wooden,  the 
point  only  iron.  Later  developments  changed  the 
wood  for  steel,  which  now  alone  is  used.  Still 
later,  especially  in  prairie  States,  riding  plows  are 
used.  Like  all  other  improvements,  they  were 
obliged  to  combat  an  obtuse  public  mind  among 
the  ruralists,  who  surely  combat  almost  every 
move  made  to  better  their  condition.  In  many 
places  in  America,  wooden  plows,  straight  ax 
handles,  and  a  stone  in  one  end  of  the  bag,  to  bal- 
ance the  grist  in  the  other,  are  the  rule,  and  for  no 
other  reason  ui  the  world  are  they  maintained  than 
the  laconic  answer: 

"  My  father  did  so,  and  why  should  not  I?  Am 
I  better  than  he?  " 

After  the  plow  comes  the  harrow,  but  little 
changed,  save  in  lightness  and  beauty.  Formerly, 
a  log  of  wood,  or  a  brush  harrow,  supplied  its 
place,  but  in  the  State  of  Ohio,  the  toothed  instru- 
ment has  nearly  always  been  used. 

The  hoe  is  lighter  made  than  formerly,  and  is 
now  made  of  steel.  At  first,  the  common  iron 
hoe,  sharpened  by  the  blacksmith,  was  in  constant 
use.  Now,  it  is  rarely  seen  outside  of  the  South- 
ern States,  where  it  has  long  been  the  chief  imple- 
ment in  agriculture. 

The  various  small  plows  for  the  cultivation  of 
corn  and  such  other  crops  as  necessitated  their  use 
are  all  the  result  of  modern  civilization.  Now, 
their  number  is  large,  and,  in  many  places,  there 
are  two  or  more  attached  to  one  carriage,  whose 
operator  rides.  These  kinds  are  much  used  in  the 
Western  States,  whose  rootless  and  stoneless  soil  is 
admirably  adapted  to  such  machinery. 

When  the  grain  became  ripe,  implements  to  cut 
it  were  in   demand.     In   ancient  times,  the  sickle 




was  the  only  instrument  used.  It  was  a  short, 
curved  iron,  whose  inner  edge  was  sharpened  and 
serrated.  In  its  most  ancient  form,  it  is  doubtful 
if  the  edge  was  but  little,  if  any,  serrated.  It  is 
mentioned  in  all  ancient  works,  and  in  the  Bible  is 
frequently  I'eferred  to. 

"  Thrust  in  the  sickle,  for  the  harvest  is 
ripe,"  wrote  the  sacred  New  Testament,  while 
the  Old  chronicles  as  early  as  the  time  of  Moses : 
"As  thou  beginnest  to  put  the  sickle  to  the 

In  more  modern  times,  the  handle  of  the  sickle 
was  lengthened,  then  the  blade,  which  in  time  led 
to  the  scythe.  Both  are  yet  in  use  in  many  parts 
of  the  world.  The  use  of  the  scythe  led  some 
thinking  person  to  add  a  "  finger  "  or  two,  and  to 
change  the  shape  of  the  handle.  The  old  cradle 
was  the  result.  At  first  it  met  considerable  oppo- 
sition from  the  laborers,  who  brought  forward  the 
old-time  argument  of  ignorance,  that  it  would 
cheapen  labor. 

Whether  the  cradle  is  a  native  of  America  or 
Europe  is  not  accurately  decided;  probably  of  the 
mother  country.  It  came  into  common  use  about 
1818,  and  in  a  few  years  had  found  its  way  into 
the  wheat-producing  regions  of  the  West.  Where 
small  crops  are  raised,  the  cradle  is  yet  much  used. 
A  man  can  cut  from  two  to  four  acres  per  day, 
hence,  it  is  much  cheaper  than  a  reaper,  where  the 
crop  is  small. 

The  mower  and  reaper  are  comparatively  mod- 
ern inventions.  A  rude  reaping  machine  is  men- 
tioned by  Pliny  in  the  first  century.  It  was  pushed 
by  an  ox  through  the  standing  grain.  On  its 
front  was  a  sharp  edge,  which  cut  the  grain.  It 
was,  however,  impracticable,  as  it  cut  only  a  por- 
tion of  the  grain,  and  the  peasantry  preferred  the 
sickle.  Other  and  later  attempts  to  make  reapers 
do  not  seem  to  have  been  successful,  and  not  till 
the  present  century  was  a  machine  made  that  would 
do  the  work  required.  In  1826,  Mr.  Bell,  of 
Scotland,  constructed  a  machine  which  is  yet  used 
in  many  parts  of  that  country.  In  America,  Mr. 
Hussey  and  Mr.  McCormick  took  out  patents  for 
reaping  machines  of  superior  character  in  1833 
and  1834.  At  first  the  cutters  of  these  machines 
were  various  contrivances,  but  both  manufacturers 
soon  adopted  a  serrated  knife,  triangular  shaped,  at- 
tached to  a  bar,  and  driven  through  "  finger 
guards  "  attached  to  it,  by  a  forward  and  backward 
motion.  These  are  the  common  ones  now  in  use, 
save  that  all  do  not  use  serrated  knives.  Sincf 
these  pioneer  machines  were  introduced  into   the 

harvest  fields  they  have  been  greatly  improved  and 
changed.  Of  late  years  they  have  been  constructed 
so  as  to  bind  the  sheaves,  and  now  a  good  stout 
boy,  and  a  team  with  a  "  harvester,"  will  do  as 
much  as  many  men  could  do  a  few  years  ago,  and 
with  much  greater  ease. 

As  was  expected  by  the  inventors  of  reapers, 
they  met  with  a  determined  resistance  from  those 
who  in  former  times  made  their  living  by  harvest- 
ing. It  was  again  absurdly  argued  that  they  would 
cheapen  labor,  and  hence  were  an  injury  to  the 
laboring  man.  Indeed,  when  the  first  machines 
were  brought  into  Ohio,  many  of  them  were  torn 
to  pieces  by  the  ignorant  hands.  Others  left  fields 
in  a  body  when  the  proprietor  brought  a  reaper  to 
his  farm.  Like  all  such  fallacies,  these,  in  time, 
passed  away,  leaving  only  their  stain. 

Following  the  reaper  came  the  thresher.  As 
the  country  filled  with  inhabitants,  and  men  in- 
creased their  possessions,  more  rapid  means  than 
the  old  flail  or  roller  method  were  demanded.  At 
first  the  grain  was  trodden  out  by  horses  driven  over 
the  bundles,  which  were  laid  in  a  circular  inclosure. 
The  old  flail,  the  tramping-out  by  horses,  and  the 
cleaning  by  the  sheet,  or  throwing  the  grain  up 
against  a  current  of  air,  were  too  slow,  and 
machines  were  the  result  of  the  demand.  In  Ohio 
the  manufacture  of  threshers  began  in  1846,  in 
the  southwestern  part.  Isaac  Tobias,  who  came 
to  Hamilton  from  Miamisburg  that  year,  com- 
menced building  the  threshers  then  in  use.  They 
were  without  the  cleaning  attachment,  and  simply 
hulled  the  grain.  Two  years  later,  he  began 
manufficturing  the  combined  thresher  and  cleaner, 
which  were  then  coming  into  use.  He  continued 
in  business  till  1851.  Four  years  after,  the  in- 
creased demand  for  such  machines,  consequent 
upon  the  increased  agricultural  products,  induced 
the  firm  of  Owens,  Lane  &  Dyer  to  fit  their  estab- 
lishment for  the  manufacture  of  threshers.  They 
afterward  added  the  manufacture  of  steam  engines 
to  be  used  in  the  place  of  horse  power.  Since 
then  the  manufacture  of  these  machines,  as  well  as 
that  of  all  other  agricultural  machinery,  has  greatly 
multiplied  and  improved,  until  now  it  seems  as 
though  but  little  room  for  improvement  remains. 
One  of  the  largest  firms  engaged  in  the  manufact- 
ure of  threshers  and  their  component  machinery  is 
located  at  Mansfield — the  Aultman  &  Taylor 
Co.  Others  are  at  Massillon,  and  at  other  cities 
in  the  West. 
I  Modern  times  and  modern  enterprise  have  devel- 
I  oped  a  marvelous  variety  of  agricultural  implements 




— too  many  to  be  mentioned  in  a  volume  like 
this.  Under  special  subjects  they  will  occasionally 
be  found.  The  farmer's  life,  so  cheerless  in  pioneer 
times,  and  so  full  of  weary  labor,  is  daily  becom- 
ing less  laborious,  until,  if  they  as  a  class  profit 
by  the  advances,  they  can  find  a  life  of  ease 
in  farm  pursuits,  not  attainable  in  any  other 
profession.  Now  machines  do  almost  all  the  work. 
They  sow,  cultivate,  cut,  bind,  thresh,  winnow 
and  carry  the  grain.  They,  cut,  rake,  load,  mow 
and  dry  the  hay.  They  husk,  shell  and  clean  the 
corn.  They  cut  and  split  the  wood.  They  do  al- 
most all ;  until  it  seems  as  though  the  day  may 
come  when  the  farmer  can  sit  in  his  house  and 
simply  guide  the  affairs  of  his  farm. 

Any  occupation  prospers  in  proportion  to  the 
interest  taken  in  it  by  its  members.  This  interest 
is  always  heightened  by  an  exchange  of  views,  hence 
societies  and  periodicals  exercise  an  influence  at 
first  hardy  realized.  This  feeling  among  prominent 
agriculturists  led  to  the  formation  of  agricultural 
societies,  at  first  by  counties,  then  districts,  then 
by  States,  and  lastly  by  associations  of  States. 
The  day  may  come  when  a  national  agricul- 
tural fair  may  be  one  of  the  annual  attractions  of 

Without  noticing  the  early  attempts  to  found 
such  societies  in  Europe  or  America,  the  narrative 
will  begin  with  those  of  Ohio.  The  first  agricul- 
tural society  oi'ganized  in  the  Buckeye  State  was 
the  Hamilton  County  Agricultural  Society.  Its 
exact  date  of  organization  is  not  now  preserved, 
but  to  a  certainty  it  is  known  that  the  Society  held 
public  exhibitions  as  a  County  Society  prior  to 
1823.  Previous  to  that  date  there  were,  doubt- 
less, small,  private  exhibitions  held  in  older  local- 
ities, probably  at  Marietta,  but  no  regular  organi- 
zation seems  to  have  been  maintained.  The 
Hamilton  County  Society  held  its  fairs  annually, 
with  marked  success.  Its  successor,  the  present 
Society,  is  now  one  of  the  largest  county  societies 
in  the  Union. 

During  the  legislative  session  of  1832— .33,  the 
subject  of  agriculture  seems  to  have  agitated  the 
minds  of  the  people  through  their  representatives, 
for  the  records  of  that  session  show  the  first  laws 
passed  for  their  benefit.  The  acts  of  that  body 
seem  to  have  been  productive  of  some  good,  for, 
though  no  records  of  the  number  of  societies  or- 
ganized at  that  date  exist,  yet  the  record  shows 
that  "  many  societies  have  been  organized  in  con- 
formity to  this  act,"  etc.  No  doubt  many  societies 
held  fairs  from   this  time,   for  a  greater  or  less 

number  of  years.  Agricultural  journals*  were, 
at  this  period,  rare  in  the  State,  and  the  subject  of 
agricultural  improvement  did  not  receive  that  at- 
tention from  the  press  it  does  at  this  time ;  and, 
for  want  of  public  spirit  and  attention  to  sustain 
these  fairs,  they  were  gradually  discontinued  until 
the  new  act  respecting  their  organization  wa.s 
passed  in  184G.  However,  records  of  several 
county  societies  of  the  years  between  1832  and 
1846  yet  exist,  showing  that  in  some  parts  of  the 
State,  the  interest  in  these  fairs  was  by  no  means 
diminished.  The  Delaware  County  Society  re- 
ports for  the  year  1833 — it  was  organized  in  June 
of  that  year — good  progress  for  a  beginning,  and 
that  much  interest  was  manifested  by  the  citizens 
of  the  county. 

Ross  County  held  its  first  exhibition  in  the 
autumn  of  that  year,  and  the  report  of  the  mana- 
gers is  quite  cheerful.  Nearly  all  of  the  exhibited 
articles  were  sold  at  auction,  at  greatly  advanced 
prices  from  the  current  ones  of  the  day.  The  en- 
try seems  to  have  been  ft-ee,  in  an  open  inclosure, 
and  but  little  revenue  was  derived.  Little  was  ex- 
pected, hence  no  one  was  disappointed. 

Washington  County  reports  an  excellent  cattle 
show  for  that  year,  and  a  number  of  premiums 
awarded  to  the  successful  exhibitors.  This  same 
year  the  Ohio  Importation  Company  was  organ- 
ized at  the  Ross  County  fair.  The  Company  began 
the  next  season  the  importation  of  fine  cattle  from 
England,  and,  in  a  few  years,  did  incalculable  good 
in  this  respect,  as  well  as  make  considerable  money 
in  the  enterprise. 

These  societies  were  re-organized  when  the  law 
of  1846  went  into  eff"ect,  and,  with  those  that  had 
gone  down  and  the  new  ones  started,  gave  an  im- 
petus to  agriculture  that  to  this  day  is  felt.  Now 
every  county  Iuls  a  society,  while  district.  State 
and  inter-State  societies  are  annually  held;  all 
promotive  in  their  tendency,  and  all  a  benefit  to 
every  one. 

The  Ohio  State  Board  of  Agriculture  was  organ- 
ized by  an  act  of  the  Legislature,  passed  February 
27,  1846.  Since  then  various  amendments  to  the 
organic  law  have  been  passed  from  time  to  time  as 

*The  Western  TiVJerwas  published  in  Cincinnati,  in  1826.  It  was 
"miscellaneous,"  but  cuutaiued  many  excellent  articles  on  agri- 

The  Farmers'  Record  was  published  in  Cincinnati,  in  1831,  and 
continued  for  several  years 

The  Ohio  Fanner  was  piitilished  at  Batavia,  Clermont  County,  in 
1833,  by  Hon.  Samuel  Medary. 

These  were  the  early  agricultural  journals,  some  of  which  yet 
suri'ive,  though  in  new  name8,and  under  new  management.  Others 
have,  also,  since  been  added,  some  of  which  havH  an  exceedingly 
large  circulation,  and  are  an  influence  for  much  good  in  the  State. 




the  necessities  of  the  Board  and  of  agriculture  in 
the  State  demanded.  The  same  day  that  the  act 
was  passed  creating  the  State  Board,  an  act  was 
also  passed  providing  for  the  erection  of  county  and 
district  societies,  under  which  law,  with  subsequent 
amendments,  the  present  county  and  district  agri- 
cultural societies  are  managed.  During  the  years 
from  1 846  down  to  the  present  time,  great  improve- 
ments have  been  made  in  the  manner  of  conduct- 
ing these  societies,  resulting  in  exhibitions  unsur- 
passed in  any  other  State. 

Pomology  and  horticulture  are  branches  of  in- 
dustry so  closely  allied  with  agriculture  that  a 
brief  resume  of  their  operations  in  Ohio  will  be 
eminently  adapted  to  these  pages.  The  early 
planting  and  care  of  fruit  in  Ohio  has  already  been 
noticed.  Among  the  earliest  pioneers  were  men  of 
fine  tastes,  who  not  only  desired  to  benefit  them- 
selves and  their  country,  but  who  were  possessed 
with  a  laudable  ambition  to  produce  the  best  fruits 
and  vegetables  the  State  could  raise.  For  this  end 
they  studied  carefully  the  topography  of  the  coun- 
try, its  soil,  climate,  and  various  influences  upon 
such  culture,  and  by  careful  experiments  with  fruit 
and  vegetables,  produced  the  excellent  varieties  now 
in  use.  Mention  has  been  made  of  Mr.  Longworth 
and  Mr.  Ernst,  of  Cincinnati ;  and  Israel  and  Aaron 
W.  Putnam,  on  the  Muskingum  River  ;  Mr.  Dille, 

Judges  Fuller  and  Whittlesey,  Dr.  Jared  Kirtland 
and  his  sons,  and  others — all  practical  enthusiasts  in 
these  departments.  At  first,  individual  efforts  alone, 
owing  to  the  condition  of  the  country,  could  be 
made.  As  the  State  filled  with  settlers,  and  means 
of  communication  became  better,  a  desire  for  an  in- 
terchange of  views  became  apparent,  resulting  in 
the  establishment  of  periodicals  devoted  to  these 
subjects,  and  societies  where  diflFerent  ones  could 
meet  and  discuss  these  things. 

A  Horticultural  and  Pomological  Society  was 
organized  in  Ohio  in  1866.  Before  the  organiza- 
tion of  State  societies,  however,  several  distinct  or 
independent  societies  existed  ;  in  fact,  out  of  these 
grew  the  State  Society,  which  in  turn  produced 
good  by  stimulating  the  creation  of  county  societies. 
All  these  societies,  aids  to  agriculture,  have  pro- 
gressed as  the  State  developed,  and  have  done  much 
in  advancing  fine  fruit,  and  a  taste  for  aesthetic  cul- 
ture. In  all  parts  of  the  West,  their  influence  is 
seen  in  better  and  improved  fruit ;  its  culture  and 
its  demand. 

To-day,  Ohio  stands  in  the  van  of  the  Western 
States  in  agriculture  and  all  its  kindred  associa- 
tions. It  only  needs  the  active  energy  of  her 
citizens  to  keep  her  in  this  place,  advancing 
as  time  advances,  until  the  goal  of  her  ambition  is 





THE  climate  of  Ohio  varies  about  four  degrees. 
Though  originally  liable  to  malaria  in  many 
districts  when  first  settled,  in  consequence  of  a 
dense  vegetation  induced  by  summer  heats  and 
rains,  it  has  became  very  healthful,  owing  to  clear- 
ing away  this  vegetation,  and  proper  drainage. 
The  State  is  as  favorable  in  its  sanitary  char- 
acteristics as  any  other  in  its  locality.  Ohio  is  re- 
markable for  its  high  productive  capacity,  almost 
every  thing  grown  in  the  temperate  climates  being 
within  its  range.  Its  extremes  of  heat  and  cold 
are  less  than  almost  any  other  State  in  or  near  the 
same  latitude,  hence  Ohio  suffers  less  from  the  ex- 
treme dry  or  wet  seasons  which  affect  all  adjoining 
States.  These  modifications  are  mainly  due  to  the 
influence   of  the    Lake  Erie  waters.     These  not 

only  modify  the  heat  of  summer  and  the  cold  of 
winter,  but  apparently  reduce  the  profusion  of 
rainfall  in  summer,  and  favor  moisture  in  dry  pe- 
riods. No  finer  climate  exists,  all  conditions  consid- 
ered, for  delicate  vegetable  growths,  than  that  por- 
tion of  Ohio  bordering  on  Lake  Erie.  This  is 
abundantly  attested  by  the  recent  extensive  devel- 
opment there  of  grape  culture. 

Mr.  Lorin  Blodget,  author  of  "American  Clima- 
tology," in  the  agricultural  report  of  1853,  says; 
"A  district  bordering  on  the  Southern  and  West- 
ern portions  of  Lake  Erie  is  more  favorable  in  this 
respect  (grape  cultivation )  than  any  other  on  the 
Atlantic  side  of  the  Rocky  Mountains,  and  it  will 
ultimately  prove  capable  of  a  very  liberal  extension 
of  vine  culture." 



HISTOKY    or    OHIO. 

Experience  has  proven  Mr.  Blodget  correct  in 
his  theory.  Now  extensive  fields  of  grapes  are 
everywhere  found  on  the  Lake  Erie  Slope,  while 
other  small  fruits  find  a  sure  footing  on  its  soil. 

"  Considering  the  climate  of  Ohio  by  isother- 
mal lines  and  rain  shadings,  it  must  be  borne  in 
mind,"  says  Mr.  Blodget,  in  his  description  of 
Ohio's  climate,  from  which  these  ficts  are  drawn, 
"  that  local  influences  often  requii'e  to  be  considered. 
At  the  South,  from  Cincinnati  to  Steubenville,  the 
deep  river  valleys  are  two  degrees  warmer  than  the 
hilly  districts  of  the  same  vicinity.  The  lines  are 
drawn  intermediate  between  the  two  extremes. 
Thus,  Cincinnati,  on  the  plain,  is  2°  warmer  than 
at  the  Observatory,  and  4°  warmer  for  each  year 
than  Hillsboro,  Highland  County — the  one  being 
5U0,  the  other  1,000,  feet  above  sea-level.  The 
immediate  valley  of  the  Ohio,  from  Cincinnati  to 
Gallipolis,  is  about  75°  for  the  summer,  and  54° 
for  the  year;  while  the  adjacent  hilly  districts, 
800  to  500  feet  higher,  are  not  above  73°  and  52° 
respectively.  For  the  summer,  generally,  the 
river  valleys  are  73°  to  75°  ;  the  level  and  central 
portions  72°  to  73°,  and  the  lake  border  70°  to 
72°.  A  peculiar  mildness  of  climate  belongs  to 
the  vicinity  of  Kelley's  Island,  Sandusky  and 
Toledo.  Here,  both  winter  and  summer,  the  cli- 
mate is  2°  warmer  than  on  the  highland  ridge  ex- 
tending from  Norwalk  and  Oberlin  to  Hudson  and 
the  northeastern  border.  This  ridge  varies  from 
500  to  750  feet  above  the  lake,  or  850  to  1,200 
feet  above  sea  level.  This  high  belt  has  a  summer 
temperature  of  70°,  27°  for  the  winter,  and  49° 
for  the  year ;  while  at  Sandusky  and  Kelley's 
Island  the  summer  is  72°,  the  winter  29°,  and  the 
year  50°.  In  the  central  and  eastern  parts  of 
the  State,  the  winters  are  comparatively  cold,  the 
average  falling  to  32°  over  the  more  level  districts, 
and  to  29°  on  the  highlands.  The  Ohio  Kiver 
valley  is  about  35°,  but  the  highlands  near  it  fall 
to  31°  and  32°  for  the  winter." 

As  early  as  1824,  several  persons  in  the  State 
began  taking  the  temperature  in  tlieir  respective 
localities,  for  the  spring,  summer,  autumn  and  win- 
ter, averaging  them  for  the  entire  year.  From  time 
to  time,  these  were  gathered  and  published,  inducing 
others  to  take  a  step  in  the  same  direction.  Not 
long  since,  a  general  table,  from  about  forty  local- 

ities, was  gathered  and  compiled,  covering  a  period 
of  more  than  a  quarter  of  a  century.  This  table, 
when  averaged,  showed  an  average  temperature  of 
52.4°,  an  evenness  of  temperature  not  equaled 
in  many  bordering  States. 

Very  imperfect  observations  have  been  made 
of  the  amount  of  rainfall  in  the  State.  Until 
lately,  only  an  individual  here  and  there  through- 
out the  State  took  enough  interest  in  this  matter 
to  faithfully  observe  and  record  the  averages  of 
several  years  in  succession.  In  consequence  of 
this  fact,  the  illustration  of  that  feature  of  Ohio's 
climate  is  less  satisfactory  than  that  of  the 
temperature.  "The  actual  rainfall  of  different 
months  and  years  varies  greatly,"  says  Mr.  Blod- 
get. "There  may  be  more  in  a  month,  and, 
again,  the  quantity  may  rise  to  12  or  15  inches 
in  a  single  month.  For  a  year,  the  variation  may 
be  from  a  minimum  of  22  or  25  inches,  to  a  maxi- 
mum of  50  or  even  60  inches  in  the  southern  part 
of  the  State,  and  45  to  48  inches  along  the  lake 
border.  The  average  is  a  fixed  quantity,  and, 
although  requiring  a  period  of  twenty  or  twenty- 
five  years  to  fix  it  absolutely,  it  is  entirely  certain 
and  unchangeable  when  known.  On  charts,  these 
average  quantities  are  represented  by  depths 
of  shading.  At  Cincinnati,  the  last  fifteen  years 
of  observation  somewhat  reduce  the  average  of 
48  inches,  of  former  years,  to  46  or  47  inches." 

Spring  and  summer  generally  give  the  most  rain, 
there  being,  in  general,  10  to  12  inches  in  the 
spring,  10  to  14  inches  in  the  summer,  and  8  to 
10  inches  in  the  autumn.  The  winter  is  the  most 
variable  of  all  the  seasons,  the  southern  part  of 
the  State  having  10  inches,  and  the  northern  part 
7  inches  or  less — an  average  of  8  or  9  inches. 

The  charts  of  rainfall,  compiled  for  the  State, 
show  a  fall  of  30  inches  on  the  lake,  and  46  inches 
at  the  Ohio  River.  Between  these  two  points,  the 
fall  is  marked,  beginning  at  the  north,  32,  34,  36 
and  38  inches,  all  near  the  lake.  Farther  down, 
in  the  latitude  of  Tuscarawas,  Monroe  and  Mercer 
Counties,  the  fall  is  40  inches,  while  the  south- 
western part  is  42  and  44  inches. 

The  clearing  away  of  forests,  the  drainage  of 
the  land,  and  other  causes,  have  lessened  the  rain- 
fall, making  considerable  difference  since  the  days 
of  the  aborioines. 








TO  the  inexperienced  student  of  the  history  of 
Ohio,  nothing  is  more  perplexing  and  un- 
satisfactory, than  the  account  of  its  pubUc  lands. 
Held  theoretically  by  the  conflicting  claims  of  col- 
onies, each  jealous  of  the  other's  prestige,  and  prac- 
tically controlled  by  the  determined  assertion  of  his 
cLiim  by  the  Indian,  its  territory  came  under  the 
acknowledged  control  of  the  General  Government 
in  a  fragmentary  way,  and  in  the  early  surveys  it 
lacks  that  regular  arrangement  which  marks  the 
larger  part  of  the  old  Northwestern  Territory.  But, 
to  the  early  colonist,  Ohio  was  the  land  of  promise. 
The  reports  of  the  early  explorers  who  had  been 
sent  to  spy  out  the  land  were  such  as  to  stimulate 
the  rapacity  of  greedy  adventurers  to  the  highest 
pitch,  and  Ohio  became  at  once  the  center  of  at- 
traction, not  only  to  that  class,  but  also  to  the  pio- 
neer settlements  of  the  East.  The  spirit  of  land 
speculation  was  fostered  by  the  system  of  royal 
charters  and  favoritism,  and  colonial  officials  were 
rapidly  acquiring  titles  to  large  tracts  of  the  fertile 
lands  of  the  Northwest.  Lord  Dunmore,  who  rep- 
resented the  crown  in  Virginia,  had  made  arrange- 
ments to  secure  a  large  portion  of  this  territory, 
which  were  only  frustrated  by  the  precipitation  of 
the  Revolutionary  struggle.  In  all  these  operations 
the  rights  or  interests  of  the  Indians  were  ignored. 
Might  was  the  measure  of  the  white  man's  right, 
and,  in  the  face  of  formal  treaties  very  favorable  to 
the  whites,  the  lands  reserved  to  the  natives  were 
shamelessly  bought  and  sold.  Titles  thus  secured 
were  obviously  of  no  value  if  the  integrity  of  sol- 
emn treaties  were  to  be  respected,  but,  so  generally 
had  the  public  mind  been  corrupted  by  the  greed 
for  gain,  that  this  consideration  offered  no  hindrance 
whatever  to  this  sort  of  traffic  in  land  titles.  In 
1776,  however,  the  colonies  having  renounced 
their  allegiance  to  the  mother  country,  and  having 
assumed  a  position  as  sovereign  and  independent 
States,  a  summary  end  was  put  to  this  speculation, 
and  all  persons  were  forbidden  to  locate  in  this  ter- 
ritory, until  its  ownership  and  jurisdiction  should 

♦Compiled  from  Howe's  Historical   rollpctions  of  Ohio,  and  a 
pamphlet  by  Judge  W.  W.  Boynton,  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Ohio. 

be  determined.  Each  State  claimed  the  right  of 
soil,  the  jurisdiction  over  the  district  of  country 
embraced  by  the  provisions  of  its  charter,  and  the 
privilege  of  disposing  of  the  land  to  subserve  its 
own  interests.  The  States,  on  the  contrary,  which 
had  no  such  charter,  insisted  that  that  these  lands 
ought  to  be  appropriated  for  the  benefit  of  all  the 
States,  as  the  title  to  them,  if  secured  at  all,  would 
be  by  the  expenditure  of  the  blood  and  moneys  of 
all  alike.  The  treaty  of  peace  with  England  was 
signed  at  Paris,  September  3,  1783,  and  Congress 
at  once  became  urgent  in  seconding  this  demand  of 
the  non  charter-holding  States.  Under  the  char- 
ters held  by  the  individual  State,  the  General  Gov- 
ernment was  powerless  to  fulfill  its  agreement  with 
the  troops,  to  grant  land  to  each  soldier  of  the 
war,  and  the  general  dissatisfaction  occasioned  by 
this  state  of  things,  formed  a  powerful  influence 
which  finally  brought  about  a  general  cession  of 
these  unappropriated  lands,  held  by  the  different 
States.  In  March,  1784,  Virginia  ceded  her  terri- 
tory situated  northwest  of  the  River  Ohio,  reserving 
the  tract  now  known  as  the  Virginia  Military 
Lands.  In  1786,  Connecticut  ceded  her  territory, 
save  the  "  Western  Reserve ;"  reserved  cessions 
were  made  by  Massachusetts  in  1785,  and  by  New 
York  in  1780. 

When  Ohio  was  admitted  into  the  Federal 
Union  in  184)3,  as  an  independent  State,  one  of  the 
terms  of  admission  was,  that  the  fee  simple  to  all 
the  lands  within  its  limits,  excepting  those  pre- 
viously granted  or  sold,  should  vest  in  the  Ignited 
States.  A  large  portion  of  the  State,  however,  had 
been  granted  or  sold  to  various  individuals,  compa- 
nies and  bodies  politic  before  this,  and  subsequent 
dispositions  of  Ohio  public  lands  have  generally 
been  in  aid  of  some  public  State  enterprise.  The 
following  are  the  names  by  which  the  principal 
bodies  of  land  are  designated,  taking  their  titles 
from  the  different  forms  of  transfer: 

1.  Congress  Lands. 

2.  United  States  Military  Lands. 

3.  Ohio  Company's  Purchase. 

4.  Donation  Tract. 





5.  Symmes'  Purvliase. 

6.  Refugee  Tract. 

7.  French  Grant. 

8.  Dohrman's  Grrant. 

9.  Moravian  Lands. 

10.  Zane's  Grant. 

11.  Maumee  Road  Lands. 

12.  Turnpike  Lands. 

13.  Ohio  Canal  Lands. 

14.  School  Lands. 

15.  College  Lands. 

16.  Ministerial  Lands. 

17.  Salt  Sections. 

18.  Virginia  Military  Lands. 

19.  Western  Reserve. 

20.  Fire  Lands. 

These  grants,  however,  may  properly  be  di- 
vided into  three  general  classes — Congress  Lands, 
the  Virginia  Reserve  and  the  Connecticut  Reserve  ; 
the  former  including  all  lands  of  the  State,  not 
known  as  the  Virginia  Military  Land  or  the 
W(, stern  Reserve.  Previous  to  any  grants  of  this 
territory,  the  Indian  title  had  to  be  acquired.  Al- 
though the  United  States  has  succeeded  to  the 
rights  acquired  by  the  English  from  the  Iroquois, 
there  were  numerous  tribes  that  disputed  the  right 
of  the  dominant  nation  to  cede  this  territory,  and  a 
treaty  was  accordingly  made  at  Fort  Stanwix,  in 
1784,  and  in  the  following  year  at  Fort  Mcin- 
tosh, by  which  the  Indians  granted  all  east  of  a 
line  drawn  from  the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga 
River  to  the  Ohio,  and  all  south  of  what  subse- 
quently became  known  as  the  Greenville  Treaty 
line,  or  Indian  boundary  line.  By  this  treaty,  this 
line  extended  from  the  Portage,  between  the  Cuya- 
hoga and  the  Tuscarawas  Branch  of  the  Muskingum, 
"  thence  down  that  branch,  to  the  crossing  above 
Fort  Laurens,  then  westerly  to  the  Portage  of  the 
Big  Miami,  which  runs  into  the  Ohio,  at  the 
mouth  of  which  the  fort  stood,  which  was  taken 
by  the  French  in  1752;  thence  along  said  Portage 
to  the  Great  Miami,  or  Omee  River,"  whence 
the  line  was  extended  westward,  by  the  treaty  of 
Greenville,  in  1705,  to  Fort  Recovery,  and  thence 
southwest  to  the  mouth  of  the  Kentucky  River. 

Congress  Lands  are  so  called  they  are 
sold  to  purchasers  by  the  immediate  officers  of  the 
General  Government,  conformably  to  such  laws  as 
are,  or  may  be,  from  time  to  time,  enacted  by 
Congress.  They  are  all  regularly  surveyed  into 
townships  of  six  miles  square  each,  under  the  au- 
thority and  at  the  expense  of  the  National  Govern- 

ment.    All  these  lands,  except  Marietta  and  a  part 
of  Steubenville  districts,  are  numbered  as  follows  : 



































The  seven  Ranges,  Ohio  Company's  Purchase, 
and  Symmes'  Purchase  are  numbered  as  here  ex- 
hibited : 





































The  townships  are  again  subdivided  into  sec- 
tions of  one  mile  square,  each-  containing  640  acres, 
by  lines  running  parallel  with  the  township  and 
range  lines.  The  sections  are  numbered  in  two 
different  modes,  as  exhibited  in  the  preceding  fig- 
ures or  diagrams. 

In  addition  to  the  foregoing  division,  the  sec- 
tions are  again  subdivided  into  four  equal  parts, 
called  the  northeast  quarter-section,  southeast 
quarter  section,  etc.  And  again  by  a  law  of  Con- 
gress, which  went  into  effect  July,  1820,  these 
quarter-sections  are  also  divided  by  a  north-and- 






30  4 





south  line  into  two  equal  parts,  called  the  east  half 
quarter-section  No.  — ,  and  west  half  quarler-sec- 
tion  No.  — ,  which  contain  eighty  acres  each.  The 
minimum  price  was  reduced  by  the  same  law  from 
$2  to  $1.25  per  acre,  cash  down. 

In  establishing  the  township  and  sectional  cor- 
ners, a  post  was  first  planted  at  the  point  of  inter- 
section ;  then  on  the  tree  nearest  the  post,  and 
standing  within  the  section  intended  to  be  desig- 
nated, was  numbered  with  the  marking  iron  the 
range,  township,  and  number  of  the  section,  thus : 

R  21  R  20 

T     4  T    4 

1  S  31  The  quarter  corners  are  marked 
—  1 — 4  south,  merely. 

2R  20 

T     3 

S     6 

Section  No.  16  of  every  township  is  perpet- 
ually reserved  for  the  use  of  sclools,  and  leased  or 
sold  out,  for  the  benefit  ot  schools,  under  the  State 
government.  All  the  others  may  be  taken  up 
either  in  sections,  fractions,  halves,  quarters,  or 

For  the  purpose  of  selling  out  these  lands,  they 
were  divided  into  eight  several  land  districts,  called 
after  the  names  of  the  towns  in  which  the  land  of- 
fices are  kept,  viz.,  Wooster,  Steubenville,  Zanes- 
ville,  Marietta,  Chillicothe,  etc.,  etc. 

In  May,  1785,  Congress  passed  an  ordinance  for 
a.scertaining  the  mode  of  disposing  of  these  lands. 
Under  that  ordinance,  the  Jifst  seven  ranges, 
bounded  on  the  north  by  a  line  drawn  due  west 
from  the  Pennsylvania  State  line,  where  it  crosses 
the  Ohio  River,  to  the  United  States  Military 
Lands,  forty-two  miles;  and,  on  the  west,  by  the 
same  line  drawn  thence  south  to  the  Ohio  River, 
at  the  southeast  corner  of  Marietta  Township,  and 
on  the  east  and  south  by  the  Ohio  River,  were 
surveyed  in  1786-87,  and  in  the  latter  year,  and 
sales  were  efl'ected  at  New  York,  to  the  amount  of 
$72,974.  In  1796,  further  portions  of  these  lands 
were  disposed  of  at  Pittsbuigh,  to  the  amount  of 
S43,44B,  and  at  Philadelphia,  amounting  to  $5,- 
120.  A  portion  of  these  lands  were  located  under 
United  States  Military  land  warrants,  and  the  rest 
was  disposed  of  at  the  Steubenville  Land  Office, 
which  was  opened  July  1,  1801. 

United  States  Military  Lands  are  so  called  from 
the  circumstance  of  their  having  been  appropriat- 
ed, by  an  act  of  Congress  of  the  1st  of  June, 
1796,  to  satisfy   certain  claims  of  the  officers  and 

soldiers  of  the  Revolutionary  war.  This  tract  of 
country,  embracing  lands,  is  bounded  as  fol- 
lows :  Beginninir  at  the  northwest  corner  of  the 
original  seven  ranges  of  townships,  thence  south 
titty  miles,  thence  west  to  the  Scioto  River,  thence 
up  i^aid  river  to  the  Greenville  treaty  line,  thence 
northeasterly  with  said  line  to  old  Fort  Laurens, 
on  the  Tuscarawas  River,  thence  due  east  to  the 
place  of  beginning,  including  a  tract  of  about 
4,000  square  miles,  or  2,560,000  acres  of  land. 
It  is,  of  course,  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  Green- 
ville treaty  line,  east  by  the  "  seven  ranges  of  town- 
ships," south  by  the  Congress  and  Refugee  lands, 
and  west  by  the  Scioto  River. 

These  lands  are  surveyed  into  townships  of  five 
miles  square  ;  these  townships  were  then  again, 
originally,  surveyed  into  quarter  townships,  of  two 
and  a  half  miles  square,  containing  4,000  acres 
each;  and,  subsequently,  some  of  these  quarter- 
townships  were  subdivided  into  forty  lots,  of  100 
acres  each,  for  the  accommodation  of  those  soldiers 
holding  warrants  for  only  100  acres  each.  And 
again,  after  the  time  originally  assigned  for  ihe 
location  of  these  warrants  had  expired,  certain 
quarter-townships,  which  had  not  then  been  loca- 
ted, we  re  divided  into  sections  of  one  mile  .square 
each,  and  sold  by  the  General  Government,  like 
the  main  body  of  Congress  lands. 

The  quarter-townships  are  numbered  as  exhib- 
ited in  the  accompanying  figure, 
the  top  being  considered  north. 
.The  place  of  each  township  is  ascer- 
tained by  numbers  and  ranges,  the 
same  as  Congress  lands ;  the  ranges 
being  numbered  from  east  to  west, 
and  the  numbers  from  south  to  north. 

Ohio  Company's  Purchase  is  a  body  of  land 
containing  about  1,500.000  acr>s;  including,  how- 
ever, the  donation  tract,  school  lands,  etc.,  lying 
along  the  Ohio  River  ;  and  including  Meigs,  nearly 
all  of  Athens,  and  a  consideralile  jiart  of  Wash- 
ington and  Gallia  Counties.  This  tract  was  pur- 
chased by  the  General  Government  in  the  year 
1787,  by  Manasseh  Cutler  and  Winthrop  Sar- 
geant,  from  the  neighhorhood  of  Salem,  in  ^Lassa- 
chusetts,  agents  for  the  "  Ohio  Company,"  so 
called,  which  had  then  been  formed  in  Massachu- 
setts, foi-  the  of  a  settlement  in  the  Ohio 
country.  Only  964,285  acres  were  ultimately 
paid  for,  and,  of  patented.  This  body  of 
land  was  then  apportioned  out  into  817  shares,  of 
1,173  acres  each,  and  a  town  lot  of  one-third  of 
an  acre  to  each  share.     These  shares  were  made 








up  to  each  proprietor  in  tracts,  one  of  640  acres, 
one  of  262,  one  of  160,  one  of  100,  one  of  8,  and 
another  of  3  acres,  besides  the  before-mentioned 
town  lot.  Besides  every  section  16,  set  apart,  as 
elsewhere,  for  the  support  of  schools,  every  Section 
29  is  appropriated  for  the  support  of  religious 
institutions.  In  addition  to  which  were  also 
granted  two  six-mile-square  townships  for  the  use 
of  a  college.  But,  unfortunately  for  the  Ohio 
Company,  owing  to  their  want  of  topographical 
knowledge  of  the  country,  the  body  of  land  selected 
by  ihem,  with  some  partial  exceptions,  is  the 
most  hilly  and  sterile  of  any  tract  of  similar  ex- 
tent in  the  State. 

Donation  Tract  is  a  body  of  100,000  acres,  set 
oif  in  the  northern  limits  of  the  Ohio  Company's 
tract,  and  granted  to  them  by  Congress,  provided 
they  should  obtain  one  actual  settler  upon  each 
hundred  acres  thereof,  within  five  years  from  the 
date  of  the  grant ;  and  that  so  much  of  the  100,- 
000  acres  aforesaid,  as  should  not  thus  be  taken 
up,  shall  revert  to  the  Greneral  Government. 

This  tract  may,  in  some  respects,  be  considered 
a  part  of  the  Ohio  Company's  purchase.  It  is 
situated  in  the  northern  limits  of  Washington 
County.  It  lies  in  an  oblong  shape,  extending 
nearly  seventeen  miles  from  east  to  west,  and  about 
seven  and  a  half  north  to  south. 

Symmes'  Purchase  is  a  tract  of  311,682  acres  of 
land  in  the  southwestern  quarter  of  the  State, 
between  the  Great  and  Little  Miami  Rivers.  It  bor- 
ders on  the  Ohio  River  a  distance  of  twenty-seven 
miles,  and  extends  so  far  back  from  the  latter  between 
the  two  Miamis  as  to  include  the  quantity  of  land 
just  mentioned.  It  was  patented  to  John  Cleves 
Symmes,  in  1794,  for  67  cents  per  acre.  Every 
sixteenth  section,  or  square  mile,  in  each  town- 
ship, was  reserved  by  Congress  for  the  use  of 
schools,  and  Sections  29  for  the  support  of  relig- 
ious institutions,  besides  fifteen  acres  around  Fort 
Washington,  in  Cincinnati.  This  tract  of  land  is 
now  one  of  the  most  valuable  in  the  State. 

Refugee  Tract,  a  body  of  100,000  acres  of  land, 
granted  by  Congress  to  certain  individuals  who 
left  the  British  Provinces  during  the  Revolutionary 
war  and  espoused  the  cause  of  freedom,  is  a  nar- 
row strip  of  country,  four  and  a  half  miles  broad 
from  north  to  south,  and  extending  eastwardly 
from  the  Scioto  River  forty -eight  miles.  It  has 
the  United  States  twenty  ranges  of  military  or  army 
lands  north,  twenty-two  ranges  of  Congress  lands 
south.  In  the  western  borders  of  this  tract  is 
situated  the  town  of  Columbus. 

French  Grant  is  a  tract  of  24,000  acres  of  land, 
bordering  upon  the  Ohio  River,  in  the  south- 
eastern quarter  of  Scioto  County.  A  short  time 
after  the  Ohio  Company's  purchase  began  to  be 
settled,  an  association  was  formed  under  the  name 
of  the  Scioto  Land  Company.  A  contract  was 
made  for  the  purchase  of  a  part  of  the  lands  in- 
cluded in  the  Ohio  Company's  purchases.  Plats 
and  descriptions  of  the  land  contracted  for  were 
made  out,  and  Joel  Barlow  was  sent  as  an  agent 
to  Europe  to  make  sales  of  the  lands  for  the  bene- 
fit of  the  company;  and  sales  were  effected  of  a 
considerable  part  of  the  land  to  companies  and 
individuals  in  France.  On  February  19,  1791, 
two  hundred  and  eighteen  of  tlusc  purchasers  left 
Havre  de  Grace,  in  France,  and  arrived  in  Alex- 
andria, J).  C,  on  the  3d  of  May  following.  On 
their  arrival,  they  were  told  that  the  Scioto  Com- 
pany owned  no  land.  The  agent  insisted  that 
they  did,  and  promised  to  secure  them  good  titles 
thereto,  which  he  did,  at  Winchester,  Brownsville 
and  Charleston  (now  Well;>burg).  When  they 
arrived  at  Mai-ietta,  about  fifty  of  them  landed. 
The  rest  of  the  company  proceeded  to  Gallipolis, 
which  was  laid  out  about  that  time,  and  were  as- 
sured by  the  agent  that  the  place  lay  within  their 
purchase.  Every  efi"ort  to  secure  titles  to  the 
lands  they  had  purchased  having  failed,  an  appli- 
cation was  made  to  Congress,  and  in  March,  1795, 
the  above  grant  was  made  to  these  persons 
Twelve  hundred  acres  additional,  were  afterward 
granted,  adjoining  the  above  mentioned  tract  at  its 
lower  end,  toward  the  mouth  of  the  Little  Scioto 

Dohrman's  Grant  is  one  six-mile-square  town- 
ship of  23,040  acres,  granted  to  Arnold  Henry 
Dohrman,  formerly  a  wealthy  Portuguese  merchant 
in  Lisbon,  fur  and  in  consideration  of  his  having, 
during  the  Revolutionary  war,  given  shelter  and 
aid  to  the  American  cruisers  and  vessels  of  war. 
It  is  located  in  the  southeastern  part  of  Tuscara- 
was County. 

Moravian  Lands  are  three  several  tracts  of 
4,000  acres  each,  originally  granted  by  the  old 
Continental  Congress  in  July,  1787,  and  confirmed 
by  act  of  Congress  of  June  1,  1796,  to  the  Mora- 
vian brethren  at  Bethlehem,  in  Pennsylvania,  in 
trust  and  for  the  use  of  the  Christianized  Indians 
living  thereon.  They  are  laid  out  in  nearly  square 
farms,  on  the  Muskingum  River,  in  what  is  now 
Tuscarawas  County.  They  are  called  by  the  namrs 
of  the  Shoenbrun.  Gnadenhutten  and  Salem  tract.s. 

Zane's  Tracts  are  three  several  tracts  of  one  mile 



squire  each — one  on  the  Muskingum  River,  which 
incUides  the  town  of  Zuncsville  -  one  at  the  cross 
of  the  Hocking  River,  on  which  the  town  of  Lancas- 
ter is  laid  out,  and  the  third  on  the  left  bank  of  the 
Scioto  River,  opposite  Chillicothe.  They  were 
granted  by  Congress  to  one  Ebenezer  Zane,  in 
May,  1786,  on  condition  that  he  should  open  a 
road  tlirough  them,  from  Wheeling,  Va.,  to  Mays- 
ville,  Ky. 

There  are  also  three  other  tracts,  of  one  mile 
square  each,  granted  to  Isaac  Zane,  in  the  year 
1802,  in  consideration  of  his  having  been  taken 
prisoner  by  the  Indians,  when  a  boy,  during  the 
Revolutionary  war,  and  living  with  them  most  of 
his  life ;  and  having  during  that  time  performed 
m;!i)y  acts  of  kindness  and  beneficence  toward  the 
American  people.  These  tracts  are  situated  in 
Champaign  County,  on  King's  Creek,  from  three 
to  five  miles  northwest  from  Urbana. 

The  Maumee  Road's  Lands  are  a  body  of  lauds 
averaging  two  miles  wide,  l^ing  along  one  mile  on 
each  side  ofthe  road,  from  the  Maumee  River,  at  Per- 
rysburg,  to  the  western  limits  of  the  Wesiern  Re- 
serve, a  distance  of  about  forty-six  miles,  and  com- 
prising nearly  60,000  acres.  They  were  originally 
granted  by  the  Indian  owners,  at  the  treaty  of 
Brownstown,  in  1808,  to  enable  the  United  States 
to  miike  a  road  on  the  line  just  mentioned.  The 
General  Grovernment  never  moved  into  the  busi- 
ness until  Fibruary,  1823,  when  Congress  passed 
an  act  making  over  the  aforesaid  lands  to  the 
State  of  Ohio,  provided  she  should,  within  four 
years  thereafter,  make  and  keep  in  repair  a  good 
road  throughout  the  aforei-aid  route  of  forty-six 
miles.  This  road  the  State  government  has 
already  made,  obtained  possession,  and  sold  most 
of  the  land. 

Turnpike  Lands  are  forty-nine  sections,  amount- 
ing to  31,360  acres,  situated  along  the  western 
side  of  the  Columbus  and  Sandusky  turnpike,  in 
the  eastern  parts  of  Seneca,  Crawford  and  Marion 
Counties.  They  were  originally  granted  by  an  act 
of  Congress  on  March  3,  1827,  and  more  specifi- 
cally by  a  supplementary  act  the  year  following. 
The  considerations  for  which  these  lands  were 
granted  were  that  the  mail  stages  and  all  troops 
and  property  of  the  United  States,  which  should 
ever  be  moved  and  transported  along  this  road 
should  pass  free  fi-om  toll. 

The  Ohio  Canal  Lands  are  granted  by  Congress 
to  the  State  of  Ohio,  to  aid  in  constructing  her 
extensive  canals.  These  lands  comprise  over  one 
million  of  acres. 

School  Lan  Js — By  compact  between  the  United 
States  and  the  State  of  Ohio,  when  the  latter  was 
admitted  into  the  Union,  it  was  stipulated,  for  and 
in  consideration  that  the  State  of  Ohio  should  never 
tax  the  Congress  lands  until  after  they  should  have 
been  sold  five  years,  and  in  consideration  tl  at  the 
public  lands  would  thereby  more  readily  sell,  that 
the  one-thirty-sixth  part  of  all  the  territory  in- 
cluded within  the  limits  of  the  State  should  be 
set  apart  for  the  support  of  common  schools  there- 
in. And  for  the  purpose  of  getting  at  lands 
which  should,  in  point  of  quality  of  soil,  be  on  an 
average  with  the  whole  land  in  the  country,  they 
decreed  that  it  should  be  selected  by  lots,  in  small 
tracts  each,  to  wit:  That  it  should  consist  of 
Section  No.  16,  let  that  section  be  good  or 
bad,  in  every  township  of  Congress  land,  also 
in  the  Ohio  Company's  and  in  Symmes'  Pur- 
chases, all  of  which  townvhips  are  composed  of 
thirty-six  sections  each ;  and  for  the  United  States 
military  lands  and  Connecticut  Reserve,  a  num- 
ber of  quarter-townships,  two  and  a  half  miles 
square  each  (being  the  smallest  public  surveys 
therein,  then  made),  should  be  selected  by  the 
Secretary  of  the  Treasury  in  different  townships 
throughout  the  United  States  military  tract, 
equivalent  in  quantity  to  the  one  thirty-sixth 
part  of  those  two  tracts  respectively ;  and,  for 
the  Virginia  military  tract,  Congress  enacted 
that  a  quantity  of  land  equal  to  the  one- 
thirty-sixth  part  of  the  estimated  quantity  of 
land  contained  therein,  should  be  selected  by 
lot,  in  what  was  then  called  the  "  New  Pur- 
chase," in  quarter  -  township  tracts  of  three 
miles  square  each.  Most  of  these  selections  were 
accordingly  made,  but  in  some  instances,  by  the 
carelessness  of'  the  officers  conducting  the  sales,  or 
from  some  other  cause,  a  few  Sections  16  have 
been  sold,  in  which  case  Congress,  when  applied 
to,  has  generally  granted  other  lands  in  lieu 
thereof,  as,  for  instance,  no  Section  16  was  re- 
served in  Montgomery  Township,  in  which  Co- 
lumbus is  situated,  and  Congress  afterward 
granted  therefor  Section  21,  in  township  corner- 
ing thereon  to  the  southwest. 

College  Townships  are  three  six-mile-square 
townships,  granted  by  Congress ;  two  of  them  to 
the  Ohio  Company,  for  the  use  of  a  coll  ge  to  be 
established  within  their  purchase,  and  one  for  the 
use  of  the  inhabitants  of  Symmes'  Purchase. 

Ministerial  Lands — In  both  the  Ohio  Company 
and  the  Symmes'  Purchase  every  Section  29  (equal 
to  every  one-thirty-sixth  part  of  every  township) 




3  2 

4  1 

is  reserved  as  a  permanent  fund  for  the  Mipp(jrt  of 
a  settled  minister.  As  the  purchasers  of  these  two 
tracts  came  from  parts  of  the  Union  where  it  was 
customary  and  deemed  necessary  to  have  a  regu- 
lar settled  clergyman  in  every  town,  they  therefore 
stipulated  in  this  original  purchase  that  a  perma- 
nent fund  in  lands  should  thus  he  set  apiirt  for 
this  purchase.  In  no  other  part  of  the  State, 
other  than  these  two  pui'chases,  are  any  lands  set 
apart  f  )r  this  object. 

The  Connecticut  Western  Reserve  and  the 
Fire  Lands  are  surveyed  into  townships  of  about 
five  miles  square  each ;  and  these  townships  are 
then  subdivided  into  four  quarters  ; 
and  these  quarter- townships  are 
numbered  as  in  the  accompanying 
figure,  the  top  being  considered 
north.  And  for  individual  conven- 
ience, these  are  again  subdivided, 
by  private  surveys,  into  lots  of  from  fifty  to  five 
hundi'ed  acres  each,  to  suit  individual  purchasers. 

In  its  history,  the  Western  Reserve  is  far  more 
important  than  any  other  of  the  early  arbitrary 
divisions  of  the  State.  It  was  peopled  by  a  dom- 
inant class  that  brought  to  this  wilderness  social 
forms  and  habits  of  thought  that  had  been  fostered 
in  the  Puritan  persecutions  of  England,  and  crys- 
tallized by  nearly  half  a  century  of  pioneer  life  in 
Connecticut,  into  a  civilization  that  has  not  yet 
lost  its  distinctive  characteristics.  Dating  their 
history  back  to  the  early  part  of  the  seventeenth 
century,  the  true  descendant  of  the  Puritan  points 
with  pride  to  the  permanency  of  their  traditions, 
to  the  progressive  character  of  their  institutions, 
and  marks  their  influence  in  the  commanding 
power  of  the  schoolhouse  and  church. 

The  earliest  measure  which  may  be  said  to  have 
affected  the  history  of  the  Reserve,  originated  in 
1609.  In  this  year,  James  I,  granted  to  a  com- 
pany called  the  London  Company,  a  charter,  under 
which  the  entire  claim  of  Virginia  to  the  soil 
northwest  of  the  Ohio  was  asserted.  It  was 
clothed  with  corporate  powers,  with  most  of  its 
members  living  in  London.  The  tract  of  country 
embraced  within  this  charter  was  immense.  It 
commenced  its  boundaries  at  Point  Comfort,  on 
the  Atlantic,  and  ran  south  200  miles,  and  thence 
west  across  the  continent  to  the  Pacific ;  com- 
mencing again  at  Point  Comfort,  and  running 
200  miles  north,  and  from  this  point  northwest  to 
the  sea.  This  line  ran  through  New  York  and 
Pennsylvania,  crossing  the  eastern  end  of  Lake 
Erie,  and  terminated  in  the  Arctic  Ocean.     The 

vast  empire  lying  between  the  south  line,  the  east 
line,  the  diagonal  line  to  the  northwest,  and  the 
Pacific  Ocean,  was  claimed  by  virtue  of  this  char- 
ter. It  included  over  half  of  the  North  American 
Continent.  Notwithstanding  the  charter  of  the 
London  Company  included  all  the  territory  now 
embraced  witliin  the  boundaries  of  Ohio,  James  I, 
on  the  3d  of  November,  1620,  by  royal  letters 
patent,  granted  to  the  Duke  of  Lenox  and  others, 
to  be  known  as  the  Council  of  Plymouth,  all  the 
territory  lying  between  the  fortieth  and  fortv- 
eighth  degrees  of  north  latitude,  and  bounded  on 
the  east  by  the  Atlantic,  and  on  the  west  by  the 
Pacific.  This  description  embraced  a  large  tract 
of  the  lands  granted  to  the  Virginia  or  London 
Company.  In  1630,  a  portion  of  the  same  ter- 
ritory was  granted  to  the  Earl  of  Warwick,  and 
afterward  confirmed  to  him  by  Charles  I.  In 
1631,  the  Council  of  Plymouth,  acting  by  the 
Earl  of  Warwick,  granted  to  Lord  Brook  and  Vis- 
counts Say  and  Seal,  what  were  supposed  to  be 
the  same  lands,  altliMUgh  by  a  very  imperfect  de- 
scription. In  1662,  Charles  II  granted  a  charter 
to  nineteen  patentees,  with  such  associates  as 
they  should  from  time  to  time  elect.  This  asso- 
ciation was  made  a  body  corporate  and  politic,  by 
the  name  of  the  Governor  and  Company  of  the 
English  Cotiony  of  Connecticut.  This  charter 
constituted  the  organic  law  of  the  State  for  up- 
ward of  one  hundi-ed  and  fifty  years.  The  bound- 
aries were  Massachusetts  on  the  north,  the  sea 
on  the  south,  Narragansett  River  or  Bay  on  the 
east,  and  the  South  Sea  (Pacific  Ocean)  on  the 
west  This  description  embraced  a  strip  of  land 
upward  of  six  miles  wide,  stretching  from  the 
Atlantic  to  the  Pacific,  including  a  part  of  New 
York  and  New  Jersey,  and  all  the  territory  now 
known  as  the  Western  Reserve. 

In  1681,  for  the  consideration  of  £16,000  and 
a  fealty  of  two  beaver  skins  a  year,  Charles  II 
granted  to  ^Villiam  Penn  a  charter  embracing 
within  its  limits  the  territory  constituting  the 
present  State  of  Pennsylvania.  This  grant  in- 
cluded a  strip  of  territor}-  running  across  the  en- 
tire length  of  the  State  on  the  north,  and  upward 
of  fifty  miles  wide,  that  was  embraced  within  the 
Connecticut  charter.  Massachusetts,  under  the 
Plymouth  Charter,  claimed  all  the  land  between 
the  forty-first  and  forty-fifth  degrees,  of  north  lati- 
tude. In  1664,  Charles  II  ceded  to  his  brother, 
the  Duke  of  York,  afterward  James  II,  by  Icttei-s 
patent,  all  the  countrybetween  the  St.  Croix  and 
the  Delaware.     After  the  overthrow  of  the  gov- 



ernnient  of  "  New  Netherlands,"  then  existing 
upon  that  territory,  it  was  chiimed  that  the  grant 
of  the  Duke  of  York  extended  west  into  the  Mis- 
sissippi A'alley. 

Thus  matters  stood  at  the  commencement  of 
the  Revolution.  Virginia  claimed  all  the  territory 
northwest  of  the  Ohio.  Connecticut  strenuously 
urged  her  titles  to  all  lands  lying  between  the  par- 
allels -11°  and  42°  2'  of  north  latitude,  from 
the  Atlantic  to  the  Pacific.  Pennsylvania,  under 
the  charter  of  1G81,  had  taken  possession  of  the 
disputed  land  lying  in  that  State,  and  had  granted 
much  of  it  to  actual  settlers.  New  York  and 
Massachusetts  were  equally  emphatic  in  the  asser- 
tion of  ownership  to  land  between  those  lines  of  lat- 
itude. The  contention  between  claimants  under 
the  Connecticut  and  Pennsylvania  charters,  on  the 
Susquehanna,  frequently  resulted  in  bloodshed. 
The  controversy  between  those  two  States  was 
finally  submitted  to  a  Court  of  Commissioners,  ap- 
pointed by  Congress,  upon  the  petition  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, under  the  ninth  article  of  the  confederation, 
which  gave  Congress  power  to  establish  a  Court  of 
Commissioners,  to  settle  disputed  boundaries  be- 
tween States,  in  case  of  disagreement.  The  court 
decided  in  favor  of  Pennsylvania,  and  this  decision 
terminated  the  controversy.  The  question  of  the 
title  to  lands  lying  west  of  Pennsylvania,  was  not 
involved  in  this  adjudication,  but  remained  a  sub- 
ject for  future  contention.  A  party  sprung  up 
during  the  war  that  disputed  the  title  of  the 
States  asserting  it,  to  lands  outside  of  State 
limits,  and  which  insisted  upon  the  right  of  the 
States  by  whose  common  treasure,  dominion  was  to 
be  secured,  to  participate  in  the  benefits  and  results 
arising  from  the  joint  and  common  'effort  for  inde- 
pendence. This  party  was  particularly  strong  in 
the  smaller  States.  Those  colonies  that  had  not 
been  the  favored  recipients  of  extensive  land 
grants,  were  little  inclined  to  acquiesce  in  claims, 
the  justice  of  which  they  denied,  and  which  could 
be  secured  to  the  claimants,  only  by  the  success  of 
the  Revolution. 

There  is  little  doubt,  that  the  conflict  in  the 
early  charters,  respecting  boundaries,  grew  out  of 
the  ignorance  of  the  times  in  which  they  were 
granted,  as  to  the  breadth  or  inland  extent  of 
the  American  Continent.  During  the  reign  of 
James  I,  Sir  Francis  Drake  reported,  that,  from 
the  top  of  the  mountains  on  the  Isthmus  of  Pan- 
ama, he  had  seen  both  oceans.  This  led  to  the 
supposition  that  the  continent,  from  east  to  west, 
was  of  no  considerable  extent,  and  that  the  South 

Sea,  by  which  the  grants  were  limited  on  the 
west,  did  not  lie  very  far  from  the  Atlantic  ;  and  as 
late  as  1740,  the  Duke  of  Newcastle  addressed  his 
letters  to  the  ''Island  of  New  Il]ngland."  Hence 
it  was  urged  as  an  argument  against  the  claims  of 
those  States  asserting  title  to  Western  lands,  that 
the  term,  in  the  grants,  of  South  Sea,  being,  by 
mutual  mistake  of  the  parties  to  the  charter,  an 
erroneous  one — the  error  resulting  from  misinfor- 
mation or  want  of  certainty  concerning  the  local- 
ity of  that  sea — the  claiming  State  ought  not  to 
insist  upon  an  ownership  resting  upon  such  a  foot- 
ing, and  having  its  origin  in  such  a  circumstance. 
Popular  feeling  on  the  subject  ran  so  high,  at  times, 
as  to  cause  apprehension  for  the  safety  of  the  confed- 
eration. In  1780,  Congress  urged  upon  the  States 
having  claims  to  the  Western  country,  the  duty  to 
make  a  surrender  of  a  part  thereof  to  the  United 

The  debt  incurred  in  the  Revolutionary  contest, 
the  limited  resources  for  its  extinguishment,  if  the 
public  domain  was  unavailable  for  the  purpose,  the 
existence  of  the  unhappy  controversy  growing  out 
of  the  asserted  claims,  and  an  earnest  desire  to  ac- 
commodate and  pacify  conflicting  interests  among 
the  States,  led  Congress,  in  1784,  to  an  impressive 
appeal  to  the  States  interested,  to  remove  all  cause 
for  further  discontent,  by  a  liberal  cession  of  their 
domains  to  the  General  Government,  for  the  com- 
mon benefit  of  all  the  States.  The  happy  termi- 
n  .tion  of  the  war  found  the  public  mind  in  a  con- 
dition to  be  easily  impressed  by  appeals  to  its  pat- 
riotism and  liberality.  New  York  had,  in  1780, 
ceded  to  the  United  States,  the  lands  that  she 
claimed,  lying  west  of  a  line  running  south  from 
the  west  bend  qf  Lake  Ontario  ;  and,  in  1785,  Mas- 
sachusetts relinquished  her  claim  to  the  same  lands 
— each  Stat©  reserving  the  same  19,000  square 
miles  of  ground,  and  each  asserting  an  independent 
title  to  it.  This  controversy  between  the  two 
States  was  settled  by  an  equal  division  between 
them,  of  the  disputed  ground.  Virginia  had  given 
to  her  soldiers  of  the  Revolutionary  war,  and  of  the 
war  between  France  and  England,  a  pledge  of 
bounties  payable  in  Western  lands  ;  and,  reserving 
a  sufiicien  amount  of  land  to  enable  her  to  meet 
the  pledge  thus  given,  on  the  1st  of  March,  1784, 
she  relinquished  to  the  United  States,  her  title  to 
all  other  lands  lying  northwest  of  the  Ohio.  On 
the  14th  day  of  September,  1786,  the  delegates  in 
Congress,  from  the  State  of  Connecticut,  being  au- 
thorized and  directed  so  to  do,  relinquished  to  the 
United  States,  all  the  right,  title,  interest,  jurisdic- 





tion  and  claim  that  she  possessed  to  the  hinds  ly- 
ing west  of  a  line  running  north  from  the  41° 
north  latitude,  to  42°  2',  and  being  120  miles  west  of 
the  western  line  of  Pennsylvania.  The  territory 
lying  west  of  Pennsylvania,  for  the  distance  of  120 
miles,  and  between  the  above-named  degrees  of  lat- 
itude, although  not  in  terms  reserved  by  the  in- 
strument of  conveyance,  was  in  fact  reserved — not 
having  been  conveyed — and  by  reason  thereof,  was 
called  the  Western  Reserve  of  Connecticut.  It 
embraces  the  counties  of  Ashtabula,  Trumbull, 
Portage,  Geauga,  Lake,  Cuyahoga,  Medina,  Lorain, 
Huron,  Erie,  all  of  Summit,  save  the  townships  of 
Franklin  and  Greene  ;  the  two  northern  tiers  of 
townships  of  Mahoning;  the  townships  of  Sulli- 
van, Troy  and  Ruggles,  of  Ashland ;  and  the 
islands  lying  north  of  Sandusky,  including  Kelley's 
and  Put-in-Ba3% 

During  the  Revolution,  the  British,  aided  by 
Benedict  Arnold,  made  incursions  in  the  heart  of 
Connecticut,  and  destroyed  a  large  amount  of 
property  in  the  towns  of  Greenwich,  Norwalk, 
Fairfield,  Danbury,  New  and  East  Haven,  New 
London,  Richfield  and  Groton.  There  were  up- 
ward of  2,000  persons  and  families  that  sustained 
severe  losses  by  the  de2")redations  of  the  enemy. 
On  the  10th  of  May,  1792,  the  Legislature  of 
that  State  set  apart  and  donated  to  the  suffering 
inhabitants  of  these  towns,  500,000  acres  of  the 
west  part  of  the  lands  of  the  Reserve,  to  compen- 
sate them  for  the  losses  sustained.  These  lands 
were  to  be  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  shore  of 
Lake  Erie,  south  by  the  base  line  of  the  Reserve, 
west  by  its  western  line,  and  east  by  a  line  par- 
allel with  the  western  line  of  Pennsylvania,  and 
so  far  from  the  west  line  of  the  Reserve  as  to  in- 
clude within  the  described  limits  the  500,000 
acres.  These  are  the  lands  now  embraced  within  the 
counties  of  Huron  and  Erie,  and  the  Township 
of  Ruggles,  in  Ashland  County.  The  islands 
were  not  included.  The  lands  so  given  were  called 
'•  Suff"erers'  Lands,"  and  those  to  whom  they  were 
given  were,  in  1796,  by  the  Legislature  of  Con- 
necticut, incorporated  by  the  name  of  the  "  Pro- 
prietors of  the  half-million  acres  of  land  lying 
south  of  Lake  Erie."  After  Ohio  had  become  an 
independent  State,  this  foreign  corporation  was 
not  found  to  work  well  here,  not  being  subject  to 
her  laws,  and,  to  relieve  the  owners  of  all  embar- 
rassment, on  the  15th  of  April,  1803,  the  Legisla- 
ture of  this  State  conferred  corporate  power  on 
the  owners  and  proprietors  of  the  "  Half-million 
acres  of  land  lying  south  of  Lake  Erie,"  in  the 

county  of  Trumbull,  called  "  Sufferers'  Land." 
An  account  of  the  losses  of  the  inhabitants  had 
been  taken  in  pounds,  shillings  and  pence,  and  a 
price  placed  upon  the  lands,  and  each  of  the  suf- 
ferers received  land  proportioned  to  the  extent  of 
his  loss.  These  lands  subsequently  took  the 
name  of  "  Fire  Lands,"  from  the  circumstance 
that  the  greater  part  of  the  losses  suff"ered  resulted 
from  fire. 

In  1795,  the  remaining  portion  of  the  Reserve 
was  sold  to  Oliver  Phelps  and  thirty-five  others, 
wh  I  formed  what  became  known  as  the  "  Connect- 
icut Land  Company."  Some  uneasiness  concern- 
ing the  validity  of  the  title  arose  fi-om  the  fact 
that,  whatever  interest  Virginia,  Massachusetts  or 
New  York  may  have  had  in  the  lands  reserved, 
and  claimed  by  Connecticut,  had  been  transferred 
to  the  United  States,  and,  if  neither  of  the  claim- 
ing States  had  title,  the  dominion  and  ownership 
passed  to  the  United  States  by  the  treaty  made 
with  England  at  the  close  of  the  Revolution. 
This  condition  of  things  was  not  the  only  source  of 
difficulty  and  trouble.  The  Reserve  was  so  far 
from  Connecticut  as  to  make  it  impracticable  for 
that  State  to  extend  her  laws  over  the  same,  or 
ordain  new  ones  for  the  government  of  the  inhabit- 
ants; and,  having  parted  with  all  interest  in  the 
soil,  her  right  to  provide  laws  for  the  people  was 
not  only  doubted,  but  denied.  Congress  had 
provided  by  the  ordinance  of  1787  for  the  gov- 
ernment of  the  territory  nurthwest  of  the  Ohio ; 
but  to  admit  jurisdiction  in  the  United  States  to 
govern  this  part  of  that  territory,  would  cast  grave 
doubt  upon  the  validity  of  the  company's  title.  It 
was  therefore  insisted  that  the  regulation.":  pre- 
scribed by  that  instrument  for  the  government  of 
the  Northwest  Territory  had  no  operation  or 
effect  within  the  limits  of  the  Reserve.  To  quiet 
apprehension,  and  to  remove  all  cause  of  anxiety 
on  the  subject.  Congress,  on  April  28,  1800, 
authorized  the  President  to  execute  and  deliver, 
on  the  part  of  the  Unite  1  States,  letters  patent  to 
the  Governor  of  Connecticut,  whereby  the  United 
States  released,  for  the  uses  named,  all  ight  and 
title  to  the  soil  of  the  Reserve,  and  3onfirmed  it 
unto  those  who  had  purchased  it  from  that  State. 
The  execution  and  delivery,  however,  of  the  letters 
patent  were  upon  the  condition  that  Connecticut 
should  forever  renounce  and  release  to  the  United 
States  entire  and  complete  civil  jurisdiction 
over  the  territory  released.  This  condition  was 
accepted,  and  thereupon  Connecticut  transferred 
her  jurisdiction  to  the    United    States,    and    the 



United  States  released  her  claim  and  title  to  the 

While  this  controversy  was  going  on,  there  was 
another  contestant  in  the  field,  having  the  advan- 
tage of  actual  occupancy,  and  in  no  wise  inclined 
to  recognize  a  title  adverse  to  his,  nor  yield,  upon 
mere  invitation,  a  possession  so  long  enjoyed. 
This  contestant  was  the  Indian.  By  the  treaty  at 
Greenville  in  1795,  preceding  treaties  were  con- 
firmed, and  the  different  tribes  released  their 
claims  to  all  territory  east  of  the  line  of  the  Cuya- 
hoga River  and  south  of  the  Indian  boundary  line. 
This  left  the  larger  part  of  the  territory  of 
the  Western  Reserve  still  in  the  hands  of 
the  savMge.  On  July  4,  18(l5,  a  treaty 
was  made  at  Fort  Industry  with  the  chiefs 
and  warriors  of  the  different  nations  settled 
in  the  northern  and  western  sections  of  the 
State,  by  which  the  Indian  title  to  all  the  lands 
of  the  Reserve,  lying  west  of  the  Cuyahoga,  was 
extinguished.  By  this  treaty  all  the  lands  lying 
between  the  Cuyahoga  and  the  Meridian,  one 
hundred  and  twenty  miles  west  of  Pennsylvania, 
were  ceded  by  the  Indians  for  $20,000  in  goods, 
and  a  perpetual  annuity  of  $9,500,  payable  in 
goods  at  first  cost.  The  latter  clause  has  become 
a  dead  letter,  because  there  is  no  one  to  claim  it. 
Since  this  treaty,  the  title  to  the  land  of  the  Re- 
serve has  been  set  at  rest. 

The  price  for  which  this  vast  tract  of  land  was 
sold  to  the  Connecticut  Land  Company  was 
$1,200,000,  the  subscriptions  to  the  purchase  fund 
ranging  from  $1,683,  by  Sylvanus  Griswold.  to 
$168,185,  by  Oliver  Phelps.  Each  dollar  sub- 
scribed to  this  fund  entitled  the  subscriber  to  one 
twelve  hundred  thousandth  part  in  common  and 
undivided  of  the  land  purchased.  Having  ac- 
quired the  title,  the  Company,  in  the  following 
spring,  commenced  to  survey  the  territory  lying 
east  of  the  Cuyahoga,  and  during  the  years  of  1796 
and  1797,  completed  it.  The  first  surveying 
party  arrived  at  Conneaut,  in  New  Connecticut, 
July  4,  1796,  and  proceeded  at  once  to  celebrate 
the  twentieth  anniversary  of  American  Independ- 
ence. There  were  fifty  persons  in  the  party, 
under  the  lead  of  Gen.  Moses  Cleveland,  of  Can- 
terbury, Conn.  There  will  be  found  in  Whittle- 
sey's Early  History  of  Cleveland  an  extract  from 
the  journal  of  Cleveland,  describing  the  particu- 
lars of  the  celebration.  Among  other  things  noted 
by  him  was  the  following :  ''The  day,  memora 
ble  as  the  birthday  of  American  Independence 
and  freedom  from  British  tyrrany,  and  commemo- 

rated by  all  good,  freeborn  sons  of  America,  and 
memorable  as  the  day  on  which  the  settlement  of 
this  new  country  was  commenced,  and  ( which j  in 
time  may  raise  her  head  among  the  most  enlight- 
ened and  improved  States"  —  a  prophecy  already 
more  than  fulfilled. 

For  the  purposes  of  the  survey,  a  point  wher ; 
the  41st  degree  of  north  latitude  intersected  the 
western  line  of  Pennsylvania,  was  found,  and  from 
this  degree  of  latitude,  as  a  base  line,  meridian  lines, 
five  miles  apart,  were  run  north  to  the  lake. 
Lines  of  latitude  were  then  run,  five  miles  apart, 
thus  dividing  the  territory  into  townships  five 
miles  square.  It  was  not  until  after  the  treaty  of 
1805  that  the  lands  lying  west  of  the  Cuyahoga 
were  surveyed.  The  meridians  and  parallels  were 
run  out  in  1806,  by  Abraham  Tappan  and  his 
assistants.  The  base  and  western  lines  of  the  Re- 
serve were  run  by  Seth  Pease,  for  the  Govern- 
ment. The  range  of  townships  were  numbered 
progressively  west,  from  the  western  boundary  of 
Pennsylvania.  The  first  tier  of  townships,  run- 
ning north  and  south,  lying  along  the  border  of 
Pennsylvania,  is  Range  No.  1  ;  the  adjoining  tier 
west  is  range  No.  2,  and  so  on  throughout  the 
twenty-four  ranges.  The  township  lying  next 
north  of  the  41st  parallel  of  latitude  in  each  range, 
is  Township  No.  1  of  that  range.  The  township 
next  north  is  No.  2,  and  so  on  progressively  to 
the  lake.  It  was  supposed  that  there  were  4,- 
000,000  acres  of  land  between  Pennsylvania  and 
the  Fire  Lands.  If  the  supposition  had  proved 
true,  the  land  would  have  cost  30  cents  per 
acre ;  as  it  resulted,  there  were  less  than  3,000,- 
000  acres.  The  misca'culation  arose  from  the 
mistaken  assumption  that  the  south  shore  of  Lake 
Erie  bore  more  nearly  west  than  it  does,  and  also 
in  a  mistake  made  in  the  length  of  the  east-and- 
west  line.  The  distance  west  from  the  Pennsyl- 
vania line,  surveyed  in  1796-97,  was  only  fifty-six 
miles,  the  survey  ending  at  the  Tuscarawas  River. 
To  reach  the  western  limits  of  the  Reserve  a  dis 
tance  of  sixty-four  miles  was  to  be  made.  Abra- 
ham Tappan  and  Anson  Sessions  entered  into  an 
agreement  with  the  Land  Company,  in  1805,  to 
complete  the  survey  of  the  lands  between  the  P^ire 
Lands  and  the  Cuyahoga.  This  they  did  in  1806, 
and,  from  the  width  of  Range  19,  it  is  very  evident 
that  the  distance  from  the  east  to  the  west  line  of 
the  Reserve  is  less  than  one  hundred  and  twenty 
miles.  This  range  of  townships  is  gore-shaped, 
and  is  much  less  than  five  miles  wide,  circum- 
stances leading  the  company  to   divide  all  below 



Township  6  into  tracts  for  the  purpose  of  equaliza- 
tion. The  west  line  of  Range  19,  from  north  to 
south,  as  originally  run,  bears  to  the  west,  and 
between  it  and  Eange  20,  as  indicated  on  the  map, 
tliere  is  a  strip  of  land,  also  gore-shaped,  that  was 
left  in  the  first  instance  unsurveyed,  the  surveyors 
not  knowing  the  exact  whereabouts  of  the  eastern 
line  of  the  "half-million  acres"  belonging  to  the  suf- 
ferers. In  180G,  Amos  Spafford,  of  Cleveland,  and 
Almon  Ilugiiles,  of  Huron,  were  agreed  on  by  the 
two  companies  to  ascertain  and  locate  the  line  be- 
tween the  Fire  Lands  and  the  lands  of  the  Connecti- 
cut Company.  They  first  surveyed  off  the  "  half- 
million  acres  "  belonging  to  the  "  sufferers,"  and, 
not  agreeing  with  Seth  Pease,  who  had  run  out 
the  base  and  west  lines,  a  dispute  arose  between 
the  two  companies,  which  was  finally  adjusted  be- 
fore the  draft,  by  establishing  the  eastern  line  of 
the  Fire  Lands  wher.)  it  now  is.  This  left  a  strip 
of  land  east  of  the  Fire  Lands,  called  surplus  lands, 
which  was  included  in  range  19,  and  is  embraced 
in  the  western  tier  of  townships  of  Lorain  County. 
The  mode  of  dividing  the  land  among  the  indi- 
vidual purchasers,  was  a  little  peculiar,  though 
evidently  just.  An  equalizing  committee  accom- 
panied the  surveyors,  to  make  such  observations 
and  take  such  notes  of  the  character  of  the  town- 
ships as  would  enable  them  to  grade  them  intelli- 
gently, and  make  a  just  estimate  and  equalization 
of  their  value.  The  amount  of  purchase  money  was 
divided  into  400  shares  of  $3,000  a  share.  Certifi- 
cates were  issued  to  each  owner,  showing  him  to  be 
entitled  to  such  proportion  of  the  entire  land,  as  the 
amount  he  paid,  bore  to  the  purchase  price  of  the 
whole.  Four  townships  of  the  greatest  value  were 
first  selected  from  that  part  of  the  Western  Reserve, 
to  which  the  Indian  t  tie  had  been  extinguished,  and 
were  divided  into  lots.  P]ach  township  was  di- 
vided into  not  less  than  100  lots.  The  number  of 
lots  into  which  the  four  townships  were  divided, 
would,  at  least,  equal  the  400  shares,  or  a  lot  to  a 
share,  and  each  person  or  company  of  persons  en- 
titled to  one  or  more  shares  of  the  Reserve — each 
share  being  one  four-hundredth  part  of  the  Re- 
serve— was  allowed  to  participate  in  the  draft  that 
was  determined  upon  for  the  division  of  the  joint 
property.  The  committee  appointed  to  select  the 
four  most  valuable  townships  for  such  division,  was 
directed  to  select  of  the  remaining  townships,  a 
sufficient  number,  and  of  the  best  quality  and 
greatest  value,  to  be  used  for  equalizing  purposes. 
After  this  selection  was  made,  they  were  to  choose 
the  best  remaining  township,  and  tliis  township  was 

the  one,  to  the  value  of  which  all  others  were 
brought  by  the  equalizing  process  of  annexation, 
and  if  there  were  several  of  equal  value  with  the 
one  so  selected,  no  annexations  were  to  be  made  to 
them.  The  equalizing  townships  were  cut  up  into 
parcels  of  various  size  and  value,  and  these  parcels 
were  annexed  to  townships  inferior  in  value  to  the 
standard  toicnship,  and  annexations  of  land  from 
the  equalizing  townships,  were  made  to  the  inferior 
townships,  in  quantity  and  quality,  sufficient  to 
make  all  equal  in  value  to  the  standard  adopted. 
When  the  townships  had  thus  all  been  equalized, 
they  were  drawn  by  lit.  There  were  ninety-three 
equalized  parcels  drawn  east  of  the  Cuyahoga,  and 
forty-six  on  the  west.  The  draft  of  the  lands  east 
of  the  river,  took  place  prior  to  1800,  and  of  those 
west  of  that  river,  on  the  4th  day  of  April,  18()7. 
]n  the  first  draft,  it  required  an  ownership  of 
$12,903.23  of  the  original  purchase  money,  to  en- 
title the  owner  to  a  township  ;  and  in  the  second 
draft,  it  required  an  ownership  of  §26,087  in  the 
original  purchase-money,  to  entitle  the  owner  to  a 

The  same  mode  and  plan  were  followed  in  each 
draft.  The  townships  were  nuiubered,  and  the 
numbers,  on  separate  pieces  of  paper,  placed  in  a 
box.  The  names  of  the  proprietors  who  liad  sub- 
scribed, and  were  the  owners  of  a  sufficient  amount 
of  the  purchase-money  to  entitle  them  to  a  township, 
were  arranged  ia  alphabetical  order,  and  when  it 
was  necessary  for  several  persons  to  combine,  be- 
cause not  owning  severally,  a  sufficient  amount  of 
the  purchase-money,  or  number  of  shares,  to  en- 
title them  to  a  township,  the  name  of  the  person  of 
the  company  that  stood  alphabetically  first,  was 
used  to  represent  them  in  the  draft,  and  in  case  the 
small  owners  were  unable,  from  disagreement 
among  themselves,  to  unite,  a  committee  was  ap- 
pointed to  select  and  class  the  proprietors,  and 
those  selected  were  required  to  associate  them- 
selves together,  for  the  purpose  of  the  draft.  The 
township,  or  parcel  of  land,  corresponding  to  the 
first  number  drawn  from  the  box  belonged  to  the 
person  whose  name  stood  first  on  the  list,  or  to  the 
persons  whom  he  represented;  and  the  second 
drawn  belonged  to  the  second  person,  and  so  down 
through  the  list.  This  w'as  the  mode  adopted  to 
sever  the  ownership  in  common,  and  to  secure  to 
each  individual,  or  company  of  individuals,  their 
interest  in  severalty.  Soon  after  the  conveyance  to 
the  land  company,  to  avoid  complications  arising 
from  the  death  of  its  members,  and  to  facilitate  the 
transmission  of  title.'',  the  company  conveyed  the 




entire  purchase,  in  trust,  to  John  Morpran,  John 
Cadwell  and  Jonathan  Brace ;  and  as  titles  were 
wanted,  either  before  or  after  the  division  by  draft, 
conveyances  were  made  to  the  purchasers  by  these 

Little  was  known  of  this  country  at  the  time  of 
its  purchase  by  the  Land  Company.  It  was  for- 
merly inhabited  by  a  nation  of  Indians  called  the 
Erigas  or  Eries,  from  which  the  lake  took  its 
name.  This  nation  was  at  an  early  date  destroyed 
by  the  Iroquois.  In  his  '■  History  of  New  France," 
published  in  1744,  in  speaking  of  the  south  shore 
of  Lake  Erie,  Charlevoix  says  :  "All  this  shore  is 
nearly  unknown."  An  old  French  map,  made  in 
1755,  to  be  seen  in  the  rooms  of  the  Western  Re- 
serve Historical  Society,  in  Cleveland,  names  the 
country  between  the  Cuyahoga  and  Sandusky 
Rivers,  as  Cauahogue  ;  and  east  of  the  Cuyahoga, 
as  Gwahoga.  This  is  also  the  name  given  to  that 
river  which  is  made  to  empty  into  Cuyahoga  Bay; 
and  the  country  designated  as  Cauahogue  is  indi- 
cated as  the  seat  of  war,  the  Mart  of  Trade,  and 
the  chief  hunting  grounds  of  the  Six  Nations  of  the 
lake.  The  earliest  settlement  was  on  the  Reserve, 
at  Warren,  in  1798,  though  salt  was  made  in 
Weathersfield,  Mahoning  County,  as  early  as  1755, 
by  whites,  who  made  short  sojourns  there  for  that 
purpose.  The  number  of  settlers  increased  in  this 
section  until,  in  1800,  there  were  some  sixteen  fam- 
ilies. In  1796,  the  first  surveying  party  for  the 
Land  Company,  landed  at  Conneaut,  followed  three 
years  later  by  the  first  permanent  settler.  Then 
followed  settlements  in  Geauga  and  Cuyahoga,  in 
1798;  in  Portage  and  Lake,  in  1799;  Summit,  in 
1800;  Lorain.  1807,  and  iMedina,  in  1811.  "The 
settlement  of  the  Reserve  commenced  in  a  manner 
somewhat  peculiar.  Instead  of  beginning  on  one 
side  of  a  county,  and  progressing  gradually  into 
the  interior,  as  had  usually  been  done  in  similar 
cases,  the  prorrietors  of  the  Reserve,  being  gov- 
erned by  ditterent  and  separate  views,  began  their 
improvements  wherever  their  individual  interests 
led  them.  Here  we  find  many  of  the  first  settlers 
immersed  in  a  dense  forest,  fifteen  or  twenty  miles 
or  more  from  the  abode  of  any  white  inhabitants. 
In  consequence  of  their  scattered  situation,  jour- 
neys were  sometimes  to  be  performed  of  twenty  or 
fifty  miles,  for  the  sole  purpose  of  having  the  staple 
of  an  ox-yoke  mended,  or  some  other  mechanical 
job,  in  itself  trifling,  but  absolutely  essential  for 
the  successful  prosecution  of  business.  These  jour- 
neys had  to  be  performed  through  the  wilderness, 
at  a  great  expense  of  time,  and,  in  many  cases,  the 

only  safe  guide  to  direct  their  course,  were  the 
town.ship  lines  made  by  the  surveyors.  The  want 
of  mills  to  grind  the  first  harvest,  was  in  itself  a 
great  evil.  Prior  to  1800,  many  families  used  a 
small  hand-mill,  properly  called  a  .sweat-mill,  which 
took  the  hard  labor  of  two  hours  to  supply  flour 
enough  for  one  person  a  single  day.  About  the  year 
1800,  one  or  two  grist-mills,  operating  by  water- 
power,  were  erected.  One  of  these  was  at  Newburg, 
now  in  Cuyahoga  Co.  But  the  distance  of  many 
of  the  settlements  from  the  mills,  and  the  want 
of  roads,  often  rendered  the  expense  of  grinding  a 
single  bushel  equal  to  the  value  of  two  or  three,"* 
Speaking  of  the  settlement  of  the  Fire  Lands,  C. 
B.  Squier,  late  of  Sandusky  City,  says :  "  The 
largest  suff'erers,  and,  consequently,  those  who 
held  the  largest  interest  in  the  Fire  LandS;  pur- 
chased the  rights  of  many  who  held  smaller  inter- 
ests. The  proprietors  of  these  lands,  anxious  that 
their  new  territory  should  be  settled,  off"ered  strong 
inducements  for  persons  to  settle  in  this  then  un- 
known region.  It  is  quite  difficult  to  ascertain  who 
the  first  settlers  were,  upon  these  lands.  As  early, 
if  not  prior  to  the  organization  of  the  State,  sev- 
eral persons  had  squatted  upon  the  lands  at  the 
mouth  of  the  streams  and  near  the  shore  of  the  lake, 
led  a  hunter's  life,  and  trafficked  with  the  Indians. 
But  they  were  a  race  of  wanderers,  and  gradually 
disappeared  before  the  regular  progress  of  the  set- 
tlements. Those  devoted  missionaries,  the  Mora- 
vians, made  a  settlement,  which  they  called  New 
Salem,  as  early  as  1790,  on  Huron  River,  about 
two  miles  below  Milan.  The  first  regular  settlers, 
however,  were  Col.  Ji'rard  Ward,  who  came  in  the 
spring  of  1808,  and  Almon  Ruggles  and  Jabez 
Wright,  in  succeeding  autumn."  The  next  year 
brought  a  large  inflow  of  immigration,  which  spread 
over  the  greater  portion  of  both  Erie  and  Huron 
Counties,  though  tlie  first  settlement  in  Sandusky 
City  was  not  made  until  1817. 

It  was  not  until  the  year  1800  that  civil  govern- 
ment was  organized  on  the  Western  Reserve.  The 
Governor  and  Judges  of  the  Northwest  Territory, 
under  the  ordinance  of  1787,  by  proclamation  in 
the  following  year,  organized  the  county  of  Wash- 
ington, and  included  within  it  all  of  the  Western 
Reserve  east  of  the  Cuyahoga;  and  in  1790,  the 
year  of  the  first  occupation  by  the  whites  of  the 
New  Connecticut,  the  county  of  Wayne  was  erected, 
which  included  over  one-ha'f  of  Ohio,  all  of  the 
Western  Reserve  west  of  the  Cuyahoga,  with  a 
part  of  Indiana,  all  of  Michigan^  and  the  Ameri- 

*Juiige  Arazi  Atwater. 



can  ])ortion  of  Lakes  Superior,  Huron,  St.  Clair 
and  Erie,  to  the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga,  with  the 
county  scat  at  Detroit.  In  1797,  Jefferson  County 
was  estabUshed,  and  the  Western  lleserve,  east  of 
the  Cuyahoga,  became  a  part  of  it,  by  restricting 
the  hiuits  of  Wiushington.  Connecticut  and  the 
Land  Company  refused  to  recognize  the  right  of 
the  General  Government  to  make  such  disposition 
of  the  Reserve.  The  act  of  including  this  territory 
within  the  counties  of  Washington,  Jefferson  and 
Wayne,  they  declared  to  be  unwarranted,  and  the 
power  of  Congress  to  prescribe  rules  for  the  gov- 
ernment of  the  same,  they  denied,  and  from  the 
opening  settlement  in  1796,  until  the  transfer  of 
jurisdiction  to  the  General  Government  was  com- 
plete, on  May  30, 1800,  the  new  settlers  were  entirely 
without  municipal  laws.  There  was  no  regulation 
governing  the  transmission  of,  or  success  to,  prop- 
erty on  the  decease  of  the  owner ;  no  regulations 
of  any  kind  securing  the  protection  of  rights,  or 
the  redress  of  wrongs.  The  want  of  laws  for  the 
government  of  the  settlers  was  seriously  felt,  and 
as  early  as  1796,  the  company  petitioned  the 
Legislature  of  Connecticut  to  erect  the  Reserve 
into  a  county,  with  proper  and  suitable  laws  to 
regulate  the  internal  policy  of  the  territory  for  a 
limited  period.  This  petition,  however,  was  not 
granted,  and  for  upward  of  four  years  the  inter- 
course and  conduct  of  the  early  settlers  were  regu- 
lated and  restrained  only  by  their  New  England 
sense  of  justice  and  right.  But  on  the  10th  of 
July,  1800,  after  Connecticut  had  released  her 
jurisdiction  to  the  United  States,  the  Western 
Reserve  was  erected  into  a  county,  by  the  name  of 
Trumbull,  in  honor  of  the  Governor  of  Connecti- 
cut, by  the  civil  authority  of  Ohio.  At  the  elec- 
tion in  the  fall  of  that  year,  Edward  Paine  received 
thirty-eight  votes  out  of  the  forty-two  cast,  for 
member  of  tlie  Territorial  Legislature.  The  elec- 
tion was  held  at  Warren,  the  county  seat,  and 
was  the  first  participation  that  the  settlers  had  in 
the  affaiis  of  government  here.  During  the  same 
year  the  Court  of  Quarter  Sessions,  a  tribunal  that 
did  not  survive  the  Constitution  of  1802,  was  es- 
tablished and  organized,  and  by  it  the  ccmnty  was 
divided  into  eight  organized  townships.  The  town- 
ship of  Cleveland  was  one,  and  embraced  a  large 
portion  of  territory  east  of  the  Cuyahoga,  but  all  the 
Reserve  lying  west  of  that  river.  On  December  1 , 
1805,  Geauga  County  was  erected.  It  included 
within  its  limits,  nearly  all  the  present  counties  of 
Ashtabula,  Geauga,  Lake  and  Cuyahoga.  On 
February  10,  1807,  there  was  a  mire  general  di- 

vision into  counties.  That  part  of  the  Western 
Restrve  lying  west  of  the  Cuyahoga  and  north  of 
Township  No.  4,  was  attached  to  Geauga,  to  be  a 
part  thereof  until  Cuyahoga  should  be  organized. 
In  the  same  year  Ashtabula  was  erected  out  of 
Trumbull  aud  Geauga,  to  be  organized  whenever 
its  population  would  warrant  it ;  also,  all  that  part 
of  Trumbull  which  lay  west  of  the  fifth  range  of 
townships,  was  erected  into  a  county  by  the  name 
of  Portage,  all  of  the  Western  Reserve  west  of  the 
Cuyahoga  and  south  of  Townsbip  No.  5,  being 
attached  to  it.  The  C'  unty  of  Cuyahoga  was 
formed  out  of  Geauga,  on  the  same  date,  February 
10,  1807,  to  be  organized  whenever  its  population 
should  be  sufficient  to  require  it,  which  occurred 
in  1810. 

On  February  8,  1809,  Huron  County  was 
erected  into  a  county,  covering  the  Fire  Lands, 
but  to  remain  attached  to  Geauga  and  Portage,  for 
the  time  being,  for  purposes  of  government.  The 
eastern  boundary  of  this  county  was  subsequently, 
in  1811,  moved  forward  to  the  Black  River,  but, 
in  the  year  1822,  it  was  given  its  present  bounda- 
ries, and,  in  1838,  Erie  County  was  erected,  di- 
viding its  territory.  On  the  18th  of  February, 
1812,  Medina  was  formed,  and  comprised  all  the 
territory  between  the  eleventh  range  of  townships 
and  Huron  County,  and  south  of  Township  No. 
5.  It  was  attached  to  Portage,  however,  until 
January  14,  1818,  when  it  received  an  indepcLd- 
ent  organization.  Lorain  County  was  formed  on 
the  2Gth  day  of  December,  1822,  from  the  outly- 
ing portions  of  Huron,  Medina  and  Cuyahoga 
Counties.  It  was  organized  with  an  independent 
local  administration,  January  21,  1824.  In  1840, 
were  organized  Summit  County,  on  March  3,  and 
Lake  County  on  March  G;  the  former  drawing 
from  Medina  and  Portage,  and  taking  two  town- 
ships from  Stark  County,  and  the  latter  being 
formed  from  Geauga  and  Cuyahoga.  '  In  1846, 
Ashland  County  was  formed,  taking  three  town- 
ships of  the  Reserve,  on  February  26,  and  Maho- 
ning, on  March  1,  taking  ten  townships  from 
Trumbull,  leaving  the  boundaries  of  the  Reserve 
as  marked  at  present. 

In  the  history  of  its  social  development,  the 
Western  Reserve  is  not  less  interesting  or  peculiar 
than  in  the  beginning  of  its  material  interests. 
The  history  of  the  mother  State  was  peculiar,  and 
the  Reserve,  it  was  fondly  hoped,  would  be  a  re- 
production of  the  maternal  features  and  graces,  a 
New    Connecticut.     A    chronicler*   of  the  early 

*C'liarles  W.  Elliott. 




history  of  New  England,  writing  of  the  New  Ha- 
ven Colony  of  1G37,  says:  "During  the  first 
year,  little  '  government '  was  needed  or  exercised. 
Each  man  was  a  lord  to  himself.  On  the  4th  of 
June  (1638),  the  settlers  met  in  Mr.  Neuman's 
barn,  and  bound  themselves  by  a  sort  of  Constitu- 
tion. *  *  *  They  decided  to  make  the  Bible 
their  law-book  ;  but  by  and  by  new  towns  were 
made,  and  new  laws  were  needed,  and  they  had 
the  good  sense  to  make  them.  Their  State  was 
founded  upon  their  church,  thus  expressed  in 
their  first  compact,  signed  by  one  hundred  and 
eleven  persons :  '  That  church  members  only 
shall  be  free  Burgesses,  and  that  they  only  shall 
choose  Magistrates  and  officers  among  themselves, 
to  have  the  power  of  transacting  all  publique  civil 
affairs  of  this  plantation,  of  making  and  repealing 
laws,  dividing  of  inheritances,  deciding  of  differ- 
ences that  may  arise,  and  doing  all  things  or  busi- 
nesses of  like  nature.'  "  Twenty-seven  years  later, 
when  circumstances  made  a  union  of  the  two 
Connecticut  Colonies  necessary,  the  greatest  and 
most  lasting  objection  on  the  part  of  the  New  Ha- 
ven Colony  was  the  lessening  of  the  civil  power 
of  the  church  which  would  follow  the  union.  In 
1680,  the  Governor  of  the  United  Colonies,  thus 
describes  the  community:  "The  people  are  strict 
Congregationalists.  There  are  four  or  five  Seven- 
day  men,  and  about  as  many  Quakers.  We  have 
twenty-six  towns  and  twenty-one  churches.  Beg- 
gars and  vagabonds  are  not  suffei-ed,  but  are  bound 
out  to  service."  These  characteristics  of  Connect- 
icut have  been  marked  by  all  historians  as  well  as 
the  facts,  that  she  "  Early  established  and  sup- 
ported schools  and  colleges  ;  her  people  have,  from 
the  outset,  been  industrious  and  honest ;  crime  has 
not  abounded ;  while  talent  and  character,  and 
courage  and  cleanliness,  have  been  common  through 
all  her  history."  It  was  to  reproduce  these 
characteristics  throughout  the  territory  embraced 
within  the  provisions  of  her  charter,  that  the 
mother  State  labored.  For  one  hundred  and 
tliirty  years  she  followed  this  purpose  with  an  un- 
deviating  method.  "  One  tract  after  another,  suf- 
ficient for  a  municipal  government,  was  granted 
to  trusty  men,  who  were  to  form  a  settlement  of 
well  assorted  families,  with  the  church,  the  meet- 
ing house,  the  settled  ministry  of  the  Gospel,  the 
seliool,  the  local  magistracy,  and  the  democratic 
town-meeting  represented  in  the  General  Assem- 
bly. Under  this  method,  se'f-governed  towns  in 
what  is  now  a  part  of  Pennsylvania,  were  once 
represented  in  the  General  Assembly  at  Hartford 

and  New  Haven.'"*  It  was  with  the  hope  of  ex- 
tending this  method  to  the  Reserve  that  Connecti- 
cut so  strenuously  asserted  her  jurisdiction  to  her 
Western  lands ;  but  in  the  years  of  rapid  growth 
succeeding  the  war  of  the  Revolution,  the  old 
method  proved  no  longer  practicable,  and  the  par- 
ent surrendered  her  offspring  to  the  hands  of 
abler  guardians.  But  there  remained  a  field  in 
which  solicitous  regard  could  find  action,  and 
the  impress  of  her  work  in  this  direction  is 
plainly  apparent  to  this  day.  It  was  her  method 
of  "  missions  to  the  new  settlements  "  which  had 
become  crystallized  into  a  system  about  this  time. 
Of  the  scope  and  character  of  this  work.  Rev. 
Leonard  Bacon  thus  speaks :  "  At  first,  individ- 
ual pastors,  encouraged  by  their  brethren,  and  ob- 
taining permission  from  their  churches,  performed 
long  and  weary  journeys  on  horseback  into  Ver- 
mont and  the  great  wilderness  of  Central  New 
York,  that  they  might  preach  the  Word  and  ad 
minister  the  ordinances  of  religion  to  such  mem- 
bers of  their  flocks,  and  others,  as  had  emigrated 
beyond  the  reach  of  ordinary  New  England  priv- 
ileges. By  degrees  the  work  was  enlarged,  and 
arrangements  for  sustaining  it  were  systematized, 
till  in  the  year  1798,  the  same  year  in  which  the 
settlement  of  the  Reserve  brgan,  the  pastors  of 
Connecticut,  in  then-  General  Association,  instituted 
the  Missionary  Society  of  Connecticut.  In  1802, 
one  year  after  the  jurisdiction  of  the  old  State 
over  the  Reserve  was  formally  relinquished,  the 
Trustees  of  the  Missionary  Society  were  incorpo- 
rated. As  early  as  1800,  only  two  years  alter 
the  first  few  families  from  Connecticut  had  planted 
themselves  this  side  of  Northwestern  Pennsylvania, 
the  first  missionary  made  hig  appearance  among 
them.  This  was  the  Rev.  Joseph  Badger,  the 
apostle  of  the  Western  Reserve — a  man  of  large 
and  various  experience,  as  well  as  of  native  force, 
and  of  venerable  simplicity  in  character  and  man- 
ners. In  those  days  the  work  of  the  missionary 
to  the  new  settlements  was  by  no  means  the  same 
with  what  is  now  ca'lcd  '  Home  Missionary  '  work. 
Our  modern  Home  Missionary  has  his  station  and 
his  home ;  his  business  is  to  gather  around  him- 
self a  permanent  congregation ;  his  hope  is  to 
grow  up  with  the  congregation  which  he  gathers, 
and  the  aid  which  he  receives  is  given  to  help  the 
church  support  its  pa-tor.  But  the  old-fashioned 
'  missionary  to  the  new  settlements,'  was  an  itiner- 
ant. He  had  no  station  and  no  settled  home.  If 
he  had  a  family,  his  work  was  continually  calling 

*AJdrrss  by  Leonard  Bacon,  D.  D. 



him  away  from  them.  He  went  from  one  little 
settlement  to  another — from  one  lonely  cabin  to 
another — preaching  from  house  to  house,  and  not 
often  spending  two  consecutive  Sabbaths  in  one 
place.  The  nature  of  the  emigration  to  the  wilder- 
ness, in  those  days,  required  such  labors. 

"  It  was  soon  felt  that  two  mi-ssionaries  were 
needed  for  the  work  among  the  scattered  settle- 
ments. Accordingly,  the  Rev.  Ezekiel  J.  Chap- 
man was  sent.  He  arrived  on  the  Reserve  at  the 
close  of  the  year  1801,  and  returned  to  Connecti- 
cut in  April,  1803.  His  place  was  soon  supplied 
by  a  young  man  ordained  expressly  to  the  work, 
the  Rev.  Thomas  Robbins,  who  continued  labor- 
ing in  this  field  from  November,  1803,  till  April, 
1806.  In  a  letter  of  his,  dated  June  8,  1805, 
I  find  the  following  statement :  '  Since  the  be- 
ginniag  of  the  present  year,  I  have  been  taking 
pains  to  make  an  actual  enumeration  of  the  fami- 
lies in  this  county.*  The  work  I  have  just  com- 
pleted. There  are  one  or  more  families  in  sixty- 
four  towns.  January  1,  1804,  the  number  of 
families  wa^  about  800.  The  first  of  last  January 
there  were  a  little  more  than  1100,  of  which  450 
are  Yankees.  There  were  twenty- four  schools. 
There  are  seven  churches,  with  a  pr.  spect  that 
two  more  vail  be  organized  soon,  and  more  than 
twenty  places  where  the  worship  of  God  is  regu- 
larly maintained  on  the  Sabbath.'  "  Such  was  the 
beginning  of  an  influence  to  which  the  people  of 
the  Reserve  are  principally  indebted  for  the  early 
and  secure  foundation  of  the  church  and  school, 
and  for  that  individuality  which  marks  them  as  a 
peculiar  and  envied  people  in  a  great  common- 
wealth made  up  of  the  chosen  intellect  and  brawn 
of  a  whole  nation. 

Owing  to  the  peculiar  relation  of  the  Reserve  to 
the  General  Government  in  early  years,  the  history 
of  its  public  school  fund  is  exceptional.  Ry  the  ordi- 
nance of  Congress  in  1785,  it  was  declared  that 
Section  16  of  every  township  should  be  reserved 
for  the  maintenance  of  public  schools  in  the  town- 
ship. The  ordinance  of  1787,  re-afhrmed  the 
policy  thus  declared.  The  provisions  ordi- 
nances, in  this  respect,  were  not  applicable  to,  nor 
operative  over,  the  region  of  the  Reserve,  because 
of  the  fact  that  the  United  States  did  not  own  its 
soil ;  and,  although  the  entire  amount  paid  to 
Connecticut  by   the  Land  Company  for  the  terri- 

*Trumbull  County  then  iucludcd  the  whole  of  the  Reserye. 

tory  of  the  Reserve  was  set  apart  for,  and  devoted 
to,  the  maintenance  of  public  schools  in  that  State, 
no  part  of  that  fund  was  appropriated  to  purposes 
of  education  here.  There  was  an  inequality  of 
advantages  between  the  people  of  the  Reserve  and 
the  remai.ider  of  the  State,  in  that  respect.  This 
inequality  was,  however,  in  a  measure  removed  in 
1803,  by  an  act  of  Congress,  which  set  apart  and 
appropriated  to  the  Western  Reserve,  as  an  e(|uiv- 
alent  for  Section  16,  a  sufficient  quantity  of  land 
in  the  United  States  Military  District,  to  compen- 
sate the  loss  of  that  section,  in  the  lands  lying  east 
of  the  "Cuyahoga.  This  amount  was  equal  to  one- 
thirty-sixth  of  the  land  of  the  reserve,  to  which 
the  Indian  title  had  before  that  time  been  extin- 
guished. The  Indian  title  to  the  lands  of  the  Re- 
serve west  of  the  Cuyahoga,  not  then  having  been 
extinguished,  the  matter  seemed  to  drop  from 
public  notice,  and  remain  so  until  1829.  At  this 
date,  the  Legislature,  in  a  memorial  to  Congress, 
directed  its  attention  to  the  fact,  that,  by  the  treaty 
of  Fort  Industry,  concluded  in  1805,  the  Indian 
title  to  the  land  west  of  the  Cuyahoga,  had  been 
relinquished  to  the  United  States,  and  prayed  in 
recognition  of  the  fact,  that  an  additional  amount 
of  land  lying  within  the  United  States  Military 
District,  should  be  set  apart  for  the  use  of  the 
public  schools  of  the  Reserve,  and  equal  in  quan- 
tity to  one  thirty-sixth  of  the  territory  ceded 
to  the  United  States  by  that  treaty.  The  memo- 
rial produced  the  desired  result.  In  1834,  Con- 
gress, in  compliance  with  a  request  of  the  Leg- 
islature, granted  such  an  additional  amount 
of  land  to  the  Reserve  for  scho  1  purposes, 
as  to  equalize  its  di.stribu'ion  of  lands  for 
such  purpose,  and  in  furtherance  of  its  ob- 
ject to  carry  into  effect  its  determination  to 
donate  one  thirty-sixth  part  of  the  public  domain 
to  the  purposes  of  education.  The  lands  first 
allotted  to  the  Reserve  for  such  purpose,  were  sit- 
uated in  the  Counties  of  Holmes  and  Tuscarawas, 
and  in  1831,  were  surveyed  and  sold,  the  proceeds 
arising  from  their  sale  as  well  as  the  funds  arising 
from  the  sale  of  those  subsefiuently  appropri- 
ated, being  placed  and  invested  with  other 
school  funds  of  the  State,  and  constitute  one  of 
the  sources  from  which  the  people  of  the  Reserve 
derive  the  means  of  supporting  and  maintaining 
their  common  schools. 















^ S'|>> 

PART    II. 




"And  riper  eras  ask  for  history's  trutli." 

—Vliviir  Wendell  HnJmes. 

ri^^HE  advantages  resulting  from  the  local  his- 
_L  tory  of  cities  and  countries  is  no  longer  a 
matter  of  doubt.  Whether  considered  solel}'  as 
objects  of  interest  or  amusement,  or  as  having  the 
still  wider  utilit}'  of  the  places  they  describe, 
these  records  are  worthy  of  high  consideration. 
And  although  in  a  country  like  ours,  this  depart- 
ment of  history  can  claim  to  chronicle  no  great 
events,  nor  to  relate  any  of  those  local  tradi- 
tions that  make  many  of  the  countries  of  the 
Old  World  so  famous  in  story  and  song,  yet 
they  can  fulfill  the  equal  use  of  directing  the 
attention  of  those  abroad  to  the  rise,  progress 
and  present  standing  of  places  which  ma}'  fairly 
claim,  in  the  future,  what  has  made  others  great 
in  the  past.  And  in  any  age,  when  everj'  en- 
ergy of  the  whole  brotherhood  of  maij  is 
directed  to  the  future,  and  when  mere  utilitari- 
anism has  taken  the  place  of  romance,  it  is  a 
matter  of  more  than  ordinary-  interest  and  value 
to  all,  to  note  the  practical  advancement,  and 
so  to  calculate,  upon  the  basis  of  the  past,  the 
probable  results  of  the  future  of  those  places 
which  seem  to  present  advantages,  either  social 
or  pecuniar}',  to  that  large  class  of  foreigners 
and  others,  who  are  constantly  seeking  for 
homes  or  means  of  occupation  among  us.  Nor 
is  it  to  these  alone  that  such  local  history  is  of 
value.  The  country  already  possesses  much 
unemployed  capital  seeking  for  investment, 
while  many,  having  already  procured  the  means 
of  living  well,  are  seeking  for  homes  more  con- 
genial to  their  tastes  than  the  places  where  they 

*  Contributed  by  W.  II.  Perrin. 

have  lived  but  for  pecuniary  profit.  To  both 
of  these,  the  history  of  individual  localities  is 
an  invaluable  aid  in  helping  the  one  to  discover 
a  means  of  advantageously  employing  his  sur- 
plus money,  and  in  aiding  the  other  to  find  a 
home  possessing  those  social  advantages  which 
will  render  him  comfortable  and  happy.  But 
it  is  to  the  emigrant  foreigner  that  local  his- 
tory is  of  the  greatest  benefit.  Leaving,  as  he 
does,  a  country,  with  whose  resources,  social, 
moral  and  political,  he  is  intimately  acquainted, 
for  one  of  which  he  knows  almost  nothing,  such 
works,  carefully  and  authentically  written,  are 
to  him  what  the  guide-books  of  the  Old  World 
are  to  the  wonder-seeking  traveler ;  they  pre- 
sent him  at  once  with  a  faithful  view  of  the 
land  of  his  adoption,  and  point  out  to  him 
every  advantage  and  disadvantage,  every  chance 
of  profit  or  of  pleasure,  every  means  of  gain, 
every  hope  of  gratification,  that  is  anywhere  to 
be  afforded. 

Impressed  with  these  opinions,  it  is  proposed 
to  present  the  citizens  of  Summit  County  with 
an  authentic  and  impartial  history  ;  one  which 
may  be  implicitly  relied  on  in  its  calcula- 
tions and  statistical  details,  and  which  shall 
present  as  accurate  and  faithful  a  survey  as  can 
bo  obtained  from  any  data  known  to  ihe  writers 
of  the  diflferent  departments,  or  attainable  by 
them.  With  all  the  care  that  may  be  exercised, 
however,  the  record  will  no  doubt  be  found  im- 
perfect; incidents  and  names  be  left  out,  and 
matters  escape  notice  which  many  will  deem 
unpardonable  omissions.  This  is  one  of  the 
things  which  detract  from  the  pleasure  of  writing 
local  annals.      But  it  is  more  or  less  unavoid- 




able,  as  no  one  can  know  and  remember  every- 
thing, and  both  the  time  and  space  allotted  to 
us  are  limited. 

Summit  County  lies  in  the  northeastern  part 
of  the  State,  witli  but  one  count}^  between  it 
and  the  lake,  and  is  bounded  on  the  north  by 
Cuyahoga  County,  on  the  east  b}^  Portage,  on 
the  south  by  Stark,  on  the  west  by  Medina, 
and  embraces  within  its  limits  seventeen  town- 
ships (including  Cuyahoga  Falls).  It  is  sit- 
uated on  the  highlands,  or  the  "  summit " 
(from  which  it  derives  the  name  of  Sum- 
mit), which  separate  the  tributaries  of  the 
Ohio  from  the  waters  flowing  north  into  Lake 
Erie,  and  has  an  average  elevation  of  about 
five  hundred  feet  above  the  lake.  "  The  Cuya- 
hoga River,  rising  in  the  northern  part  of 
Geauga  County,  runs  for  forty  miles  in  a 
southwesterly  direction,  then  in  the  center  of 
Summit  County  turns  sharply  to  the  north,  and 
pursues  a  nearly  straight  course  to  the  lake. 
In  Geauga  and  Portage,  the  Cuyahoga  flows  on 
the  surface  of  a  plateau  composed  of  the  car- 
boniferous conglomerate.  At  the  town  of 
Cuyahoga  Falls,  in  this  county,  this  plateau  is 
cut  through  in  a  series  of  cascades  which  give 
rise  to  much  beautiful  scenery.  The  river  here 
falls  220  feet  in  two  miles,  so  that  from  the  vi- 
cinity of  Akron  to  the  north  line  of  the  county, 
it  flows  through  a  narrow  valley  or  gorge  more 
than  three  hundred  feet  deep.  At  frequent  in- 
tervals, the  Cuyahoga  receives  tributaries,  both 
from  the  east  and  the  west,  and  the  valleys  of 
these  streams  contribute  their  part  to  give  va- 
riety to  the  topography  of  the  central  portion 
of  the  county."  * 

In  the  geological  and  physical  features  of 
the  county,  we  shall  draw  our  information  prin- 
cipall}^  from  the  State  Geological  Survey.  It 
is  the  official  report  of  the  State  on  these  sub- 
jects, and  may  be  relied  on  as  substantially 
correct.  And  as  there  were  but  a  limited  num- 
ber of  them  printed,  and  they  are  even  now  be- 
coming scarce,  the  extracts  from  them  incorpo- 
rated in  this  work  will  be  found  of  interest  and 
value  to  our  readers.  We  quote  further,  as 
follows  : 

"  The  highest  lands  in  Summit  are  the  hills 
most  distant  from  the  channels  of  drainage,  in 
Richfield,  Norton,  Green,  Springfield,  Tallmadge, 
and  Hudson.  In  all  these  townships,  summits 
rise  to  the  height  of  650  above  the  lake.     The 

*  Geological  Survey. 

bottom  of  the  Cuyahoga  Valley,  in  the  north- 
ern part  of  Northfield,  is  less  than  fifty  feet 
above  Lake  Erie,  so  that  within  the  county  we 
have  differences  of  level  which  exceed  600  feet. 
The  altitudes  in  Summit  County  ai'e  thus  offi- 
cially given  :  Tallmadge,  Long  Swamp,  above 
Lake  Erie  470  feet  ;  Tallmadge  road,  east  of 
Center,  543  feet ;  Tallmadge,  Coal  No.  1,  New- 
berry's mine,  520  feet ;  Tallmadge,  Coal  No.  1, 
D.  Upson's  mine,  492  feet ;  Tallmadge,  summit 
of  Coal  Hill,  636  feet ;  Akron,  door-sill  of 
court  house,  452.65  feet ;  Akron,  railroad 
depot.  428.13  feet ;  Akron,  summit  level, 
Ohio  Canal,  highwater,  395  feet ;  Akron,  P. 
&  O.  Canal,  370.64  feet  ;  Cuyahoga  Falls,  rail- 
road depot,  428.13  feet  ;  Monroe  Falls,  road 
before  Hickok  house,  460  feet ;  Hudson  Station, 
496  feet  ;  Hudson  town,  547  feet ;  Boston, 
Ohio  Canal,  94.66  feet ;  Peninsula,  Ohio  Ca- 
nal, 125.66  feet ;  Yellow  Creek,  Ohio  Canal, 
180  feet ;  Old  Portage,  Ohio  Canal,  188  feet ; 
Green,  summit  of  Valley  Railroad,  532  feet; 
New  Portage,  street  in  front  of  tavern,  400 
feet ;  lake,  between  New  Portage  and  Johnson's 
Corners,  399  feet ;  Wolf  Creek,  below  Clark's 
mill,  390.74  feet ;  Wolf  Creek,  in  Copley,  one 
mile  west  of  north-and-south  center  road,  419- 
.78  feet ;  Little  Cuyahoga,  Mogadore,  477  feet ; 
Little  Cuyahoga,  at  Gilchrist's  mill-dam,  457 
feet ;  Little  Cuyahoga,  old  forge  at  trestle,  439 
feet ;  Richfield,^East  Center,  531.80  feet ;  Rich- 
field, highest  land  (over),  675  feet ;  Yellow 
Creek,  one-fourth  mile  west  of  Ghent,  371  feet. 
"  The  soil  of  Summit  County  is  somewhat 
varied.  In  the  northern  part,  even  where  un- 
derlaid by  the  conglomerate  in  full  thickness, 
the  soil  derived  from  the  drift  contains  a  great 
deal  of  clay,  and  Northfield,  Twinsburg,  Hudson, 
etc.,  are,  as  a  consequence,  dairy  towns.  The 
southern  half  of  the  countj^,  however,  has  a 
loam  soil,  and  the  attention  of  the  farmers  has 
been  directed  more  to  grain-growing  than  stock- 
raising.  This  difference  of  soil  was  clearly  in- 
dicated by  the  original  vegetable  growth.  In 
Hudson  and  Twinsburg  the  forest  was  com- 
posed, for  the  most  part,  of  beech,  maple,  bass- 
wood  and  elm,  while  in  Stow,  Tallmadge,  and 
southward,  the  prevailing  forest  growth  was 
oak.  In  Franklin  and  Green,  the  soil  is  decid- 
edly gravelly  ;  the  original  timber  was  oak,  in 
groves  and  patches,  and  these  townships  form 
part  of  the  famous  wheat-growing  district  of 
Stark,  Wayne,  etc.     In  the  central  part  of  the 




county,  between  Akron  and  Cuyahoga  Falls, 
a  few  thousand  acres,  called  "  The  Plains," 
formerly  presented  a  marked  contrast  to  the 
rolling  and  densely-  timbered  surface  of  all  the 
surrounding  area.  This  is  a  nearly  level  dis- 
trict of  which  the  peculiar  features  are  mostly- 
obliterated  by  cultivation,  but  when  in  the  state 
of  nature,  it  had  the  aspect  of  the  prairies  of 
the  West.  It  was  almost  destitute  of  timber, 
was  covered  with  grass  and  scrub-oak  (quercus 
baru'steri),  and,  in  spring,  was  a  perfect  flower- 
garden  ;  for  a  much  lai^ger  number  of  wild 
flowers  were  found  here  than  in  any  other  part 
of  the  county.  The  origin  of  these  peculiar 
features  ma}'  be  traced  to  the  nature  of  the 
substructure  of  the  district.  This  area  forms 
a  triangle  between  the  two  branches  of  the 
Cuyahoga  and  the  coal-hills  of  Tallmadge  ; 
the  soil  is  sandy,  und  this  is  underlaid  by  beds 
of  gravel  of  unknown  depth.  It  seems  that 
there  once  existed  here  a  deeply  excavated  rock 
basin,  which  was  subsequently  partly  filled  up 
with  drift  deposits  and  parti}'  by  water ;  in 
other  words,  that  it  was,  for  a  time,  a  lake. 
The  waters  of  this  lake  deposited  the  sand 
which  now  forms  the  soil.  and.  in  its  deeper 
portions,  a  series  of  lacustrine  clays,  which  are 
well  shown  in  the  cutting  recently  made  for  a 
road  on  the  north  side  of  the  valley  of  the  Lit- 
tle Cuyahoga,  near  Akron.  The  sections  of 
these  beds  are  as  follows : 


1.  Stratified  sand 10 

2.  Bkie  clay 4 

3.  Mixed  yellow  and  blue  clay,  stratified  1  1 

4.  Blue  clay 10 

5.  Yellow  clay 10 

6.  Blue  clay 1 

7.  Red  clay 1 

8.  Yellow  clay 1 

9.  Blue  clay 8 

10.  Red  clay 2 

11.  Blue  clay 6 

12.  Redclav 10 

13.  Blue  clay 1             6 

14.  Red  clay 3 

15.  Yellow  clay 1             6 

16.  Blue  clay 3 

17.  Red  clay 1 

18.  Fine  yellow  sand 1 

19.  Yellow  clay 3 

20.  Blue  clay 4 

21.  Yellow  clay 3 

22.  Blue  clay 4 

"  In  another  section,  exposed  neaoly  in  the 
valley  of  the  Little  Cuyahoga,  the  beds  which 
have  been  enumerated  are  seen  to  be  underlaid 

by  about  sixty  feet  of  stratified  sand  and 
gravel  to  the  bed  of  the  stream.  To  what 
depth  they  extend  is  not  known.  On  the  op- 
posite side  of  the  Little  Cuyahoga,  on  the  main 
road  leading  into  Akron,  the  banks  of  the  old 
valley  present  a  very  dirterent  section  from 
either  of  those  to  which  I  have  I'eferred  above. 
There  we  find  a  hill  composed  of  finely  washed 
and  irregularly  stratified  sand,  quite  free  from 
pebbles.  About  ten  or  twelve  feet  of  the  up- 
per part  is  yellow  ;  the  lower  part,  as  far  as  ex- 
posed, white  ;  a  waved  line  separating  the  two 
colors.  East  and  north  of  the  locality  where 
the  detailed  section  given  above  was  taken, 
heavy  beds  of  gravel  are  seen  to  occupy  the 
same  horizon  ;  from  which  we  may  learn  that 
these  finely  laminated  clays  were  deposited  in 
a  basin  of  water,  of  which  the  shore  was  formed 
by  gravel  hills.  A  portion  of  the  city  of  Ak- 
ron is  underlaid  by  thick  beds  of  stratified 
sand  and  gravel.  These  are  often  cross-strati- 
fied, and  show  abundant  evidences  of  current 
action.  They  also  contain  large  angular  blocks 
of  conglomerate  attd  many  fragments  of  coal, 
some  of  which  are  of  considerable  size.  ^Ye 
apparently  have  some  of  the  materials  which 
were  cut  out  of  the  valleys  that  separate  the 
isolated  outliei's  of  the  coal  measures  which  are 
found  in  this  part  of  the  county.  Beds  of 
gravel  and  sand  stretch  away  southward  from 
Akron,  and  form  part  of  a  belt  which  extends 
through  Stark  County,  partially  filling  the  old, 
deeply-cut  valley  of  the  Tuscarawas,  and  ap- 
parently marking  the  line  of  the  southern  ex- 
tension of  the  valley  of  Cuyahoga  when  it  was 
a  channel  of  drainage  from  the  lake  basin  to 
the  Ohio.  This  old  and  partially  obliterated 
channel  has  been  referred  to  in  the  chapter  on 
the  physical  geography  of  the  State,  and  it  will 
be  more  fully  described  in  the  chapters  on  sur- 
face geology  and  those  formed  by  the  reports 
on  Stark  and  Tuscarawas  Counties.  I  will  only 
refer  to  it,  in  passing,  to  say  that  the  line 
of  the  Ohio  Canal,  of  which  the  summit  is 
at  Akron,  was  carried  through  this  old  water 
gap,  because  it  still  forms  a  comparatively  low 
pass.  In  the  western  part  of  the  State,  the 
Miami  Canal  traverses  a  similar  pass,  and  an- 
other, having  nearly  tlie  same  level  with  those 
mentioned,  in  Trumbull  County,  connects  the 
valleys  of  Grand  River  and  the  Mahoning. 

"  The  thick  beds  of  gravel  and  sand  which 
underlie  the  plain  and  stretch  eastward  up  the 




valley  of  the  Little  Cuj'ahoga,  through  Southern 
Tallmadge,  perhaps  form  part  of  the  great 
gravel  belt  to  which  I  have  already  alluded, 
but  may  be  of  mere  local  origin.  It  seems  to 
me  quite  possible  that  the  Cuyahoga,  in  former 
times,  passed  eastward  of  its  present  course, 
from  Kent  or  Monroe  Falls  to  Akron  ;  that  the 
falls  of  the  Cuyahoga  were  then  near  the  '  Old 
Forge,'  and  that  this  excavated  basin  beneath 
the  '  plains '  was  scooped  out  by  them.  We 
know  that  the  position  of  the  falls  has  been 
constantl}^  changing  ;  that  they  were  once  in 
Cuyahoga  County,  and  have  gradually  receded 
to  their  present  position.  When  they  had 
worked  back  to  the  great  bend  of  the  Cuyahoga, 
the}'  seem  to  have  swung  round  the  circle  for 
some  time  before  starting  on  their  present  line 
of  progress.  In  this  interval,  the  river  appears 
to  have  flowed  over  a  bi'oad  front  of  the  con- 
glomerate, and,  cutting  away  the  shales  below, 
to  have  produced  the  rock  basin  which  has 
been  described.  When  the  falls  of  the  Cuya- 
hoga were  at  the  north  line  of  the  count}',  they 
must  have  had  a  perpendicular  height  of  at 
least  two  hundred  feet,  for  the  hard  layers  in 
the  Cu^'ahoga  shale  which  produce  the  '  Big 
Falls  '  do  not  extend  so  far  north.  The  entire 
mass  of  the  Cuyahoga  shale  there  is  soft  argil- 
laceous material,  which  must  have  been  cut  out 
beneath  the  massive  conglomerate,  producing  a 
cascade  at  least  equal  in  height  to  that  of  Ni- 

"  The  north-south  portion  of  the  Cuyahoga 
Valley  seems  to  have  been  once  continued 
southward,  and  to  have  been  connected  with 
the  old  valley  of  the  Tuscarawas,  which  is  ex- 
cavated far  below  the  bed  of  the  present 
stream.  At  the  north  line  of  the  count}',  the 
valley  of  the  Cuyahoga  is  cut  down  two  hun- 
dred and  twent}'  feet  below  the  present  river 
bottom,  as  we  learn  by  wells  bored  for  oil.  The 
bottom  of  the  valley  of  the  Tuscarawas  is,  at 
Canal  Dover,  one  hundred  and  sevent3'-five  feet 
below  the  surface  of  the  stream,  and  there  are 
many  facts  which  indicate  that  there  was  once 
a  powerful  current  of  water  passing  from  the 
lake  basin  to  the  Ohio  through  this  deeply  ex- 
cavated channel.  Subsequently,  this  outlet  was 
dammed  up  by  heav}'  Ijeds  of  drift;  and  the 
Cuyahoga,  cut  from  its  connection  with  the 
Tuscarawas,  to  which  it  had  been  a  tributary, 
was  forced  to  turn  sharpl}'  to  the  north,  form- 
ing the  abrupt  curve  that  has  always  been  re- 

garded as  a  peculiar  feature  in  the  course  of 
this  stream.  The  courses  of  the  tributaries  of 
the  Maumee  are  not  unlike  that  of  the  Cuj-a- 
hoga,  and  are  probably  dependent  upon  the 
same  cause,  namel}-,  the  depression  of  the  lake 
level  and  the  diversion  of  the  drainage  from  the 
Mississippi  system,  with  which  it  was  formerly 
connectecl,  into  the  lake  basin.  The  drift  clays 
which  underlie  the  northern  part  of  Summit 
County  are  plainly  of  northern  origin,  as  they 
contain  innumerable  fragments  of  the  Huron, 
Erie  and  Cuyahoga  shales,  and  no  such  mass  of 
argillaceous  material  could  be  derived  from  the 
conglomerate  and  coal  measures  which  underlie 
all  the  country  toward  the  south.  The  direc- 
tion of  the  glacial  striae  in  the  county  is  nearly- 
northwest  and  southeast,  and  these  clays  are 
plainly  the  result  of  glacial  action.  It  is  inter- 
esting to  note,  however,  that  in  the  drift  cla}'  at 
Hudson  a  large  number  of  masses  of  coal  have 
been  found,  some  of  which  were  several  inches 
in  diameter.  This  fact,  taken  in  connection 
with  the  character  and  histoiy  of  the  drift 
clays,  proves — what  we  had  good  reason  to  be- 
lieve from  other  causes — that  the  coal  rocks 
once  extended  at  least  as  far  north  as  the 
northern  limits  of  the  count}',  and  that  from  all 
the  northern  townships  they  were  removed  and 
the  conglomerate  laid  bare  by  glacial  erosion. 
A  considerable  portion  of  the  drift  gravels  in 
the  southern  part  of  the  county  are  of  foreign 
and  nox'thern  orighi.  As  I  have  elsewhere  re- 
marked, these  gravels  and  the  associated  lands 
show  distinct  marks  of  water  action,  and  have 
apparently  been  sorted  and  stratified  by  the 
sliore  waves  of  the  lake  when  it  stood  several 
hundred  feet  higher  than  now.  The  bowlders 
which  are  strewn  over  the  surface  in  all  parts 
of  the  county  are  mostly  composed  of  Lanren- 
tian  granite  from  Canada,  and  I  have  attributed 
their  transportation  to  icebergs.  In  North- 
ampton, many  huge  bowlders  of  corniferous 
limestone  are  found,  and  these  evidently  came 
from  the  islands  in  Lake  Erie. 

"  One  of  the  most  striking  of  the  surface 
features  of  Summit  County  is  the  great  num- 
ber of  small  lakes  which  are  found  here.  These 
are  generally  beautiful  sheets  of  pure  water,  en- 
closed in  basins  of  drift,  gravel  and  sand.  They 
form  part  of  the  great  series  of  lake  basins 
which  mark  the  line  of  the  water-shed  from 
Pennsylvania  to  Michigan,  and  they  have  been 
described,  and  their  origin  explained,  in   the 





chapter  on  '  Physical  Geography.'  When  a  resi- 
dent of  Summit  County,  I  mapped  and  visited  i 
nearly  one  hundred  of  these  little  lakes  within 
a  circle  of  twenty  miles  radius  drawn  around 
Cu^'ahoga  Falls.  Aside  from  the  variety  and 
beauty  which  these  lakelets  give  to  the  surface, 
they  afford  many  objects  of  scientific  interest. 
They  are  usually  stocked  with  excellent  fish, 
and  many  rare  and  peculiar  plants  grow  in  and 
about  them.  They  also  contain  great  numbers 
of  shells,  some  of  which  are  rare.  Springfield 
Lake,  for  example,  is  the  only  known  locality 
of  Melania  gracilis,  and  Congress  Lake  contains 
two  species  of  lAnnea  {L.  gracilis  and  L.  stag-  ; 
nalis),  both  of  which  are  found  in  few,  if  any.  ; 
other,  localities  in  the  State.  i\Lany  of  these 
are  being  gradually  filled  up  Ijy  a  growth  of 
vegetation  that  ultimately  forms  peat.  Li  all 
those  lakes  where  the  shores  are  marshy  and 
shake  under  the  tread,  peat  is  accumulating.  ! 
We  have  evidence,  too,  that  many  lakelets  have  | 
been  filled  up  and  obliterated  by  this  process  ; 
for  we  find  a  large  number  of  marshes  in  which 
there  is  now  little  water,  but  the  surface  is  un-  { 
derlaid  b}'  peat  and  shell  marl,  sometimes  to 
the  depth  of  twent}' or  thirty  feet.  Every  town- 
ship contains  more  or  less  of  these,  and  some 
of  them  are  quite  extensive.  The  larger  ones 
are  usually  known  as  whortleberry  swamps  or 
cranberry  marshes,  sometimes  as  tamarack 
swamps,  from  the  growth  of  larch  which  fre- 
quently covers  the  surface.  Among  the  largest 
of  these  is  that  west  of  Hudson,  on  Mud  Brook, 
in  which  the  peat  is  fifteen  feet  deep.  Another 
lies  east  of  Hudson,  near  the  county  line.  In 
Stow,  on  Mud  Brook,  is  a  long  peat  swamp,  in 
which  the  peat  is  not  less  than  thirty  feet  deep. 
In  Coventry  is  one  in  which  the  peat  is  said  to 
be  thirty  or  forty  feet  deep,  and  from  this  con- 
siderable peat  of  excellent  quality  has  been 
manufactured  b}^  J.  F.  Brunot.  These  peat 
bogs  have  excited  some  interest  as  possible 
sources  of  supply  of  fuel,  and  yet,  where  coal 
is  as  cheap  and  good  as  in  Summit  County,  it 
seems  hardl3'  probably  that  peat  can  be  profit- 
abl}'  emplo^'ed  as  a  fuel.  The  best  of  peat, 
when  air-dried,  contains  nearly  20  per  cent  of 
water  and  20  per  cent  of  oxygen,  and  has  a  heat- 
ing power  not  greater  than  half  that  of  our 
coals,  while  it  occupies  double  the  space.  Hence, 
unless  it  can  be  produced  at  half  the  price  of 
coal  in  the  markets  of  Summit  County,  it  can 
hardly  compete  with  it.     Peat  is,  however,  an 

excellent    fertilizer,   and    many,   even  of  the 

smaller  peat  bogs,  maj^  be  made  very  valuable 
to  the  agriculturist.  In  some  localities,  such 
deposits  of  peat  have  been  cleared  up  and  cul- 
tivated for  many  years,  without  a  suspicion 
that  there  was  an^'thing  of  interest  or  value 
below  the  surface.  Deposits  of  shell  marl 
are  frequently  found  underl3ang  peat  in  '  cat 
swamps  '  and  filled-up  lakelets.  This  marl  is 
composed  of  the  remains  of  the  shells  of  mol- 
lusks,  which,  after  the  death  of  the  animals  that 
inhabited  them,  have  accumulated  at  the  bot- 
tom of  the  water.  In  some  instances,  these 
mai'ls  are  white,  and  nearly  pure  lime  ;  in  others 
they  are  mixed  with  more  or  less  earth}'  and  veg- 
etal3le  matter.  Such  deposits  occur  in  nearly 
every  township  in  the  count}',  but  they  have 
attracted  little  attention,  and  their  valuable 
fertilizing  properties  have  been  very  sparingly 
made  available.  The  deposit  of  shell  marl  on 
the  road  between  Hudson  and  Stow,  on  land 
of  Charles  Darrow,  is  at  least  twelve  feet  deep 
and  very  pure.  Similar  marl-beds,  though  less 
extensive,  are  known  in  Hudson,  Northampton 
and  other  parts  of  the  county.  Usually  a  sheet 
of  peat  or  muck  covers  the  marl,  and  it  is  not 
likely  to  be  discovered,  unless  by  ditching  or 
special  search.  The  simplest  method  of  ex- 
ploring marshes  for  peat  or  shell  marl  is  with  an 
auger  made  from  an  old  two-inch  or  three-inch 
carpenter's  auger  welded  to  a  small,  square  rod 
of  iron,  on  which  a  handle  is  made  to  slide,  and 
fasten  with  a  key.  With  this  all  marshes  may 
be  probed  to  the  depth  of  eight  or  ten  feet  with 
the  greatest  facility. 

"  The  Erie  shale  is  the  lowest  formation  ex- 
posed in  Summit  County,  and  is  visible  only  in 
the  bottom  of  the  valley  of  the  Cuyahoga,  where 
it  is  cut  deepest,  in  the  township  of  Northfield. 
About  one  hundred  feet  of  the  upper  portion  of 
the  Erie  shale  is  exposed  in  the  cliffs  which 
border  the  river,  being  a  continuation  of  the 
outcrops  which  have  been  fully  described  in  the 
report  on  the  geology  of  Cuyahoga  County. 
The  same  fossils  have  been  found  in  the  Erie 
shale  in  Northfield,  as  those  collected  in  the 
valleys  of  Chii)i)ewa  and  Tinker's  Creeks. 

''  The  Lower  Carboniferous  or  Waverly  group 
is  freely  opened  in  the  valley  of  the  Cuyahoga, 
and  we  here  find  some  of  the  most  satisfactory 
sections  of  this  formation  that  can  be  seen  in 
the  State.  It  has  also  yielded,  perhaps,  as 
large  a  number  of  fossils  in  Summit  Countv  as 




have  been  obtained  from  this  group  in  any 
other  localities.  The  Cleveland  shale  is  the 
bi luminous  shale  which  forms  the  base  of  the 
Waverly  group,  and  has  been  fully  described 
in  the  reports  on  the  counties  which  form  the 
northern  border  of  the  State.  The  outcrops  of 
the  Cleveland  shale  which  are  visible  in  the 
valley  of  the  Cuyahoga  are  continuations  south- 
ward of  those  noticed  in  Cuyahoga  County. 
As  the  dip  of  all  the  strata  is  here  gently 
southward,  and  the  valley  gradually  deepens 
toward  its  mouth,  the  Cleveland  shale,  though 
on  the  north  line  of  the  county  more  than  lUO 
feet  above  the  bed  of  the  stream,  sinks  out  of 
sight  near  Peninsula,  less  than  ten  miles  from 
the  county  line.  The  average  thickness  of  the 
Cleveland  shale  in  Summit  County  is  about 
fifty  feet,  and  it  presents  precisely  the  same 
lithological  characters  here  as  farther  north. 
No  fossils  have  been  discovered  in  it  at  the  lo- 
calities where  it  has  been  examined  in  this 
count}',  but  more  careful  search  would  undoubt- 
edly result  in  the  discovery  of  the  scales  and 
teeth  of  fishes  similar  to  those  found  at  Bed- 
ford. As  in  Trumbull,  Cuyahoga  and  Medina 
Counties,  the  outcrops  of  the  Cleveland  shale  in 
Summit  are  marked  by  oil  and  gas  springs, 
which  are  plainl}'  produced  b}-  the  decomposi- 
tion or  spontaneous  distillation  of  the  lai'ge 
amounts  of  carbonaceous  matter  it  contains. 
Tlie  oil  and  gas  springs  which  have  been  no- 
ticed on  the  sides  of  the  Cuyahoga  Valley  at 
and  below  Peninsula,  are  distinctly'  connected 
with  the  Cleveland  shale,  and  have,  as  a  conse- 
quence, misled  those  who  have  been  influenced 
by  them  to  l)ore  for  oil  in  the  bottom  of  the 

'•The  Bedford  shale,  a  member  of  the  Wa- 
verly group,  is  not  well  exposed  in  the  valley 
of  the  Cuyahoga,  though  visible  at  a  number  of 
localities.  It  outcrops  usuall}'  from  slopes 
covered  with  debris.  Where  the  limits  of  the 
formation  are  concealed,  judging  from  the 
glimpses  obtained  of  it,  the  Bedford  shale  is 
apparenily  about  seventy  feet  thick  in  the  valley 
of  the  Cu^'ahoga,  and  consists  mainly  of  soft, 
blue,  argillaceous  strata,  similar  to  those  in  the 
gorge  of  Tinker's  Creek,  at  Bedford.  In  some 
localities  it  is  more  or  less  red,  and  has  been 
here,  as  elsewhere,  used  as  a  mineral  paint.  In 
the  \alley  of  Braudywine  Creek,  below  the 
falls,  the  Bedford  shale  is  fossiliferous,  and 
contains  the  same  species  found  at  Bedford. 

Among  these,  Syringothyrls  typa  is  the  most 
conspicuous  and  abundant,  and  slabs  may  be 
obtained  here  which  are  thickly  set  with  this 
fine  fossil,  forming  beautiful  specimens  for  the 

'■  The  Berea  sandstone  is  well  exposed  in  the 
valley  of  the  Cu3'ahoga  in  the  northern  part  of 
the  county,  and  forms  two  lines  of  outcrop — 
one  on  each  side  of  the  river — running  from 
Peninsula  to  Independence  on  the  west,  and 
to  Bedford  and  Newburg  on  the  East.  At 
Peninsula,  the  Berea  grit  has  been  extensively 
quarried  for  many  years.  The  base  of  the 
formation  is  here  from  thirty  to  sixt}'  feet  above 
the  canal,  so  that  the  quarries  are  worked 
with  facility,  and  their  product  shipped  with 
comparatively,  Utile  expense.  The  entire  thick- 
ness of  the  formation  in  the  valley'  of  the 
Cuyahoga  is  about  sixty  feet.  The  stone  it 
furnishes  varies  considerably  in  character  in 
the  different  localities  where  it  is  exposed.  At 
the  quarries  of  Mr.  Woods,  at  Peninsula,  it  is 
lighter  in  color  than  at  Independence,  resem- 
bling the  Berea  stone  in  this  respect,  as  also  in 
hardness.  Some  layers  are  nearly  white,  and  a 
large  amount  of  excellent  building  stone  has 
been  shipped  from  this  locality  and  used  for  the 
construction  of  various  public  buildings  at 
Cleveland,  Detroit,  Buffalo,  Oswego,  etc.  This 
stone  is  more  firm  and  durable,  but  is  harder 
and  less  homogeneous  than  that  from  the  Am- 
herst quarries  ;  it  is,  however,  so  highly  es- 
teemed, that  a  read}'  market  has  been  found 
for  all  that  has  been  taken  from  the  quarries. 
During  1871,  the  stone  shipped  from  Peninsula 
was  equal  to  2,800  car  loads  of  ten  tons  each. 
Between  Peninsula  and  the  county  line,  the 
outcrops  of  the  Berea  grit  have  been  but  imper- 
fectly explored.  They  are  much  obscured  b}' 
the  debris  of  the  higher  portion  of  the  clifts, 
and  the  examinations  necessary  to  determine 
the  value  of  the  stone  would  require  the  ex- 
penditure of  considerable  time  and  money. 
There  is  every  probability,  however,  that  good 
quarries  could  be  opened  at  a  great  number  of 
localities,  and  I  think  that  I  am  quite  safe  in 
predicting  that  in  future  j-ears  this  portion  of 
the  valley  of  the  Cu3'ahoga  will  be  the  theater 
of  a  very  active  industr}'  growing  out  of  the 
quarrying  of  Berea  grit  for  the  Cleveland  mar- 
ket. Should  the  railroad,  now  proposed,  be 
constructed  through  the  valle^',  this,  with  the 
canal,  will  supply  such  facilities  for  transporta- 





tion,  that,  if  the  quality  of  the  stone  should 
be  found  suitable,  this  district  will  contribute 
as  largely  as  any  other  to  the  market  of  the 
great  lakes.  From  the  differences  which  are 
everywhere  exhibited  iia  the  quality  of  the 
stone  in  neighboring  outcrops  of  the  Berea 
grit,  the  banks  of  the  Cuyahoga  should  be 
carefully  examined,  in  order  to  discover  such 
localities  as  will  furnish  stone  of  a  superior 
quality.  It  is  not  too  much  to  expect  that 
some  of  these  will  have  gTeat  pecuniar}'  value. 
The  Berea  grit  forms  the  solid  stratum  that 
produces  the  falls  of  the  Brand^^wine  at  Bran- 
dywine  Mills,  and  it  is  here  considerably  more 
massive  than  at  the  outcrops  further  north  on 
the  same  side  of  the  Cu3-ahoga.  No  fossils 
have  been  found  in  the  Berea  grit  in  Summit 
County.  It  is  elsewhere,  as  a  general  rule,  re- 
markably barren,  and  yet,  at  Chagrin  Falls,  fos- 
sil fishes  have  been  obtained  from  it,  and  at 
Bedford  a  Discina,  a  Lingida  and  an  Annularia. 
These,  and  perhaps  other  fossils,  may  hereafter 
be  met  with  in  the  Cuyahoga  Valley. 

"  The  Cuyahoga  shale  is  the  upper  division 
of  the  Waverly  group,  and  is  better  exhibited  in 
Summit  Count}'  than  in  any  other  part  of  the 
State.  It  has  a  thickness  of  from  150  to  200 
feet,  and  has  been  given  the  name  it  bears,  be- 
cause it  forms  the  greater  pai't  of  the  banks  of  the 
Cuyahoga,  from  Cuyahoga  Falls,  to  the  north 
line  of  the  county.  A  short  distance  above 
Peninsula,  the  Berea  grit  sinks  beneath  the 
river,  and  the  whole  thickness  of  the  Cuyahoga 
shale  is  revealed  in  the  interval  between  that 
rock  and  the  Conglomerate  which  caps  the 
bluffs.  In  this  part  of  the  valley,  the  Cuya- 
hoga shale  exhibits  little  variety  in  composi- 
tion, and  consists  of  a  mass  of  soft  argillaceous 
material,  inter-stratified  with  thin  and  local 
sheets  of  fine  grained  sandstone,  rarel}'  thick 
enough  to  serve  as  flagging.  The  surfaces  of 
these  sheets  are  marked  with  mud  furrows, 
and,  occasionally-,  with  the  impressions  of 
fucoids.  At  the  '  Big  Falls  '  of  the  Cu^'ahoga, 
eighty  feet  below  the  conglomerate,  a  number 
of  layers  of  fine-grained  sandstone,  from  six  to 
twelve  inches  in  thickness,  and  occup3'ing  a 
vertical  space  of  about  twenty  feet,  locall}'  re- 
place the  softer  material  of  the  Cuyahoga 
shale,  and  produce  the  beautiful  waterfall  at 
this  locality.  These  harder  strata  ma}^  be 
traced  for  a  mile  or  more  down  the  river,  but 
are  not  distinguishable  in  the  sections  of  the 

Cuyahoga  shale  in  the  northern  part  of  the 
county.  The  sandstone  of  the  Big  Falls  is  a 
compact,  homogeneous  rock,  almost  identical 
in  character  and  utility  with  the  '  blue  stone ' 
of  the  East  Cleveland  quarries,  although  lying 
at  a  considerably  higher  level ;  the  East  Cleve- 
land stone  being  a  local  modification  of  the 
lower  portion  of  the  Bedford  shale.  The  upper 
part  of  the  Cuyahoga  shale  near  the  Big  Falls, 
has  furnished  a  great  number  of  fine  specimens 
of  'cone-in-cone,'  and  they  are  referred  to  by 
Dr.  Hildreth,  in  his  notes  on  Cuyahoga  Valley, 
published  in  Silinians  Journal  in  1836.  This 
singular  structure  has  given  rise  to  much  specu- 
lation ;  it  was,  at  one  time,  supposed  to  be  or- 
ganic ;  subsequently,  the  result  of  crystalliza- 
tion, and  it  is  now  considered  by  Prof  0.  C. 
Marsh  as  of  purely  mechanical  origin.  The 
'  cone-in-cone '  consist,  as  is  well  known,  of  a 
series  of  hollow  cones,  like  extinguishers,  placed 
one  within  another,  and  it  sometimes  makes  up 
the  entire  mass  of  a  stratum,  several  inches  in 
thickness  and  man}'  feet  in  lateral  extent.  It 
is  by  no  means  confined  to  this  horizon,  but  is 
found  in  the  older  paleozoic  rocks,  in  the  coal 
measures,  and  is,  perhaps,  more  abundant  than 
anywhere  else,  in  the  cretaceous  formation  in 
the  far  West.  This  structure  is  apparently 
confined  to  rocks  of  a  peculiar  chemical  com- 
position, viz.  :  to  earthy  limestones,  or  argilla- 
ceous shales  impregnated  with  lime.  The  con- 
cretions, which  include  the  great  fishes  of  the 
Huron  shale,  not  unfrequentl}'  exhibit  the  '  cone- 
in-cone  '  structure,  and,  in  some  instances,  where 
the  calcareous  material  forms  simply  a  crust  on 
the  fossil,  that  ci'ust  still  shows  more  or  less  of 
it.  From  the  locality  under  consideration,  in 
the  valley  of  the  Cuyahoga.  I  have  obtained 
specimens  of  '  cone-in-cone  '  enveloping  nodules 
of  iron  ore,  and  radiating  in  all  directions  from 
such  nuclei.  Specimens  of  this  character,  and 
the  bones  of  BimchtJii/s,  coated  in  all  their 
irregularities,  with  'cone-in-cone,'  seemed  to 
me  incompatible  with  the  theory  that  this 
structure  is  the  product  of  mechanical  forces, 
and  appear  rather  to  confirm  the  conclusion 
that  it  is  an  imperfect  crystallization.  Through- 
out most  of  its  mass,  and  in  most  places,  the 
Cuyahoga  shale  is. very  barren  of  fossils.  This, 
however,  is  fully  compensated  for  b}'  the  ex- 
treme richness  of  some  layers  and  some  locali- 
ties. This  is  the  rock  which  was  excavated  in 
the  formation  of  the  canal  in  the  valley  of  the 

-^  ry 



Cuyahoga,  below  the  falls,  and  through  which 
an  effort  was  made  to  conduct  the  water  of  the 
river  to  the  proposed  town  of  Summit.  In  this 
excavation,  the  formation  was  fully  opened  for 
several  miles,  and  yet,  with  the  most  careful 
search,  at  various  times  during  the  progress  of 
the  work,  I  was  only  able  to  obtain  a  mere 
handful  of  fossils.  At  the  base  of  the  forma- 
tion, however,  immediately  over  the  Berea  grit, 
the  Cuyahoga  shale  is  sometimes  crowded  with 
millions  of  Linyula  melia  and  Discina  New- 
herryi.  The  same  species  also  occur  at  the 
'  Big  Falls '  of  the  Cuyahoga,  and  the  valley  of 
the  Little  Cuyahoga,  near  Akron.  In  the  up- 
per part  of  the  Cuj-ahoga  shale,  in  vainous 
parts  of  Medina  County,  and  at  Richfield,  in 
Summit  Count}-,  immense  numbers  of  fossils 
are  found,  and  those  which  form  a  long  list  of 
species.  The  Richfield  locality  is  already  quite 
famous,  as  extensive  collections  were  made 
there  before  the  commencement  of  the  present 
survey  by  Messrs.  IMeek  &  Worthen  and  Dr. 
Kellogg.  Quite  a  large  number  of  crinoids 
were  discovered  here  hy  the  latter  gentleman, 
which  proved  new  to  science,  and  were  described 
by  Prof.  James  Hall. 

"The  carboniferous  conglomerate  underlies 
all  the  higher  portions  of  the  county,  and  forms 
the  surface  rock  over  all  the  middle  and  north- 
ern portions,  except  where  cut  through  by  the 
Cuyahoga  and  its  tributaries.  Though  gener- 
ally covered  and  concealed  b}'  beds  of  drift, 
the  conglomerate  is  exposed  and  quarried  in 
all  of  the  townships  north  of  Akron.  It  is, 
however,  best  seen  in  the  valley  of  the  Cuya- 
hoga, where  it  forms  cliffs  sometimes  100  feet 
in  perpendicular  height.  The  rock  is  about 
100  feet  in  thickness,  generally  a  coarse-grained, 
light  drab  sandstone,  but  in  some  localities,  and 
especially  near  the  base  of  the  formation,  be- 
coming a  mass  of  quartz-pebbles,  with  just 
enough  cement  to  hold  them  together.  There 
are  also  some  local  bands  of  the  conglomerate 
which  are  red  or  brown  in  color,  and  furnish  a 
building-stone  of  great  beauty.  At  Cu^'ahoga 
Falls,  such  a  band  has  been  quarried  for  many 
years,  and  has  been  used  for  the  construction 
of  the  best  buildings  in  the  town.  This  stone 
is  brown,  contains  much  iron,  and  is  very  strong 
and  durable.  At  Akron,  a  similar  local  strat- 
um in  the  conglomerate  at  Wolf's  quarry,  has 
a  deep,  reddish-purple  color,  and  forms,  per- 
haps, the  most  beautiful  building-stone  in    the 

State.  This  has  been  quite  extensively  used 
in  Cleveland.  Unfortunately,  the  quantitv  of 
this  variety  of  building  stone  is  not  large.  Its 
peculiar  color  is  probably  due  to  the  fact  that  the 
iron  of  which  it  contains  a  large  quantity,  is  in 
the  condition  of  anh\'drous  sesquioxide,  and  has 
associated  with  it  a  small  percentage  of  manga- 
nese. Splendid  sections  of  the  conglomerate  are 
seen  in  the  gorge  of  the  Cuyahoga,  below  Cuya- 
hoga Falls.  Here,  nearly  the  entire  thickness  of 
the  formation  is  exposed,  and  vertical  and  over- 
hanging walls  of  100  feet  in  height  give  great 
variety  and  beauty  to  the  scener}'.  In  descend- 
ing the  valley  of  the  Cuyahoga,  the  walls  of  con- 
glomerate recede  from  the  river,  of  which  the 
immediate  banks  are  formed  by  the  underlj'ing 
shales.  J^y  the  w^ashing  out  of  these,  the 
Mocks  of  conglomerate  have  been  undermined 
and  thrown  down,  and  thus  the  valley'  has  been 
widened  until  in  Boston  and  Northfield  the  con- 
glomerate cliffs  are  several  miles  apart.  They 
still  preserve  their  typical  character,  however, 
and  this  is  well  exemplified  by  the  'ledges'  in 
Boston,  which — like  those  of  Nelson,  in  Por- 
tage County,  on  the  other  side  of  the  conglom- 
erate plateau — are  favorite  places  of  resort  to 
the  lovers  of  the  picturesque.  The  fossils  of 
the  .conglomerate  are  exclusively  plants.  These 
are  generally  broken  and  floating  fragments, 
but  are  exceedingly  numerous,  their  casts  often 
making  up  a  large  part  of  the  rock.  In  certain 
localities  we  find  evidence  that  they  have  been 
gathered  by  the  waves  into  some  receptacle, 
and  heaped  up  in  a  confused  mass,  like  drift- 
wood on  a  shore  at  the  present  da\'.  Since 
the  conglomerate  is  composed  of  coarse  mate- 
rials which  could  be  only  transported  by  water 
in  rapid  motion,  it  is  evident  all  delicate  plants 
would  be  destroyed  from  the  trituration  they 
would  suflTer  in  the  circumstances  of  its  depo- 
sition; hence,  we  only  find  here  the  remains  of 
woody  plants,  and  of  these  usually  only  frag- 
ments. The  most  common  plants  are  trunks 
and  branches  of  Lepidodendron,  Sigillaria  and 
Calamites,  also  the  nuts  which  have  been  de- 
scribed under  the  name  of  Trigonoearpon.  Of 
all  these,  the  calamites  are  the  most  common, 
and  they  are  sometimes  entire,  showing  not 
only  the  upper  extremity  but  also  the  roots. 
More  frequently,  however,  they  are  broken, 
and  it  is  not  at  all  uncommon  to  find  the  nuts 
to  which  I  have  referred,  in  the  interior  of  a 
calamite,  indicating  that  when  floating  about 





they  were  washed  into  the  hollow,  rush-like 
stem.  Grenerall}',  the  plants  of  the  conglomer- 
ate are  represented  simply  by  casts ;  their  car- 
bonaceous matter  having  been  entirely  re- 
moved. Occasionally,  however,  a  sheet  of  coal 
is  found,  surrounding  the  cast  of  each,  and  in 
some  localities  ever}'  plant  is  preserved  in  this 
way,  the  amount  of  coal  enveloping  the  casts 
corresponding  to  the  quantity  of  woody  matter 
in  the  plant.  Still  more  rarely,  when  many 
plants  have  accumulated,  their  carbon  has 
made  an  irregular  coal  seam,  but  never  exceed- 
ing a  few  inches  in  thickness,  and  a  few  rods 
or  feet  in  extent.  These  coal  seams,  however, 
differ  in  many  respects  from  coals  of  the  over- 
lying coal  measure,  as  they  have  no  underclays, 
are  very  limited  in  extent,  and  evidently  rep- 
resent heterogeneous  collections  of  drifted, 
woody  matter.  The  pebbles  of  the  more  peb- 
bl}^  portions  of  the  conglomerate  are  sometimes 
as  large  as  one's  fist,  but  more  generally  range 
from  the  size  of  a  hickory  nut  to  that  of  an 
egg.  They  are  most  alwa}- s  composed  of  quartz, 
but  in  every  locality  where  they  are  abundant, 
more  or  less  of  them  ma}'  be  found  which  are 
composed  of  quartzite  or  silicious  slate,  which 
shows  lines  of  stratification.  Sometimes  these 
quartz  pebbles,  when  in  contact  with  the  im- 
pressions of  plants,  are  distinctly  marked  by 
such  impressions.  This  circumstance  has  given 
rise  to  the  theory  that  they  are  concretionary 
in  character  ;  i.  e.,  that  they  have  been  formed 
where  found,  and  are  not  fragments  of  trans- 
ported quartz  rock.  There  can  be  no  question, 
however,  that  these  pebbles  are  portions  of 
quartz  veins,  which  have  been  brought  hun- 
dreds of  miles  from  some  area  where  meta- 
morphic  crvstalliue  rocks  have  suffered  erosion. 
In  process  of  transportation,  the  attrition  to 
which  these  fragments  were  subjected,  commi- 
nuted all  but  the  most  resistant,  viz.:  the 
quartz.  The  banded,  silicious  slates  which  are 
represented  in  the  pebbles  that  accompany 
those  of  pure  quartz,  as  well  as  the  internal 
structure  of  the  quartz-pebbles  themselves, 
afford  conclusive  evidence  that  their  origin  is 
such  as  I  have  described.       *       *       *       * 

"  All  the  southern  part  of  Summit  County  is 
underlaid  by  the  productive  coal  measures,  and 
workable  seams  of  coal  are  known  to  exist  in 
Tallmadge,  Springfield,  Coventry,  Norton,  Cop- 
ley, Franklin  and  Green  Townships.  The  line 
of  the  margin   of  the   coal  basin  passes  from 

Portage  County  into  Summit  in  the  northeast- 
ern portion  of  Tallmadge.  It  then  runs  west- 
erly nearly  to  Cuyahoga  Falls,  and  then  sweeps 
round  to  inclose  what  is  known  as  Coal  Hill ; 
the  continuity  of  the  coal  measures  being  sev- 
ered by  '  Long  Swamp  '  and  the  valley  of  Camp 
Brook.  On  the  east  side  of  this  stream,  the 
outcrop  of  the  coal  rocks  passes  southward  to 
the  valley  of  the  Little  Cuyahoga  ;  turning  up 
this  to  the  line  of  Portage  County  ;  thence 
sweeping  back  on  the  south  side  of  the  valley 
across  the  township  of  Springfield  to  the  vicin- 
ity of  Middlebury.  It  thence  runs  southwest- 
erly to  New  Portage,  where  it  crosses  the  Tus- 
carawas and  strikes  northwesterly  through 
Norton  and  the  corner  of  Copley  to  the  Medina 
line.  There  is  also  a  narrow  patch  of  coal- 
measure  rocks  forming  an  isolated  hill  (Sher- 
bondy  Hill)  southwest  of  Akron,  on  the  west 
side  of  Summit  Lake.  Along  the  line  I  have 
traced,  we  find  the  outcrops  of  only  the  lowest 
coal  seam — Coal  No.  1  (the  Briar  Hill  coal) — 
and  this  not  with  any  great  constancy,  inas- 
much as  the  coal  occupies  limited  basins,  and 
their  margins  are  exceedingly  sinuous  and  ir- 
regular. A  large  part  of  the  territory  which 
holds  the  place  of  the  coal,  fails  to  hold  the 
coal  itself,  from  one  or  the  other  of  two  causes, 
which  frequently  disappoint  the  miner  in  this 
region,  as  well  as  in  the  valley  of  the  Mahon- 
ing. These  causes  are  :  First,  that  the  lowest 
seam  was  formed  from  peat-like  carbonaceous 
matter  which  accumulated  on  the  irregular 
bottom  of  the  old  coal  marsh,  and  the  margin 
of  this  marsh  ran  into  innumerable  bights  and 
channels,  which  were  separated  by  ridges  and 
hummocks  where  the  coal  was  never  deposited  ; 
second,  in  many  localities  where  the  coal  was 
once  found,  it  was  subsequently  removed  by 
erosion.  The  heavy  bed  of  sandstone  which 
lies  a  little  above  Coal  No.  1,  was  deposited  by 
currents  of  water  moving  rapidly  and  with  such 
force  as  to  cut  away  the  coal  in  many  channels, 
and  leave  in  its  place  beds  of  sand,  which,  sub- 
sequently hardened,  have  become  sandstone. 
These  are  frequently  encountered  by  the  miner, 
and  are  designated  by  him,  as  Iwrsehacks. 
Hence  this  excellent  stratum  of  coal  has  been 
discovered  to  be  wanting  over  much  of  the  area 
where  it  was  supposed  to  exist,  and  has  there- 
fore been  of  less  value  to  Summit  County  than 
was  anticipated  in  the  earlier  days  of  coal  min- 
ing.    The  first  mineral  coal  used  on  the  lake 



shore  was  sent  to  Cleveland  b\^  ray  father, 
Henry  Newberrj^,  from  his  mines  in  Tallmadge, 
in  1828.  It  was  there  offered  as  a  substitute 
for  wood  in  the  generation  of  steam  on  the  lake 
boats.  Wood,  however,  was  so  abundant,  and 
the  population  was  so  habituated  to  its  use,  that 
it  proved  ver^'  difficult  to  supplant  this  by  an}^ 
other  fuel  ;  and  it  was  necessary  that  nearly 
twenty  years  should  pass  before  the  value  of 
the  coal  beds  of  Summit  County  was  fully  real- 
ized. Then  coal-mining  began  with  real  vigor, 
and  many  thousand  tons  of  excellent  coal  liave 
since  been  sent  every  year  to  Cleveland  from 
the  mines  in  Tallmadge  and  Springfield.  As 
has  been  stated,  the  coal  of  these  townships 
proved  to  be  ver}'  irregular  in  its  distribution, 
and  variable  in  thickness  and  quality.  It  is 
restricted  to  basins  of  limited  extent,  and  is 
wanting  over  much  of  the  area  where  it  was 
supposed  to  be  present.  In  the  deeper  por- 
tions of  the  basins  or  channels  it  occupies,  the 
seam  is  from  four  and  one-half  to  six  feet  in 
thickness,  and  the  coal  a  bright,  handsome 
open-burning  variety,  containing  little  sulphur, 
and  a  small  percentage  of  ash.  It  is  softer  and 
more  bituminous  than  the  coal  of  the  same 
seam  in  Mahoning  and  Trumbull  Counties, 
but  is  still  capable  of  being  used  in  the  raw 
state  in  the  furnace,  and  is  very  highly  valued 
both  as  a  steam  coal  and  a  household  fuel.  In 
the  southern  part  of  the  county.  Coal  No.  1  is 
more  continuous,  and  has  been  proved,  by  recent 
researches  to  exist  over  a  large  part  of  Spring- 
field, Franklin  and  Green,  and  to  reach  into 
Coventry  and  Norton.  Many  mines  have  been 
opened  in  the  townships  referred  to,  and  about 
two  hundred  and  fift}'  thousand  tons  are  now 
sent  from  this  region  annuall}'  to  Cleveland. 
Most  of  this  coal  is  similar  in  quality  to  that  of 
Tallmadge,  but  in  some  localities,  as  at  John- 
son's shaft  in  Franklin,  we  find  a  recurrence  of 
the  block  charactei',  which  distinguishes  the 
coal  of  the  Mahoning  Valley.  In  former  years, 
nearly  all  of  the  coal  used  or  exported  from  the 
count}',  was  mined  in  Tallmadge,  and  this 
mainly  from  '  Coal  Hill,'  which  lies  between  the 
center  of  Tallmadge  and  CuA'alioga  Falls. 
Several  mines  were  once  in  active  operation  in 
this  hill.  Of  these  mines,  that  of  Henry  New- 
berry was  situated  at  the  north  end  of  the  hill, 
and  those  of  Dr.  D.  Upson,  Asaph  Whittlesey 
and  Francis  Wright  on  the  east  side.  On  the 
opposite  side  of  the  valley,  mines  were  opened 

b}'  Mr.  D.  Harris  and  Dr.  Amos  Wright.  In 
all  these  mines  the  coal  has  been  nearly  ex- 
hausted, as  it  was  found  to  rise  and  run  out 
in  the  interior  of  the  hill.  From  this  fact,  a 
belief  has  come  to  be  quite  general,  that  the 
coal  is  pinched  out  in  the  body  of  this  and 
other  hills,  by  the  weight  of  the  superincum- 
bent material ;  whereas,  we  have  here  only  an 
instance  of  what  has  been  before  referred  to,  of 
the  thinning  out  of  the  coal  on  the  margin  of 
the  old  coal  swamp.  In  the  central  and  east- 
ern portion  of  Tallmadge,  most  of  the  land  rises 
high  above  the  coal  level,  and  basins  of  coal  will 
doubtless  be  hereafter  discovered  there,  but  the 
same  causes  which  have  rendered  coal  mining 
so  uncertain  heretofore,  will  undoubtedly  limit 
the  productiveness  of  the  nominally  large  coal 
area  which  is  included  within  the  township  lines. 
In  the  southern  part  of  Tallmadge,  the  surface 
is  occupied  by  heav}'  beds  of  drift,  by  which 
the  underlying  geology  is  very  much  obscured. 
Here,  as  in  the  adjoining  township  of  Brimfield, 
in  Portage  County,  nothing  but  patient  and 
careful  search  will  determine  the  limits  of  the 
basins  of  coal  which  unquestionably  exist  in 
this  vicinity.  As  the  dip  of  the  coal  rocks  is 
toward  the  south  and  east,  in  Springfield, 
Grreen  and  Franklin,  Coal  No.  1  lies  lower  than 
in  the  more  northerly  townships  where  it  occurs  ; 
hence  it  can  only  be  reached  by  boring,  and 
that  sometimes  to  the  depth  of  100  feet  or  per- 
haps even  200  feet.  We  have  every  reason  to 
believe,  however,  that  a  considerable  area  in 
Green  Township  is  underlaid  b}'  Coal  No.  1, 
where  it  lies  far  below  drainage ;  and  it  is 
almost  certain  that  careful  search,  by  boring, 
will  reveal  the  presence  of  basins  of  coal  in  this 
township,  such  as  are  not  now  suspected  to  ex- 
ist, and  such  as  will  contribute  largelj'  to  the 
wealth  of  the  count}-. 

''In  Summit  County  the  lowest  seam  of  coal 
is  usually  separated  from  the  conglomerate  by 
an  interval  of  from  twenty-five  to  fift}'  feet, 
which  is  filled  with  shale  or  shaly  sandstone, 
and,  immediately  beneath  the  coal,  by  a  seam 
of  fire-clay,  from  two  to  six  feet  in  tliickness. 
This  fire-clay  is,  in  some  places,  of  good  qualit}-, 
and  may  be  used  for  fire-brick  and  pottery, 
but  it  is  generally  more  sandy  and  contains 
more  iron  than  the  under-clay  of  the  higher 
seam — Coal  No.  3 — to  which  I  shall  have  occa- 
sion to  refer  again.  Coal  No.  1  is  usually 
overlaid  immediately  by  gray  shale,  from  ten 




to  forty  feet  in  thickness.  This  shale  contains, 
especially  where  it  forms  the  roof  of  the  coal, 
large  numbers  of  fossil  plants,  which  are  fre- 
quentl}'  preserved  in  great  beaut}'  and  profu- 
sion. About  150  species  have  already  been 
collected  from  the  shale  of  Coal  No.  1,  in  the 
northern  part  of  the  State,  and  nearh'  all  of 
these  are  found  in  Summit  Count}'. 

"  Coal  No.  2  is  found  thirty  to  fifty  feet  above 
Coal  No.  1  in  many  parts  of  Summit  Count}' — 
as  in  the  Valley  of  the  Mahoning — the  second 
seam  of  coal  in  the  ascending  series,  and  which 
we  have  called  Coal  No.  2.  It  is  usually  from 
twelve  to  eighteen  inches  in  thickness,  and, 
though  persistent  over  a  large  area,  is  nowhere 
in  Summit  County  of  workable  thickness. 
Above  Coal  No.  2,  and  frequently  cutting  it 
out,  is  a  bed  of  massive  sandstone,  which  is  a 
marked  feature  in  "the  geology  of  the  county. 
This  is  well  seen  in  Coal  Hill,  Tallmadge,  and 
extends  through  the  southern  part  of  the  county, 
passing  through  Stark,  where,  in  the  valley  of 
the  Tuscarawas,  about  and  above  Massillon,  it 
is  quarried  in  many  places  along  the  bank  of 
the  canal.  The  thickness  of  this  sandstone 
varies  very  much  in  different  localities,  and  it 
may  be  said  to  range  from  forty  to  one  hundred 
feet.  It  is  also  somewhat  variable  in  character, 
but  is  often  massive,  and  affords  a  building- 
stone  of  excellent  quality.  It  may  generally 
be  distinguished  from  the  sandstones  of  the 
carboniferous  conglomerate  by  the  absence  of 
quartz  pebbles.  So  far  as  I  know,  no  pebbles 
are  found  in  the  sandstone  over  the  coal  in 
Summit  County.  In  Trumbull  and  Medina 
there  are  some  local  exceptions  to  this  rule,  for 
patches  of  conglomerate  are  sometimes  found 
there  immediately  overlying  the  lowest  coal 
seam.  In  Summit  County  the  -pebble  rock,' 
found  in  the  explorations  for  coal,  aflibrds  infall 
ible  evidence,  when  it  is  reached,  that  the  hor- 
izon of  the  coal  has  been  passed. 

"  Coals  Nos.  3  and  4  come  next  in  order. 
Near  Mogadore,  in  Springfield  Township  ;  the 
higher  lands  are  found  to  be  underlaid  by  a 
stratum  of  limestone,  beneath  which  are  usually 
a  thin  seam  of  coal  and  a  thick  stratum  of  fire- 
clay, the  latter  supplying  the  material  from 
which  nearly  all  the  stoneware  of  the  county 
is  manufactured.  From  twenty-five  to  forty 
feet  aboA'e  the  limestone  to  which  I  have  re- 
ferred, is  another,  which  also  overlies  a  coal 
seam.      Both    these   mav    be   seen   in    Green 

Township,  betwe